|— District —|
|Established||2 January 1994|
|• Collector||Dr. Prasanta Kumar Pradhan, IAS|
|• Member of Parliament||Rudra Madhab Ray, BJD|
|• Total||3,098 km2 (1,196 sq mi)|
|• Density||142/km2 (370/sq mi)|
|• Official||Oriya, Hindi, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||991 ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Kandhamal|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||2 (85-Kantamal ,86-Boudh)|
|Precipitation||1,623.1 millimetres (63.90 in)|
Boudh District, also called Bauda District, is an administrative district of Odisha state in eastern India. The city of Boudh is the district headquarters. As of 2011 it is the second least populous district of Orissa (out of 30), after Debagarh.
The early history of Boudh is still in obscurity. However, the discovery of remarkable Buddhist statues from Boudh led some scholars to believe that Boudh was an important Buddhist centre of Orissa. From the epigraphic records it is known that in the middle of 8th century AD, Boudh region was under the occupation of the Bhanja rulers and was a part of Khinjali Mandala. The earliest known ruler of this Bhanja family was Nettabhanja who was ruling over the Dhenkanal region as independent ruler, but his successor migrated towards Boudh-Sonepur region and established Khinjali Mandala and ruled there as the feudatory of the Bhauma Karas of Tosali. The Sonepur Copper Plate of Satrubhanja Dev, son of Silabhanja mentions the name Khinjali Mandala for the first time and on this basis it is believed that Silabhanja Dev was the founder of Bhanja Kula of Khinjali Mandala. Their capital was Dhirtipura, which has been identified with Boudh town. Satrubhanja Dev – II, a ruler of this family was defeated and killed by the Somavansi ruler of South Kosala, Janmeyjaya – I. The Bhanja’s were driven out from the Boudh region which was renamed as Odra Desa. Yayati – I, the son and successor of Janmejaya – I established his capital in Odradesa at Yayatinagara, which has been identified with modern Jagati in Boudh District. The Somavansi then occupied and migrated towards Utkala leaving their original home land South-Kosala in charge of viceroys. In course of time Kosala was lost to them and was occupied by the Telugu-Chodas and the Kalachuris. The imperial Gangas of Kalinga, after their occupation of Utkala, entered into a protracted struggle with the Kalachuris for one hundred years for the occupation of Kosala region. It is evident from the Chatesvar Inscription ( 1220 AD) that the struggle finally ended in favour of the Gangas during the region of Anangabhima Deva – III and there after Boudh along with Sonepur came under the Ganga Rule and was administered by the Ganga Administrators. In course of time, the Ganga Administrators became semi-independent and ruled over this territory hereditarily. So far tradition goes, there emerged a Brahmin ruling family in Boudh . Gandhamardan Dev, the last Brahmin ruler of this family, being childless adopted one Ananga Bhanja of Keonjhar Bhanja royal family. He succeeded Gandharmardhan Dev and laid the foundation of the rule of the Bhanjas in Boudh in the first half of 14th century AD. He changed his surname from Bhanja to Dev and was known as Ananga Dev. Since then, the new line of kings continued to rule over this region till the merger of Boudh State with the Orissa province in 1948. Their kingdom comprised modern Athmallik, Boudh, and Sonepur regions with its capital headquarters at Swarnapura ( Sonepur). But later on due to the expansionist policy followed by the Chouhan rulers of Patna ( Patnagarh in Bolangir District ) they shifted their capital to Boudh.
In the first half of 17th century AD, Boudh was a very powerful kingdom and Sonepur remained under its direct administration. During this period the Chouhan rulers of Sambalpur had already established their supremacy over almost entire Western Orissa. Balabhadradeva ( 1605-1630 AD), the Chouhan ruler of Sambalpur defeated Siddhabhanja Dev (Siddheswar Dev) of Boudh and forced him cede the Sonepur region which was made a separate state by the Chouhans in 1640 AD.
In the mean time Orissa was occupied by the Muslims and though nothing details is known about the relationship between the rulers of Boudh and the Muslim subedars in Cuttack yet it is believed that Boudh maintained a friendly relation with the Muslims and probably for this, Raja Pratap Dev of Boudh, had secured from him from the Muslim powers, the title “Swasti Sri Dhirlakhya Dhumbadhipati Jahrkhand Mandaleswar” which was used by the rulers of Boudh till the time of Raja Banamali Deb.
