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The Bahá'í calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Bahá'í Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. Years are composed of 19 months of 19 days each, (361 days) plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days" (4 in regular and 5 in leap years). Years in the calendar begin at the vernal equinox, and are counted with the date notation of BE (Bahá'í Era), with 21 March, 1844 AD being the first day of the first year. The period from 21 March, 2007 to 20 March, 2008 is the year 164 BE.
The Bahá'í calendar started from the original Badí‘ calendar, created by the Báb. Bahá'u'lláh confirmed and adopted this calendar and made Naw-Rúz or the vernal equinox the first day of the year, and also clarified the intercalary days.
Although the vernal equinox can occur on March 20, 21 or 22, Shoghi Effendi declared that, for the time being, the Badí‘ calendar is 'locked' to the Gregorian calendar with the new year always starting at sunset on 20 March. Without this, the calendar could vary by a day or two when compared to the Gregorian calendar. The implementation of the variable calendar with respect to the beginning of Naw-Rúz will require the Universal House of Justice selecting a single location for the fixing of the date of the equinox. This 'locked' calendar is the one described in this article.
Years in the Bahá'í calendar are counted from Thursday, 21 March, 1844, the beginning of the Bahá'í Era or Badí‘ Era (abbreviated BE or B.E.). Year 1 BE thus began at sundown 20 March 1844. Using the Bahá'í names for the weekday and month, day one of the Bahá'í Era was Istijlál (Majesty), 1 Bahá (Splendour) 1 BE. As detailed below, the names of the Bahá'í months and days reflect attributes of God.
The Bahá'í calendar is composed of 19 months, each with 19 days. The Nineteen Day Fast is held during the final month of ‘Alá’ (2 March - 20 March), and is preceded by the intercalary days, known as Ayyám-i-Há. There are 4 Intercalary Days in a regular year, and 5 in a leap year. The month of fasting is followed by Naw-Rúz, the new year. Because the calendar is currently synchronized with the Gregorian calendar, the Bahá'í leap years happen on common era leap years. In addition, the Intercalary Days include 28 February and 1 March, causing precise synhronization of the 19 months with the Gregorian Calendar.
|Arabic Name||Arabic Script||English Translation||Gregorian Dates|
|Bahá||بهاء||Splendour||21 March - 8 April|
|Jalál||جلال||Glory||9 April - 27 April|
|Jamál||جمال||Beauty||28 April - 16 May|
|‘Aẓamat||عظمة||Grandeur||17 May - 4 June|
|Núr||نور||Light||5 June - 23 June|
|Raḥmat||رحمة||Mercy||24 June - 12 July|
|Kalimát||كلمات||Words||13 July - 31 July|
|Kamál||كمال||Perfection||1 August - 19 August|
|Asmá’||اسماء||Names||20 August - 7 September|
|‘Izzat||عزة||Might||8 September - 26 September|
|Mashíyyat||مشية||Will||27 September - 15 October|
|‘Ilm||علم||Knowledge||16 October - 3 November|
|Qudrat||قدرة||Power||4 November - 22 November|
|Qawl||قول||Speech||23 November - 11 December|
|Masá’il||مسائل||Questions||12 December - 30 December|
|Sharaf||شرف||Honour||31 December - 18 January|
|Sulṭán||سلطان||Sovereignty||19 January - 6 February|
|Mulk||ملك||Dominion||7 February - 25 February|
|Ayyám-i-Há||ايام الهاء||The Days of Há||26 February - 1 March|
|‘Alá’||علاء||Loftiness||2 March - 20 March (Month of fasting)|
There are eleven holy days in the Bahá'í calendar on nine of which work is suspended. The Festival of Ridván, a twelve day festival which commemorates the commencement of Bahá'u'lláh's prophethood, is the most holy Bahá'í festival and is referred to as the "Most Great Festival."
