Chandrapur District (Marathi: चंद्रपूर जिल्हा) is a district in Nagpur Division of the Indian state of Maharashtra. The district was formerly known as Chanda District. In 1964, it was renamed as Chandrapur. It was the largest district in India until it was split into the separate district of Gadchiroli. It had a population of 2,071,101 of which 32.11% were urban as of 2001.
It is famous for its superthermal power plant, one of the biggest in Asia, and its vast reserves of coal. Chandrapur also has large reservoirs of limestone. The abundance of lime and coal supplies many cement factories (like L&T (now UltraTech Cement), Gujarat Ambuja (Maratha Cement Works), Manikgarh and ACC) in the district.
Tadoba National Park near Chandrapur is one of India's 28 Project tiger reserves.
The city of Chandrapur, the administrative headquarters, has ancient temples of Ankleshwar (Lord Shiva) and Mahakali (Goddess Mahakali).
In ancient times Chandrapur included Vairagad, Kosala, Bhadravati and Markanda. Hindu and Buddhist kings are said to have ruled the area for a long time, Later on Gonds overtook Mana Naga Chiefs who ruled Chanda around 9th century and Gond Kings ruled the area till 1751 after which Maratha period started.
In the 18th century, the district became part of the dominions of the Bhonsle Maratha Maharajas of Nagpur. At the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the Bhonsle state of Nagpur became a princely state of British India. In 1853, when the Bhonsle Maharaja died without a direct male heir, the British annexed the kingdom, which became the Nagpur Province of British India. Nagpur Province was merged into the newly-constituted Central Provinces in 1861. Chandrapur District was known as Chanda District.
In 1854, Chandrapur was an independent district and in 1874, it comprised the three tehsils: namely, Warora and Bramhpuri. In 1874, however, the upper Godavai district of Madras was abolished and four tehsils were added to Chandrapur to form one tehsil with Sironcha as its headquarters. In 1895, the headquarters of one tehsil transferred to Mul to Chandrapur. A new tehsil with headquarter at Gadchoroli was created in 1905 by transfer of zamindari estates from Bramhpuri and Chandrapur tehsil. An small zamindari tract from Chandrapur district was transferred to newly formed districts in 1907. In the same year an area of about 1560 square kilometers comprising three divisions of the lower Sironcha tehsil (namely Cherla, Albak and Nugir) were transferred to Madras State.
After India's independence in 1947, the former Central Provinces became the new Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. No major changes occurred in the boundaries of the district or its tehsils between 1911-1955.
The Indian states were reorganized along linguistic lines in 1956, and the largely Marathi-speaking Chandrapur District was transferred from Madhya Pradesh to became part of Bombay State.
In the same year, Rajura tehsil, a part of Adilabad district of Hydrabad state, was transferred to Nanded district subsequently it was transferred to Chandrapur district in 1959. The district became part of the Maharashtra since its creation in May 1960. For administrative convenience and industrial and agricultural development the district was again divided into Chandrapur and Gadchiroli districts after 1981 census.
Chandrapur district comprises 15 talukas, namely Chandrapur, Ballarpur, Rajura, Bhadravati, Warora, Chimur, Nagbhid, Bramhapuri, Sindewahi, Mul, Sawali, Gondpipri, Korpana, Pombhurna and Jiwati.
The district has six Vidhan Sabha (legislative assembly) constituencies: Rajura, Chandrapur, Ballarpur, Warora, Brahmapuri and Chimur. Rajura, Chandrapur, Ballarpur and Warora are part of Chandrapur Lok Sabha constituency. Brahmapuri and Chimur are part of Gadchiroli-Chimur Lok Sabha constituency.
Demography of a district such as population and its growth, density, occupational structure sex ratio etc. The total geographical area the district Chandrapur is 10,655 km² of which 10,521 km² is rural and 174 km² is urban. The average no of inhabited villages per tehsil comes to about 105. According to the latest Census 2001, the total population of Chandrapur district was 20,71,101 persons of which 14,06034 persons (67.89%) were residing in rural areas and 6,65,067 persons (32.11%) were in urban areas. In 1991 Chandrapur had 2.24% of state population over 3.72% of its area and in 2001 it came down to 2.14%.