But the Maratha contact with the Boudh State was felt more during the Maratha rule in Orissa than under the Muslim rule. As the vital line of Communication between Nagpur and Cuttack, passes through the Boudh state, it drew special attention from the Maratha governors at Cuttack. The Raja of Boudh was paying tribute to the Maratha and maintained a cordial relation with them. But in 1800 AD this relationship became stained. The Maratha attacked Boudh and defeated Raja Biswambara Dev. However, he was allowed to rule as a feudatory Raja of Nagpur by Paying regular tribute.
During the early years of the reign of Raja Biswamabara Dev (1778–1817) the Panchara Pragana lying between Baghanadi and Meheruni jore was separated from the Boudh State. It is said that in 1780-81 the Raja of Boudh had obtained a loan from the Raja of Sonepur and for the liquidation of the debt he had ceded the above pragana to Sonepur. It is also said that the above said pragana was given to the Raja of Sonepur for rendering military help to Boudh in time of trouble and in lieu there of to enjoy revenue rights of the pragana. But when the Sonepur Raja occupied it permanently a dispute arose for the possession of this tract, which was settled by the Superintendent of Tributary Mahals in favour of Sonepur.
During the region of Sidhabhanja Dev ( Siddheswar Dev) Sonepur region was conquered from Boudh by the Chouhan ruler of Sambalpur. But the process of the vivisection of territories of the Boudh state had started earlier. In AD 1498-99, the then Raja of Boudh state had made a gift of Dasapalla territory extending from Kamaimuhan near Kantilo to Udandi muhan in the east to his younger brother Narayan Dev, who asserted his independence and made Dasapalla a separate state. Again the strip of territory lying between the Kharang river on the west of Boudh and Amaimuhan was given by Raja Madan Mohan Dev in 1599-1600 AD as dowry to his daughters who married in the Chouhan royal family of Patna State. However, Athmallik and Khondhmal remained as a part of Boudh state for sometime.
After the British conquest of Orissa in AD 1803, Raja Biswambar Dev of Boudh submitted to the British and entered into a treaty agreement with the British East India Company on the 3rd March, 1804.
After the Third Anglo Martha War, British Government permanently occupied Boudh from the Marthas and included this state in the South West Frontier Agency till 1837, when it was brought under the superintendent of Tributary Mahals, Cuttack.
In 1817 AD, Raja Biswambar Dev died and was succeeded by his Son Chandra Sekhar Dev. In 1821, he received a fresh “Sanand” from the British Government fixing the annual tribute of Boudh at Rs. 800/-. After his death his son Pitambara Dev ascended the throne in 1839 AD. During his reign, on 15 February 1855 AD, Khondmal was separated from the Boudh state and was annexed with the British territory. Raja Pitambar Dev remained loyal to the British Government and cooperated with the British Agency in suppressing human sacrifice and Khondh rebellion in Ghumsur and Khondhmal. Chakra Bisoi, who remained in Boudh State since 1855 and organized the Khondhas, was ultimately driven out of the state and peace and order was restored. The British Government recognized his title Raja, by a separate Sanand granted to him in 1875 AD.
The Athmallik state was a part of Boudh state and the chief of Boudh was the Raja of Boudh and Athmallik. The Chief of Athmallik was called a Zamidar and was addressed as a Samanta. In 1875, the Chief of Athmallik was officially recognized as a Raja and Athamallik became a separate state in 1894 AD.
Raja Pitambar Dev died in 1880 and was succeeded by his son Jogindra Dev. He was a benevolent and generous ruler and introduced English education for the first time in the state. At the time of his death in 1913, his eldest son Narayan Dev was a minor and hence the administration of the state was managed by the Court of Wards and the Dewan. His formal coronation took place on 31 March 1925. From his reign, the power and function of the ruler was reduced to a considerable extent and for all practical purposes, it appears that the state was under the grip of the political agent, Raja Narayan Dev successfully suppressed a political agitation organized in Boudh in 1930-31 and adopted stern measures against the Prajamandal Movement in 1945. He had also developed the Jagti village ( Yayatinagar, the Somavamsi Capital) and renamed it Narayan Nagar. He was the last ruler of the Boudh State and on 1 January 1948, the state merged with the Orissa province.