|Name||Gregorian Dates||Work Suspended|
|Naw-Rúz (Bahá'í New Year)||March 21||Yes|
|First day of Riḍván (Arabic: رضوان)||April 21||Yes|
|Ninth day of Riḍván||April 29||Yes|
|Twelfth day of Riḍván||May 2||Yes|
|Declaration of the Báb||May 23||Yes|
|Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh||May 29||Yes|
|Martyrdom of the Báb||July 9||Yes|
|Birth of the Báb||October 20||Yes|
|Birth of Bahá'u'lláh||November 12||Yes|
|Day of the Covenant||November 26||No|
|Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá||November 28||No|
The Bahá'í week starts on Saturday, and ends on Friday. Days begin at sunset on the previous solar day and end at sunset of the present solar day. Like Islám, Friday is also the day of rest in the Bahá'í Faith.
|Arabic Name||Arabic Script||English Translation||Day of the Week|
Váḥid and Kull-i-Shay’Edit
Also existing in the Bahá'í calendar system is a 19-year cycle called Váḥid and a 361-year (19x19) supercycle called Kull-i-Shay’ (literally, "All Things"). Each of the 19 years in a Vahid has been given a name as shown in the table below. The 9th Váḥid of the 1st Kull-i-Shay’ started on 21 March1996, and the 10th Váḥid will begin in 2015. The current Bahá'í year, year 164 BE, is year Javáb of the 9th Váḥid of the 1st Kull-i-Shay’. The 2nd Kull-i-Shay’ will begin in 2205.
The concept of a 19-year cycle has existed in some form since the 4th century BC The Metonic cycle represents an invented measure that approximately correlates solar and lunar markings of time and which appears in several calendar systems.
- Years in a Váḥid
|No.||Arabic Name||Arabic Script||English Translation|
For several early years after Tom Morey founded what would become Morey Watersports, the boogie boards his company produced were stamped with the B.E. year of production. This may have been the first "external" use of B.E. dates (and almost certainly the first on a commercial product).
- ^ a b Curtis, Larry (2004-03-06). "A Day in the Bahá'í Calendar". bcca.org. http://www.bcca.org/bahaivision/docs/today.html. Retrieved 2006-09-24.
- ^ a b Taylor, John (2000-09-01). "On Novelty in Ayyám-i-Há and the Badí Calendar". bahai-library.org. http://bahai-library.com/?file=taylor_novelty_badi_calendar. Retrieved 2006-09-24.
- ^ a b Universal House of Justice (1992). Notes of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. pp. 178-179. ISBN 0853989990. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/b/KA/ka-43.html#gr2. .
- ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1973). Directives from the Guardian. India/Hawaii: Bahá'í publishing trust. pp. pp. 30. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/DG/dg-75.html.
- ^ National Spiritual Assembly of the United States (2006-03-05). "The Bahá'í Calendar". bahai.us. http://www.bahai.us/bahai-calendar. Retrieved 2006-09-24.
- ^ a b c d e Esslemont, J.E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed. ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. pp.178-179. ISBN 0877431604. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/je/BNE/.
- ^ a b c d National Spiritual Assembly of the United States (2006-03-05). "The Badi Calendar". bahai.us. http://www.bahai.us/system/files/BahaiCalendarOptimized.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
- ^ Walbridge, John (2003-10-02). "Ridvan". http://bahai-library.com/?file=walbridge_encyclopedia_ridvan. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
- ^ a b c d e f Effendi, Shoghi (1950). Bahá'í Faith, The: 1844-1950. Wilmette, IL: Bahá'í Publishing Committee. http://bahai-library.com/?file=shoghieffendi_statistics_1844-1950.
- ^ Effendi, Shoghi; The Universal House of Justice (1983). Hornby, Helen (Ed.). ed. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India. pp. pp. 109. ISBN 8185091463. http://bahai-library.com/?file=hornby_lights_guidance.
- ^ a b c Bolhuis, Arjen (2006-03-23). "The first Kull-i-Shay' of the Bahá'í Era". http://bahai-library.org/resources/kull-i-shay.html. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
- Effendi, Shoghi (1976). Principles of Bahá'í Administration (4th ed. ed.). London, UK: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0900125136.
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