| Duke of York (more)
|The Duke of York, 12 April 2007|
|Spouse|| Sarah, Duchess of York|
(m. 1986, div. 1996)
| Princess Beatrice of York|
Princess Eugenie of York
|Andrew Albert Christian Edward|
|House||House of Windsor|
|Father||Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh|
|Religion||Church of England|
Prince Andrew, Duke of York KG GCVO (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960), is the second son, and third child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to the thrones of seven independent sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms; however, after the births of two children to his elder brother, and an evolution of the Commonwealth, Prince Andrew is currently fourth in line to the thrones of 16 countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis.
He also holds the actual rank of commander and the honorary rank of rear admiral in the Royal Navy, in which he served as an active duty helicopter pilot and later instructor in helicopter flight. He saw active service during the Falklands War, flying on multiple missions including anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy and casualty evacuation.
In 1986, Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson; the couple's marriage, subsequent separation and eventual divorce in 1996 attracted a high level of media coverage. As well as carrying out various royal duties, he served as the United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment until July 2011.
Early life and educationEdit
Prince Andrew was born in the Belgian Suite of Buckingham Palace on 19 February 1960, the third child and second son of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Baptised in the Palace's Music Room on 8 April 1960, by then Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, the Prince's godparents were: The Duke of Gloucester (his maternal granduncle); Princess Alexandra of Kent (his 1st cousin once removed); the Earl of Euston; the Lord Elphinstone (his 1st cousin once removed); and Mrs Harold Phillips, and he was named after his paternal grandfather, Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark.
Prince Andrew was the first child born to a reigning British or Commonwealth realms monarch since Queen Victoria's youngest child, Princess Beatrice, was born in 1857 (incidentally Andrew also named his eldest daughter Beatrice). As the child of the sovereign, Prince Andrew was styled from birth as His Royal Highness and held the title The Prince Andrew.
As with his older siblings, a governess was appointed to look after the Prince and was responsible for his early education at Buckingham Palace. Prince Andrew was then sent to Heatherdown Preparatory School before attending, in September 1973, Gordonstoun, in northern Scotland, as his father and elder brother had done before him. While there, Prince Andrew spent six months – from January to June 1977 – participating in an exchange programme to Lakefield College School in Lakefield, Ontario, and graduated in July two years later with A-Levels in English, history, economics, and political science. Prince Andrew eschewed university, however, choosing instead to enter the Britannia Royal Naval College at Dartmouth. Template:British Royal Family
It was announced in November 1978 that Prince Andrew would join the Royal Navy the following year, and in December he underwent various sporting tests and examinations at the Aircrew Selection Centre, at RAF Biggin Hill, along with further tests and interviews at HMS Daedalus, and interviews at the Admiralty Interview Board, HMS Sultan. During March and April 1979, the Prince was enrolled at the Royal Naval College Flight, undergoing pilot training, until he was accepted as a trainee helicopter pilot and signed on for 12 years from 11 May 1979. On 1 September of the same year, Prince Andrew was appointed as a Midshipman, and entered Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. During 1980 he also took the Royal Marines commando course.
After passing out from Dartmouth, the Prince went on to elementary flying training with the Royal Air Force at RAF Leeming, and later, basic flying training with the Navy at HMS Seahawk, where he learned to fly the Gazelle helicopter. After being awarded his "Wings", he moved onto more advanced training on the Sea King helicopter, and conducted operational flying training until 1982, when he joined his first front-line unit, 820 Naval Air Squadron, serving aboard the aircraft carrier, HMS Invincible.
The territories of the Falkland Islands, which are a British overseas territory but are claimed by Argentina, were invaded by Argentina on 2 April 1982, an event that instigated the Falklands War. Invincible was one of the two operational aircraft carriers available at the time, and, as such, was to play a major role in the Royal Navy task force assembled to sail south to retake the islands. However, Prince Andrew's place on board and the possibility of The Queen's son being killed in action made the British Government apprehensive, and the Cabinet desired that Prince Andrew be moved to a desk job for the duration of the conflict. The Queen, though, insisted that her son be allowed to remain with his ship, meaning Prince Andrew remained on board Invincible to serve as a Sea King helicopter co-pilot, flying on missions that included anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation, transport, and search and air rescue. He witnessed the Argentinian attack on the SS Atlantic Conveyor, and was one of the first to take off survivors.