Since then Boudh was a sub-division of the newly created District of Boudh-Kondhamals. But it is raised to the status of a District Headquarters of Orissa since 2 January 1994. The people of Boudh consider themselves as part of Kosal(West-Orissa)
The district lies in central Orissa, to the south of the Mahanadi River, which forms the western and northern boundary of the district. Across the Mahanadi lay the districts of Bolangir to the west, Subarnapur to the northwest, and Angul to the northeast. Nayagarh District lies to the southeast, Phulbani District to the south, and Kalahandi district to the southwest.
Geographically the Boudh district extends from Latitudes 20º.22’ to 20º.50’N and Longitudes 83º.34’ to 84º.49’E. It is bounded by River Mahanadi & Anugul District to the north, Kandhamal District to the south, Nayagarh District to the east and River Tel & Subarnapur District to the west.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Boudh one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 19 districts in Orissa currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Boudh is well connected with road and rail with other district headquarter and the state capital Bhubaneswar. The distance of Boudh from Bhubaneswar is 240 km. One can come to Boudh via State Highway No. 1 & 14 ( via Nayagarh –Charichhak) or can come by National Highway No. 42 . ( via- Angul).Regular train services are available from Bhubaneswar viz. Bhubaneswar –Sambalpur Intercity Express,Hirakud Express,Puri-Sambalpur passenger train. To reach Boudh one has to get down at Rairakhole station. From here one has to travel around 27 km. either by Bus or taxi to reach Boudh. The nearest Airport is at Bhubaneswar.
According to the 2011 census Boudh district has a population of 439,917, roughly equal to the nation of Malta. This gives it a ranking of 552nd in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 142 inhabitants per square kilometre (370 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 17.82%. Baudh has a sex ratio of 991 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 72.51%.
Boudh is a new district but the civilization of Boudh area is as old as the oldest river valley civilizations of the world. As all civilization started on the banks of river and riverine passage was the mode of transport in the days of yore, people of Boudh claimed to be inheritors of rich culture. From 2nd century AD up to a period of one thousand years Boudh was an important seat of Buddhism,Savisim and Shakti cult in the country. Boudh is part of Kosali Culture.It was highly developed educationally and culturally during the Soma Vanshi period and also during the Gangas and Surya Vanshi period.
Various types of dances are prevalent in the district . these are usually held during socio-religious functions. An account of some of the major dances are given below.
The Karma dance of Boudh is quite different from the Karama dance of the Oraons of Sundergarh District. In Boudh, the Ghasis perform this festival and dance. They observe Sana Karama festival on the 11 th day of the dark fortnight in the month of Bhadrab ( August- September) and Karama festival on the 11 th day of the bright fortnight of the same month . On both the occasions, males and females belonging to Ghasi community perform the Karama dance. The girls sing Karama songs and the boy play on the Mrudunga and Madala. They generally sing songs relating to goddess Karama whom they worship on the occasion .
Danda Nata is a ritual dance and is very popular and developed in Boudh. The participants of the dance are the devotees of god Hara and goddess Parvati. They perform the dance in the month of Chaitra (March–April) and Vaishakha ( April–May). Danda begins on an auspicious day before the Chaitra Sankranti or Meru Parba with traditional worship and fasting .This dance consists of a series of dances which are performed one after another by the male members belonging to the Scheduled Castes and other backward castes. In this dance the Ghasis provide the music with the help of Dhol and Mahuri. The dance has a rich repertory. Parva dance is the first item of the repertory. The Prabhakar and the Prabhakariani, dressed in multi coloured dress, dance in the beginning. The dancer places a piece of cloth on his shoulders and holds the ends of the same in front with both the hands. He moves his hands forward and backward,right and left, to the rhythm of the dance. A semi-circular plate, made of bamboo sticks and covered with coloured and decorated cloth with ornamental border,is tied to the back of the Prabhkar. The Prabhakar wears multi coloured skirt and jacket. The Prabhakariani, a male in female role, dresses himself in sari and kanchala(blouse). The Prabhakariani holds apiece of coloured handkerchief in his hand. After the Parava dance is over the Hara –Parvati dance begins. Then a group dance of Fakir and Fakiriani is performed. The dances of Savara and Savarani, Chadeya and Chadouni, are performed one after another. Then the party performs a leela based on a story from the Ramayana or the Mahabharata or from any other Puran through songs and dances . Patarasaura and Patarasaurani perform their dance at the end of the leela. The last, but not the least, is the Binakar who closes the performance with his most significant songs and dances.