Chandrapur district is located in the eastern edge of Maharashtra in Nagpur division and forms the eastern part of 'Vidharbha' region. It is located between 19.30’ N and 20.45’ N latitude and 78.46’E longitude. It is the easternmost district of the state of Maharashtra. The district is bounded by Nagpur, Bhandara and Wardha on the northern side, Yavatmal on the western side, Gadchiroli on the eastern side and Adilibad district of the Andhra Pradesh on the southern side. Physiographically, the district is situated in the Wainganga and Wardha river basin. The eastern and western boundaries of the district are well defined by the rivers Wainganga and Wardha, the tributaries of Godavari. Chandrapur district occupies an area of 11,443 km² which constitutes 3.72 percent of the total area of the state. Geographically Maharashtra is located 16.40 N to 22.10 N latitude and 72.60 E to 80.9 E longitude.
Owing to the geographical location and physical features, the climate of the district can be classified as a tropical hot climate with a high range of temperature throughout the year. Primarily there are two prominent seasons in the district - the very hot summer and moderate winter. The summer months are very hot and prolonged while winter is short and mild. The monsoon season starts immediately after summer and lasts until late September. The southwest monsoons bring a lot of rainfall during rainy season and there is no drought-prone area in the district.
The temperature starts decreasing from the month of October. December is the coldest month. The mean maximum temperature during December is 28.2°C and mean minimum is 11.6°C. The southern part is comparatively warmer than the north, which ranges between 29.6°C and 14.6°C. The lowest recorded temperature in the north is 3°C and 8°C in the south. The daily mean temperature starts rising from the month of February, and May is the peak summer month when mean maximum temperature goes up to 43°C and minimum temperature is 28°C to 29°C. According to the temperature records of 2009, the temperature of chandrapur has crossed 49°C in the month of may. In severe heat conditions, the temperature is among the highest temperatures in the South Asian region. However, temperature starts reducing after May due to the onset of the monsoon, which lasts from June to September when it is hot and humid.
The average annual rainfall is about 1420 mm. The eastern part receives more rainfall than the west. The average number of rainy days is 60 to 65 throughout the district. The relative humidity is very high during monsoon season, which exceeds 70%, but after monsoon season it goes down rapidly and in summer it is only 20%.
The prominent wind direction is from south to north. In summer the wind direction is from east to south and, during the monsoon, from south to east. During winter, the wind direction changes from north to east. Frequently it is characterized by the blowing of wild and violent winds, heralding the approach of the hot season which lasts till the middle of June.
River Systems and DamsEdit
The entire area of the district falls in the Godavari basin. The area is drained by major tributaries of the Godavari River. The major Tributaries are the Wardha, the Wainganga and the Penganga rivers. The Penganga, flowing along part of the Western boundary, meets the Wardha river at Wadha near Ghugus to form the Wardha river. It further flows in NW-SE direction finally merging into the Wainganga river at the south eastern corner of the district. After this confluence the river at the south eastern corner of the district. After this confluence the river along with their sub tributaries rising in the uplands within the district drain whole area of the district. Rising in the uplands within the district drain whole area of the district.
The Wainganga river which flows along the border of Chandrapur and Gadchiroli district is the main river of the district. The Wardha is the only perennial river in the district having the longest river course as compared to the other two major rivers. The main tributaries of the Wardha river are the Erai rises in the northern part of Warora tahsil and flows along due south over a length of 80 km. until it meets the Wardha just south of Chandrapur. The Penganga flowing along western border takes east west course and then joins the wardha river at Wadha near Ghugus. The area occupied by Gadchiroli tahsil and part of Rajura tahsil is drained by the Penganga and its tributaries.
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- ^ "District wise List of Assembly and Parliamentary Constituencies". Chief Electoral Officer, Maharashtra website. http://ceo.maharashtra.gov.in/acs.php. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
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