At the cessation of the war, Invincible returned to Portsmouth, where The Queen and Prince Philip joined other families of the crew in welcoming the vessel home, after which Prince Andrew laid a wreath at the Cenotaph each year on Remembrance Sunday to commemorate the South Atlantic campaign. The Argentinean military government reportedly planned, but did not attempt, to assassinate the prince on Mustique in July 1982. Though he had brief assignments to HMS Illustrious, RNAS Culdrose, and the Joint Services School of Intelligence, Prince Andrew remained with Invincible until 1983. In Commander Nigel Ward's book, Sea Harrier Over the Falklands, Prince Andrew was described as "an excellent pilot and a very promising officer". He was decorated for his service in the Falklands.
In late 1983, Prince Andrew transferred to RNAS Portland, was trained to fly the Lynx helicopter, and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant on 1 February 1984, whereupon the Queen appointed him as her personal aide-de-Camp. Prince Andrew then went on to serve aboard HMS Brazen as a flight pilot until 1986, including deployment to the Mediterranean Sea as part of Standing NRF Maritime Group 2, and undertook the Lieutenants' Greenwich Staff course. On 23 October 1986, the Duke of York (as he was by then) transferred to the General List, enrolled in a four-month helicopter warfare instructor's course at RNAS Yeovilton, and, upon graduation, served from February 1987 to April 1988 as a helicopter warfare officer in 702 Naval Air Squadron, RNAS Portland, as well as on HMS Edinburgh as an Officer of the Watch and Assistant Navigating Officer until 1989, including a six-month deployment as part of exercise Outback 88 to the Far East.
The Duke of York served as flight commander and pilot of the Lynx HAS3 on HMS Campbeltown from 1989 to 1991, during which he also acted as Force Aviation Officer to Standing NRF Maritime Group 1 while the Campbeltown was flagship of the NATO force in the North Atlantic from 1990 to 1991. He then passed the squadron command examination on 16 July 1991, attended the Staff College, Camberley, the following year, and completed the Army Staff course, becoming a Lieutenant-Commander on 1 February and passing the ship command examination on 12 March 1992. From 1993 to 1994, Prince Andrew commanded the Hunt-class minehunter HMS Cottesmore.
From 1995 to 1996, the Duke was posted as Senior Pilot of 815 Naval Air Squadron – then the largest flying unit in the Fleet Air Arm – his main role in that position being to supervise flying standards and to guarantee an effective operational capability. He was then made a Commander on 27 April 1999, and went on to finish his active naval career at the British Ministry of Defence until 2001, as an officer of the Diplomatic Directorate of the Naval Staff. In July of that year, the Duke of York was retired from the Active List of the Navy, and, three years later, was made an Honorary Captain, rather than the substantive rank of Captain, as would be customary. On 19 February 2010, his 50th birthday, he was promoted to Honorary Rear Admiral.
Marriage and divorceEdit
Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey on 23 July 1986, the same day The Queen created him Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, and Baron Killyleagh, all titles previously held by both his maternal great-grandfather and grandfather. Prince Andrew had known Miss Ferguson since childhood, and they had met occasionally at polo matches, and became re-acquainted with each other at Royal Ascot in 1985.
The couple appeared to have a happy marriage, producing two daughters, and presenting a united outward appearance during the late 1980s; the Duchess was seen as refreshing in the context of the formal protocol surrounding the Royal Family. However, the Duke of York's frequent travel due to his military career, as well as relentless, often critical, media attention focused on the Duchess of York, led to fractures in the marriage. On 19 March 1992 the couple announced plans to separate and did so in an amicable way. Some months later, pictures appeared in the tabloid media of the Duchess in intimate association with her financial advisor at the time, John Bryan, which effectively ended any hopes of a reconciliation between the Duke and Duchess. Thereafter, the marriage was ended in divorce on 30 May 1996, though the split was friendly, and the Duke of York spoke fondly of his former wife: "We have managed to work together to bring our children up in a way that few others have been able to and I am extremely grateful to be able to do that." It was stipulated that the custody of the two Princesses would be shared between their parents, and the Duchess even continued to live at the Duke's home, Sunninghill Park, until 2004, when he moved to the Royal Lodge. In 2003, Richard Kay, in his first gossip column for the Daily Mail, asserted that the Duke was about to marry the businesswoman Amanda Staveley. She was, however, subsequently quoted in the Sunday Telegraph saying "I will not be marrying Andrew now or in the future." In 2007, Sarah, Duchess of York purchased Dolphin House, a mansion directly beside the Royal Lodge. In 2008, a fire at Dolphin House resulted in Sarah moving into the Royal Lodge, again sharing a home with the Duke of York.