The music of the Danda Nata is different for different dances . The songs are of different tunes for different characters. The songs are mainly devotional and mostly based on stories from the epics. Humorous songs are sometimes sung by the dancers . sometimes they put questions in songs and their counterpart give the reply in songs. The songs are of folk and Odissi style. The dance originated from tribal dances, but has been much influenced by the Yatra and Pala performance of the state. Danda Nata is being gradually modernized in respect of music, dance, costume, style and make up. It is thereby losing its original simplicity and traditional characteristics.
The people of Boudh perform this dance during the month of Aswina ( September –October ) on the occasion of Bhaijuntia ( Bhatri Dwitya) In this dance young girls stand in a line or in a semi-circular pattern with songs known as Dalkhai songs.
Fairs and FestivalsEdit
The Hindus of the district observe a number of festivals all the year round. These festivals may broadly be divided into two categories, viz. domestic festivals observed in each house hold and public festivals and fairs where people congregate in large numbers on some auspicious days. The domestic festivals are confined tom worship of family deities, observance of ekadashis, various vratas, etc. most of them being guided by phases of the moon. The public festivals are usually religious ceremonies attended by a large number of men,women and children who come for worship as well as entertainment . An account of some of the important festivals in the district is given below.
Chuda Khai JatraEdit
This function is observed in the last Friday of Margasira(November–December) wherein both males and females gather in a place and scold each other in filthy languages and also fight each other. The conception behind this is that by such function the land will yield good crops.
The Ratha Jatra or Car Festival of Lord Jagannath is held on the second day of the bright fortnight in the month of Asadha ( June–July). The festival is observed at different places of Boudh, but the festival observed in the Boudh town deserves special mention. During this festivals people of this district wear new dresses and make delicious food. Thousand of people from nearby villages of the district congregate at Boudh for this occasion. The Raja of Boudh performs the ritual as in case of Ratha Jatra of Puri. . The three deities – Lord Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra are taken in a car from main temple to the Mausima temple. The deities stay their for seven days. During this time different types melas, mina bazaar are organized at Boudh as large numbers of people come to Boudh.
Laxmi Puja is observed in almost all Hindu households on every Thursday in the month of Margasira( November–December) . The Hindu women celebrate this festival with great austerity and devotion. On the Thursdays the house and the courtyard are decorated with chita or alpana designs, and Laxmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity, is evoked and worshipped. The last Thursday of the month marks the end of the Puja when rice cakes and other preparations of sweets are offered to the goddess.
Nuakhai is an agricultural festival . It is observed more or less in all parts of the district. This ceremony generally takes place in the bright fortnight of Bhadraba ( August –September ) on an auspicious day fixed by the astrologer. On this occasion preparations of the new rice are offered to gods, goddesses and ancestors after which members of the family along with friends and relatives partake of the new rice. The head of the family officiates in this function.
Sivaratri festival is observed in all Siva temples on the 14th day of the dark fortnight in the month of Phalguna ( February–March). The devotees remain awake throughout the night and worship Lord Siva. At midnight a lamp called Mahadipa is taken to the top of the temple and is kept burning throughout the night. The devotees break their fast after seeing the Mahadipa. This festival is observed with great pomp and splendour in the Siva temple of Boudh town namely Matengeswar, Chandrachuda, Mallisahi, and at Jagati, Karadi, Sarsara, Dapala, Bhejigora, and Raniganj.
The Durga Puja and Dasahara festivals are celebrated during the bright fortnight in the month of Aswina ( September–October). Generally this Puja continues for four days from Saptami up to Dasami. The images of goddess Durga are worshipped in a few places in the district of which celebrations held at Boudh town & at Sakta shrine of Purunakatak deserve special mention.
Dasahara has a special significance to the warrior caste. They worship their old weapons of war and exhibit physical feats on the occasion. Their heroic forebears used to start on fresh military expeditions during this season of the year.
Dola Jatra is usually celebrated from the day of Phagu Dasami to Phagu Purnima.In some places it is observed from the next day of Phagu Purnima to Chaitra Krushna Panchami. On this occasion the images of Radha & Krishna are placed in a decorated biman and carried in procession to the accompaniment of music. At places the bimans carrying Radha-Krishna images from different places assemble together for a community worship. This assembly of the gods called melan is usually celebrated with great pomp & show. This is the main festival of the people belonging to the Gaura caste. They worship the cow and play naudi( a play with sticks) by singing songs relating to Radha and Krishna.
Puajiuntia and BhaijiuntiaEdit
The Puajintuia ceremony is celebrated on the 8th day of the dark fortnight in the month of Aswina ( September- October) . On this occasion almost all the mothers worship the deity Dutibahana for long life and prosperity of their sons.
On the 8th day of the bright fortnight of Aswina ( September–October) Bhaijiuntia is observed. The sisters worship goddess Durga on this occasion for the long and happy life of their brothers
Ramanavami or Ramaleela celebration is celebrated during the month of Chaitra. It is observed for eight to thirty days at different temples of Rama .It is a dance drama in open theatre for the entertainment people during which seven parts of the epic Ramayana is being played by different artists in different nights. It is observed with great pomp & show in Raghunath temple at Boudh town for eighteen days. It is also observed with religious fervor at Raghunath Jew temple of Debgarh and in the village Bahira.
Kailashi or Kalashi jatra is observed on the 11 th day of bright fortnight of Kartika which is also an auspicious month for Hindu . It is observed in the kalashi kothi ( worshipping place) .The walls of the kalashi kothi is painted with different god and goddess .A special type of musical instrument called Dhunkel is being played during this occasion inside the worshipping place. Girasinga is famous for this festival in the district. It is also observed in Palas,Landibandha,gandhinagar Khuntbandha,gundulia,Sarsara, Samapaju, Sidhapur, Khaligaon, and Khaliabagicha of Boudh town.
The Christians of the district observe New Year’s day, Good Friday, Easter Saturday, Easter Sunday, Easter Monday, Christmas Eve and Christmas Day with great pomp and show.
The Muslim inhabitants celebrate Id-Ul-Fitre,Id-Ul-Zuha,Shab-E-Barat,Shab-E-Quadar,Juma-Tul-Wida,Muharram,Shab-E-Meraj,Milad-Un-Nabi, and Ramzan like their fellow brethren in other parts of the state.
Leisure and recreation are essential for life. People usually gather in the evening at the temple or in a common place where the priest or puran panda recites and explains from the religious texts like the Bhagabat, the Mahabharat, the Ramayan,the Haribansa,or other Puranas. Singing of Bhajan or kirtan accompanied with musical instruments like khanjani, gini, mrudanga or harmonium is also another popular form of entertainment of the people. Occasionally acrobatic feats, monkey dance, beard dance, and snake charming and magic performed by itinerant professional groups also provide entertainment to the people. In urban areas cinema, opera are common source of entertainment. Besides this recreational clubs are also functioning in the district.
Boudh is famous for its century old aesthetically built temples, ancient Buddha statues and caves. With the spread of Saivism,Vaishnavism and a number of other cults numerous shrines dedicated to various deities were found in this region. The natural beauty and glamour of these places keeps the visitors spellbound. It is a paradise for devotees and nature lovers. One who has visited this district at least once in his life never forgets it.
Some of the places of tourist attraction is as follows.
Three remarkable Buddhist statues are found in Boudh are indicative of the fact that it was once a center of Buddhist culture. One of the statue is present in Boudh town. The total height of this image is 6 ft. 9 inches of which the seated figure measures 4 ft. 3 inches in height and 3 ft. 10 inches from knee to knee. It is seated in the Bhumisparsa Mudra on a lotus throne 1 ft. 2 inches in height placed on a pedestal 11 inches in height and 4 ft. 6 inches in breadth. The whole image is built up in sections with carved stones. The only attendant figures are two Gandharvas flying with garlands in their hands on the sides of the head. On the whole this colossus of Boudh compares favourably with similar colossi at Udayagiri and Lalitgiri in Cuttack district. The image is uninscribed and beneath the pedestal is the ancient stone pavement of the original shrine. This appears to be the site of an ancient Buddhist monastery the remains of which are still to be found.