In May 2010, Sarah, Duchess of York was filmed by a News of the World reporter claiming that the Duke of York had agreed that if she were to receive £500,000, he, the Prince, would meet the donor and pass on useful top-level business contacts. She was filmed receiving, in cash, $40,000 as a down payment. The Duke's entourage denied he knew of the situation. In July 2011, Sarah, Duchess of York stated that her multi-million pound debts had been cleared due to the intervention of her former husband, whom she said "rode in on his white charger to save [her]".
From 2001 until July 2011, the Duke of York worked with UK Trade & Investment, part of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, as the United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment. The post, previously held by Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, involved representing and promoting the UK at various trade fairs and conferences around the world. His suitability for the role was challenged in the House of Commons by Shadow Justice Minister Chris Bryant in February 2011, at the time of the 2011 Libyan civil war, on the grounds that he was "not only a very close friend of Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, but also ... a close friend of the convicted Libyan gun smuggler Tarek Kaituni". The Duke is Patron of the Middle East Association (MEA), the UK's premier organisation for promoting trade and good relations with the Middle East, North Africa, Turkey and Iran.
He is also Patron of Fight for Sight, a charity dedicated to research into the prevention and treatment of blindness and eye disease, and was a member of the Scout Association. He tours Canada frequently to undertake duties related to his Canadian military role. Rick Peters, the former Commanding Officer of the Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada stated: "[Prince Andrew]'s very well informed on Canadian military methods."
The Duke of York receives a £249,000 annuity from the Queen. The Sunday Times reported in July 2008 that for "the Duke of York's public role,... he last year received £436,000 to cover his expenses." On 8 March 2011, The Daily Telegraph reported:
Last year the prince spent £620,000 as a trade envoy, including £154,000 on hotels, food and hospitality and £465,000 on travel.
On 3 September 2012, The Duke of York was among a team of 40 people who descended The Shard (tallest building in Europe) to raise money for educational charities the Outward Bound Trust and the Royal Marines Charitable Trust Fund.
Alleged comments on corruption and KazakhstanEdit
As the United Kingdom's Special Trade Representative, The Duke of York travelled the world to promote British businesses. It was revealed in the United States diplomatic cables leak that the Duke had been reported on by Tatiana Gfoeller, the United States Ambassador to Kyrgyzstan, discussing bribery in Kyrgystan and the investigation into the Al-Yamamah arms deal.
- The Duke, she explained, "was referencing an investigation, subsequently closed, into alleged kickbacks a senior Saudi royal had received in exchange for the multi-year, lucrative BAE Systems contract to provide equipment and training to Saudi security forces."
The dispatch continued: "His mother's subjects seated around the table roared their approval. He then went on to 'these (expletive) journalists, especially from the National Guardian [sic], who poke their noses everywhere' and (presumably) make it harder for British businessmen to do business. The crowd practically clapped!"
Earlier in 2010 it was revealed that the Kazakhstan President's billionaire son-in-law Timur Kulibayev paid the Duke of York's representatives £15m – £3m over the asking price – via offshore companies, for the Duke's Surrey mansion, Sunninghill Park. Kulibayev frequently appears in US dispatches as one of the men who has accumulated millions in gas-rich Kazakhstan.
In May 2012, it was reported that Swiss and Italian police investigating "a network of personal and business relationships" allegedly used for "international corruption" were looking at the activities of Enviro Pacific Investments which charges "multi-million pound fees" to energy companies wishing to deal with Kazakhstan. The trust is believed to have paid £6m towards the purchase of Sunninghill which now appears derelict. In response a Palace spokesman said "This was a private sale between two trusts. There was never any impropriety on the part of The Duke of York".
Friendship with Jeffrey Epstein and other controversiesEdit
In March 2011, it was reported that the Duke's friendship with billionaire Jeffrey Epstein, a man who is a convicted sex offender in the State of Florida for soliciting an underage girl for prostitution, was producing "a steady stream of criticism". The BBC reported:
It is not the first time questions have been raised about Prince Andrew's judgement, and there are now some calls for him to step down from his role as a UK trade envoy.... Prince Andrew had visited Epstein at his Florida home over the years, and newspapers have published photographs of him with Virginia Roberts, then 17, who has claimed that from the age of 15 she was sexually exploited by Epstein, even saying he wanted to have children with her but he would be their guardian, and some photos show him with his arm around her. Other women have also lodged claims against Epstein.
There is no suggestion Prince Andrew was involved in sexual contact with any of those making claims against Epstein. The prince has also reportedly vowed to have cut all ties with him.