At a distance of 40 km. from Boudh town the image of Budhha is in the village shyamsundarpur. The height of statue is 5 ft. and the image is in the same posture as in Boudh town. Here also the only attendant figures are two Gandharvas flying with garlands in their hands at the back of the Budhha statue. The image is built up in sand stone. Locally it is known as Jharabaudia Mahaprabhu.
Another Budhha statue is also seen in the village Pragalapur which is at a distance of 2 km. from Shyamsundarpur. The height of this statue is 3.5 ft.. In the left hand side of the statue there are 3 numbers of invisible image and on the right hand side their lies five numbers of image called ugratara.
A group of three temples of Siva at Boudh town called the Rameswar or Ramanath temples, dating back to the 9th century AD are reputed for their special feature. The decorative motifs and the plastic art of three temples at Boudh are certainly superior to and older than the great lingaraj-Ananta –Vasudeva group. One particular feature of the Ramanath temple is worth particular attention. Their plan is quite different from any other temples. In plan these temples are eight-rayed stars and the argha-pattas of the lingas are also similar.These magnificent temples built of red sandstone and profusely carved are stated to have been constructed in mid-9th century AD. The temples with rich texture and curved surfaces are strikingly noteworthy. Each of these temples stands by itself on a raised platform and each consists of a cell and an attached portico. The minute recesses and angularities produce a charming effect of light and shade and confer an appearance of greater height from the continued cluster of vertical lines than they really possess. Archeological Survey of India has preserved this temple.
Jogindra Villa PalaceEdit
This is the palace of ex-Ruler of Boudh locally known as Rajabati. This was constructed during the reign of Raja Jogindra Dev,who was benevolent and generous ruler. The palace is a picturesque and handsome building commanding a fine view of Mahanadi.
This temple is situated in the midst of the river Mahandai to the east of Boudh town..The Hanuman temple was constructed by a religious mendicant. This shrine was constructed on a large stone. The temple commands a beautiful view, especially during rain when the Mahanadi is in full boom .
Chandra Chuda & Matengeswar TempleEdit
The Chandra Chuda & Matengeswar temple are situated on the bank of river Mahanadi in Boudh town. Both the temples are Siva temples. In the Matengeswar temple there is also separate temple for goddess Parvati.
Bhiarabi & Madan Mohan templeEdit
Both these temples are built nearby the palace of the ex-ruler of Boudh. In Bhirabi temple goddess Bhairabi has been worshipped. In Madan Mohan temples idol of Radha-Krishna has been worshipped. One gayatri pragnya Mandir is also situated at theadjacent to these temples.
This is one of the ancient temple of Orissa. It is situated at the heart of Boudh town. Here Ratha Jatra is celebrated with great pomp and show.
The Raghunath temple at Debagarh is situated at a distance of 14 km. from Boudh town. The surrounding of the temple is full with natural beauty. The marble statue of Rama,Laxman, Sita and Hanuman are being worshipped here. A beautiful pond is also here .
Jagati is situated at a distance of 16 km. from Boudh . Near the village at Gandhradi, is situated the famous twin temples of Nilamadhava and Sidheswar. These temples were constructed under the patronage of the Bhanja rulers of Khinjali mandala in 9th century AD. These two temples were built on one platform which are exactly similar to each other. The one on the left hand is dedicated to Siva named Siddheswar and its sikhara is surmounted by a Sivalinga.The second is dedicated to Vishnu,named Nilamadhava and its sikhara is surmounted by a wheel of blue chlorite. The principle of construction of the Jaga mohans at gandharadi is slightlty different than that of other temples. Their roofs are built on the cantilever principle and originally it appears to have been supported on twelve large pillars arranged as a hollow square .
Thus each side had four pillars of which the central ones flanked an opening. Originally these two Jagamohanas appear to have been open on all sides; but later on the lintels on all sides appear to have given away and then it became necessary to fill in the gaps between pillars with the exception of the four openings with ashlar masonry. At the same time the side openings were filled up with a jali or lattice of blue chlorite towards the bottom and a frieze of four miniature temple sikharas over it. This arrangement is not followed in later temples where the ingress of light into jagamohana is through four or five stone pillars in the opening used as window bars.
The style of ornamentation in the jagamohans of the Gandharadi temples is altogether different. Even stylized chaitya-windows are rarely to be seen at Gandharadi except at the bases of the pilasters of the vimana. the ornamentation on these two jagamohans is very simple and much less overcrowded . The importance of the Gandharadi temples lies in the fact that they provide a link and that a very important one, in the chain of the evolution,in the chain of the evolution of the mediaeval Orissa temple type.
The Gandharadi temple is also locally known as ‘Chari Sambhu Mandira‘ (the temple of four Sambhus or Siva lingas). In the Siva temple Siddheswar is the presiding deity. In the Jagamohan, to the left of the door leading to the sanctum is the siva Linga called Jogeswar and to the right of the door is the linga called Kapileswar. At a little distance from Siddheswar standsa the temples of Paschima Somanath ( Siva), the door of the temple opening to the west.
Some images of considerably antiquity are found worshipped in shrines nearby. Notable among them are the images of Ganesh in the temple of Paschima somanath and a beautiful image of eight armed Durga worshipped under a banyan tree,the later image being badly eroded due to the vagaries of weather. These images probably once adorned the siddheswar temple. Portions of beautifully carved door steps in black chlorite and other decorative motifs have been unearthed. In the vicinity of the temple. A five feet (1.52 meters) high Hanuman image of good workmanship is being worshipped near the village Jagati and a beautiful carved Nabagraha slab is lying in the cornfield. Archeological Survey of India has preserved this place. .
Purunakatak, situated at a distance of 30 km. from Boudh on Boudh-Bhubaneswar road is a trading center of some importance. Goddess Bhairabi is the presiding deity of Boudh District. The temple has beautiful entrance. Durga puja festival is observed here for sixteen days. Just opposite to the Bhairabi temple is the temple of Maheswar Mahadev. One Inspection Bunglow is in the nearby for staying.
Places of InterestEdit
Padmatola Sanctuary & Satakosia GorgeEdit
The district is rich in wild life resources. The Padmatola Sanctuary in the district can be approached from Charichhak,43 km. east on the Bhubaneswar –Balangir road and by a fair weather road from Daspalla. The distance of this place from Boudh town is 80 km.
To the end of this sanctuary the majestic Satakosia Gorge with its lush green forests and rich wild life is located. The crocodile sanctuary set up at Tikarapada,located on the left bank of the gorge is an added attraction of this place. The meandering Mahanadi, flowing amidst the hills forms here the mightiest gorge in India, measuring 22 km long. This is an ideal place for boating, angling and adventure. Goddess Binikeyee, the presiding deity of Satakosia gorge is enshrined at the entrance. She is seen in the form of a four armed Chamundi and is worshipped according to Tantric rites. A forest IB at Sitalapani which is near to this place provides excellent accommodation for those nature loving people who want to spend a day or two.
The Dambarugada mountain is situated at a distance of 21 km. from Boudh town toward Boudh –Balangir road. The name the place is Sangrampur. The river Mahanadi flows down the mountain which makes for a visually stunning sight. The mountain give a curve look from all of its side. The height of the mountain is 70 feet. On the top it a temple of Chiatanya deva .
The Nayakpada Cave is located at a distance of 12 km. from Boudh town. in the Boudh-Bhubaneswar road. This cave was said to have been associated with mythology. Once upon a time this cave was asram of sadhus. The forest here is in rich of different types of flora and fauna. Here,one can breathe the nature in its virgin state and truly delight in the grandeur of the flora and fauna.
Marjakud is a wonderful island of Boudh. It is located on the opposite side of Boudh town in the river Mahandai.About three thousand people are living here. Maa Pitabali is the presiding deity of this place. It is an ideal place for picnic.
Apart from the above places there a number other places in Boudh for the tourist. Asurgada,Siva temple at Karadi, Sarsara and Bousuni, Jatasamadhi temple at Balasinga(temple of Mahima cult), Paljhar are the places of interest to name a few.
- ^ a b c d e f g "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. http://www.census2011.co.in/district.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (September 8, 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. http://www.nird.org.in/brgf/doc/brgf_BackgroundNote.pdf. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html. Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Malta 408,333 July 2011 est."
|Subarnapur district||Anugul district|
|Balangir district||Kandhamal district||Nayagarh district|
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