The Duke is a capable and keen golfer, playing off a low single-figure handicap. He had the honour of being Captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews between 2003 and 2004—during the club's 250th anniversary season—is patron of a number of royal golf clubs, and has been elected as an honorary member of many others. The Duke has been criticised for using the Queen's Flight for transport to various golfing functions. He is a Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, the senior maritime City livery company. In recent years, he has developed strong links with Kazakhstan and is a regular goose hunting companion of the country's President Nursultan Nazarbayev. He is a supporter of Norwich City Football Club.
Titles, styles, honours and armsEdit
Titles and stylesEdit
- 19 February 1960 – 23 July 1986: His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew
- 23 July 1986 – present: His Royal Highness The Duke of York
The Duke's style and title in full is: His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew Albert Christian Edward, Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, Baron Killyleagh, Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Canadian Forces Decoration, Aide-de-Camp to Her Majesty
- 1979–1981: Midshipman, Britannia Royal Naval College, HMS Seahawk
- 1981–1984: Sub Lieutenant, Pilot, 820 NAS on HMS Invincible;
- 1984–1993: Lieutenant, Pilot, 815 NAS on HMS Brazen; Helicopter Warfare Instructor, 702 NAS at RNAS Culdrose; Flight Commander, 829 NAS on HMS Campbeltown
- 1993–1999: Lieutenant Commander, Captain, HMS Cottesmore; Senior Pilot, 815 NAS at RNAS Portland; Directorate of Naval Operations, British Ministry of Defence
- 1999–2005: Commander, Diplomacy Section of the Naval Staff
- 2005–2010: Honorary Captain
- 2010–: Honorary Rear Admiral
- 19 December 1979 – 2 June 2003: Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (CVO)
- 23 April 2006 – : Royal Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (KG)
- 2001 Canadian Forces Decoration (CD)
- 1977: Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal
- 1982: South Atlantic Medal, with Rosette
- 1990: New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal
- 2002: Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal
- 2005: Commemorative Medal for the Centennial of Saskatchewan
- 2012: Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal
- Foreign orders
Honorary military appointmentsEdit
- 1 February 1984 – : Personal Aide-de-Camp to Her Majesty The Queen (AdC(P))
- 23x15px Colonel-in-Chief of the Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment)
- 23x15px Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada
- 23x15px Colonel-in-Chief of the Princess Louise Fusiliers
- 23x15px Colonel-in-Chief of the Canadian Airborne Regiment (disbanded)
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal New Zealand Army Logistic Regiment
- Colonel-in-Chief of the 9th/12th Royal Lancers (Prince of Wales's)
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Irish Regiment (27th (Inniskilling) 83rd and 87th and Ulster Defence Regiment)
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Small Arms School Corps
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Yorkshire Regiment (14th/15th, 19th and 33rd/76th Foot)
- Royal Colonel of the Royal Highland Fusiliers, 2nd Battalion Royal Regiment of Scotland
- Honorary Air Commodore, Royal Air Force Lossiemouth.
- Commodore-in-Chief of the Fleet Air Arm
- Admiral of the Sea Cadet Corps
|Princess Beatrice of York||8 August 1988|
|Princess Eugenie of York||23 March 1990|
- ^ The 1960 Order-in-Council giving the surname Mountbatten-Windsor to the male-line descendants of The Duke of Edinburgh and Elizabeth II specifically refers only to such descendants without a royal title, as those with it generally have no need for a surname. Despite this, the Duke of York (like his sister) entered with this surname in the marriage register.
- ^ Yvonne's Royalty Home Page – Royal Christenings
- ^ "Prince Andrew talks of Falklands horror". Glasgow Herald: p. 2. 14 November 1983. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=NPs9AAAAIBAJ&pg=4110,2766700.
- ^ "Argentines planned to kill Prince Andrew". Montreal Gazette. Reuters: pp. C6. 17 October 1983. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=XxUyAAAAIBAJ&sjid=SKUFAAAAIBAJ&pg=6583%2C3743144. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
- ^ LondonGazette, issue 50606, supplement 1, issued 23 July 1986
- ^ "thePeerage.com > Andrew Albert Christian Edward Windsor, 1st Duke of York". thePeerage.com. http://www.thepeerage.com/p10071.htm#i100707. Retrieved 25 October 2008.
- ^ Castle, Stephen (4 February 2008). "From Prince Andrew, critical words for U.S. on Iraq". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/04/world/americas/04iht-andrew.4.9735778.html?_r=1.
- ^ "Duchess of York 'wanted cash for Prince Andrew access'". BBC News. 23 May 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8699139.stm. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
- ^ Cable, Simon. "I've cleared my debts (yet again) says Fergie... and it's thanks to Andrew, my knight on a white charger". Daily Mail (London). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2018375/Duchess-York-Sarah-Ferguson-cleared-debts-thanks-Prince-Andrew.html.
- ^ "Prince Andrew to stand down as UK trade envoy", BBC, 21 July 2011
- ^ "Duke of York must lose trade job, says Labour MP", BBC News, 1 March 2011.
- ^ http://www.english.globalarabnetwork.com/Organization-Profile/the-middle-east-association-london.html – Global Arab Network
- ^ "Message from the Royal Patron", Fight for Sight, accessed 29 August 2012
- ^ "Royal Support for the Scouting and Guiding Movements". Official Website of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page5951.asp. Retrieved 25 July 2008.
- ^ Hurst, Jeff; "Princely plans for Andrew", Cambridge Times, 1 May 2007
- ^ "Financial arrangements of members of the Royal Family". Royal Household. http://www.royal.gov.uk/TheRoyalHousehold/Royalfinances/FinancialarrangmentsofothermembersoftheRoyalFamily.aspx. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- ^ "Prince Andrew, his £15m home and the Kazakhstan connection", The Sunday Times, July 2008, accessed 7 March 2011.
- ^ "Duke of York costs taxpayers £15m", The Daily Telegraph, 8 March 2011, accessed 8 March 2011.
- ^ "Prince Andrew rappels down U.K. building for charity". cbc. 3 September 2012. http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2012/09/03/prince-andrew-charity-building-rappel.html. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- ^ "Prince Andrew descends Europe's tallest building". cbsnews. 3 September 2012. http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=7420354n. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- ^ Leigh, David; Evans, Rob; Brooke, Heather (29 November 2010). "WikiLeaks cables: 'Rude' Prince Andrew shocks US ambassador". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/nov/29/wikileaks-cables-rude-prince-andrew.
- ^ a b c Jason Lewis (26 May 2012). "Money laundering probe puts spotlight on the £15 million sale of the Duke of York's home". Sunday Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/theroyalfamily/9291896/Money-laundering-probe-puts-spotlight-on-the-15-million-sale-of-the-Duke-of-Yorks-home.html. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- ^ "Prince Andrew: Envoy career plagued with controversy", http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-12663378, 7 March 2011, Accessed 8 March 2011.
- ^ Royal, by Robert Lacey, 2002.
- ^ Boffey, Daniel (14 June 2009). "'Air Miles' Andy's £2k 43-minute flight ... to his golf club". The Mail (London). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1192868/Air-Miles-Andys-2k-43-minute-flight---golf-club.html.
- ^ www.shipwrights.co.uk
- ^ Foggo, Daniel; Swinford, Steven; Mikhailova, Anna (27 July 2008). "Prince Andrew, his £15m home and the Kazakhstan connection". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article4407240.ece.
- ^ The-football-club.com
- ^ "St George's Chapel > History > Orders of Chivalry". St George's Chapel. http://www.stgeorges-windsor.org/history/hist_chivalry.asp. Retrieved 27 October 2008.
- ^ "The Duke of York appointed GCVO, 21 February 2011". Official Website of The British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/LatestNewsandDiary/Pressreleases/2011/TheDukeofYorkappointedGCVO21February2011.aspx. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- ^ Jackson, Michael. "Honours of the Crown". Monarchist League of Canada. http://www.monarchist.ca/new/docs/honours.html. Retrieved 25 October 2008.
- ^ Johnson, Alice (26 November 2010). "Khalifa, Queen Elizabeth II exchange orders". Gulf News (Dubai). http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/government/khalifa-queen-elizabeth-ii-exchange-orders-1.718759.
- The Duke of York's official website
- Royal.gov.uk- The Duke of York
- Andrew, Duke of York (1960) at the Internet Movie Database
Andrew, Duke of York (1960)
Cadet branch of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-GlücksburgBorn: 19 February 1960
Prince Harry of Wales
|Line of succession to the British throne|
| Succeeded by|
Princess Beatrice of York
|Line of succession to the|
Dukedom of Edinburgh
| Succeeded by|
The Earl of Wessex
|Order of precedence in the United Kingdom|
The Prince of Wales
& Duke of Rothesay
|Gentlemen|| Succeeded by|
The Earl of Wessex
The Duke of Cambridge
in current practice
The Duke of Kent
|Special Representative for International Trade and Investment|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Windsor, Andrew Albert Christian Edward|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Son of Elizabeth II|
|DATE OF BIRTH||19 February 1960|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||London, United Kingdom|
|DATE OF DEATH|
|PLACE OF DEATH|
|This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Prince Andrew, Duke of York. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.|