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|— District —|
|Talukas||Coimbatore North, Coimbatore South, Coimbatore West Pollachi, Mettupalayam, Annur, Kinathukadavu|
|• Body||Coimbatore Local Planning Authority|
|• Collector||M Karunakaran, IAS|
|• Total||4,850 km2 (1,870 sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Telephone code||0422 , 04255|
|ISO 3166 code||[[ISO 3166-2:IN|]]|
|Coastline||0 kilometres (0 mi)|
|Nearest city||Tirupur, Erode|
|Sex ratio||M-50.81%/F-49.19% ♂/♀|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||12|
|Planning agency||Coimbatore Local Planning Authority|
|Precipitation||700 millimetres (28 in)|
|Avg. summer temperature||35 °C (95 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||18 °C (64 °F)|
Coimbator District is one of the more affluent and industrially advanced districts of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. Coimbatore is known as the "Manchester of South India." It one of the most industrialized towns of Tamil Nadu. It has the highest GDP among the districts of Tamil Nadu, even ahead of the state capital Chennai. The region is bounded by Kerala state on the west and is surrounded by Tirupur District, Nilgiris District, Erode District. The headquarters of the district is Coimbatore city. Except taluks like Mettupalayam, Pollachi, Valparai (Hill station) all other parts belong to Coimbatore Corporation itself and few parts of Tirupur district which comes under the Metropolitan area of Coimbatore.
Most of the city region of Coimbatore comes under this district. Proximity to the city of Coimbatore has its own impact on the district, with a considerable daily commuting population. The rural people are mostly agriculturists, although with the advent of special economic zones (SEZs)in the area, service and IT industries are booming. The second largest city in Tamil Nadu, which is located approximately 497 km from Chennai, the state capital. It is highest revenue yielding district in the state, next to Chennai district.
The district was ruled successively by several dynasties of South India. Under the Cholas during the 11th century, the present-day Coimbatore came into existence as a jungle village under an Irula chieftain. The district was occupied by Mysore in 18th century from the Madurai rulers and after the Mysore wars in 1799, the district was occupied by the British until the Indian independence in 1947.
It had a population of 29,16,620 as of 2001, with a decennial growth rate of 21.76%. The literacy rate of the district is 69%. Distribution of the population by age groups is as per the following table.
|Age group||Percentage of the population|
|60 and above||9.3%|
Tamil is the principal language spoken in the district, followed by Telugu, Kannada and small group of Malayalam speakers. Hindus formed the majority of the population at 90.08% followed by Muslims at 5.33%, Christians at 4.35% and others at 0.24%. As per the 2001 Census, Coimbatore district had a population density of 600 persons per square kilometer and a sex ratio of 963 females for every 1000 males.
Administration and politics Edit
|Coimbatore (North)||AIADMK||T. Malaravan|
|Coimbatore (South)||AIADMK||Challenger Dorai|
|Pollachi||AIADMK||M K Muthukaruppannasamy|
|Valparai (SC)||CPI||M. Arumugham|
|Lok Sabha |
|Nilgiris (SC)||DMK||A. Raja|
|Source: Indian Elections / Election Commission of India.|
The district collector of Coimbatore is Thiru M. Karunakaran, IAS and the district revenue officer is Thiru. A. Shanmuga Sundaram. The following table lists the details of revenue divisions, taluks, firkas and revenue villages.
|Revenue Division||No. of taluks||No. of zones||No. of firkas||No. of revenue villages|
Out of the two revenue divisions, Coimbatore is industrially developed and Pollachi is predominantly agriculture. Coimbatore district has 3 parliament constituencies and 10 assembly constituencies. Under former alliances, from the Tamil Nadu assembly elections of 2006, All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) and its allies won 7 constituencies and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) and its allies won the remaining 3 constituencies. Since in 2009, the Left Front joined the AIADMK alliance, AIADMK and its allies now hold power in 10 constituencies, while DMK and its allies hold power in 5 constituencies.
Coimbatore district is well connected by roads and highways. There are five Regional Transport Offices at:
- Coimbatore South Taluk - TN 37
- Coimbatore North Taluk - TN 38
- Tirupur - TN 39
- Coimbatore Central Taluk - TN 66
- Mettupalayam/Annur Taluk - TN 40
- Pollachi/Valparai Taluk - TN 41
There are three National Highways — NH-47, NH-67 and NH 209 — that connects the city to other parts of the states. There are railway stations at Peelamedu, Singanallur, Coimbatore North Junction, Mettupalayam, Irugur, Podanur. The Coimbatore City railway station is the largest. The district is served by the Coimbatore International Airport about 17 km from the city centre. Coimbatore Junction is the second highest revenue yielder in Southern Railways after Chennai Central in Tamil Nadu.
Geography and climate Edit
Coimbatore is in the west of Tamil Nadu, bordering the state of Kerala. It is surrounded by the Western Ghats mountain range on the west and north, with reserve forests and the (Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve) on the northern side. The Noyyal River runs through Coimbatore and forms the southern boundary of the corporation. The city sits amidst Noyyal's basin area and has an extensive tank system fed by the river and rainwater. The eight major tanks/wetland areas of Coimbatore are Singanallur, Valankulam, Ukkadam Periyakulam, Selvampathy, Narasampathi, Krishnampathi, Selvachinthamani, and Kumaraswami tanks. Sanganur pallam, Kovilmedu pallam, Vilankurichi-Singanallur Pallam, Karperayan Koil pallam, Railway feeder roadside drain, Tiruchy-Singanallur Check drain and Ganapathy pallam are some of the streams that drain the city.
The eastern side of the Coimbatore district, including the city, is predominantly dry. The entire western and northern part of the district borders the Western Ghats with the Nilgiri biosphere as well as the Anaimalai and Munnar ranges. A western pass to Kerala, popularly referred to as the Palghat Gap provides its boundary. Because of its proximity to the Western Ghats, the district is rich in fauna. The Coimbatore urban wetlands harbours around 116 species of birds. Of these, 66 are resident, 17 are migratory and 33 are local migrants. Spot-billed Pelican, Painted Stork, Open Billed Stork, Ibis, Spot-billed Duck, Teal, Black Winged Stilt are some of the migratory birds that visit Coimbatore wetlands regularly.
Apart from the species common to the plains, wild elephants, wild boars leopards, tigers, bison, species of deer, Nilgiri Tahr, sloth bear and black-headed Oriole can be found. The Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary 88 km (55 mi) in the Western Ghats at an altitude of 1,400 meters covers an area of 958 km². Among the region’s livestock animals are Kangeyam bulls. This breed, which helped the region gain a foothold in the dairy industry, are found only in Coimbatore and neighbouring districts. More than 20% of the district is classified as forest, lying in the west and north. The forests here are abundant in commercially significant trees such as teak, sandalwood, rosewood and bamboo. The Nilgiris slope of the Mettupalayam range is rich in sandalwood trees and bamboo. They vary from rich tropical evergreen forests of Punachi range to jungles of shrubs in southern ranges. Apart from the high altitude regions of Western Ghats, most of the forest area has come under Lantana invasion. The locals refer to it as Siriki Chedi.
The district borders Palakkad district of Kerala in the west, Nilgiris district in the north, Erode district in the northeast and east, Idukki district of Kerala in the south and Dindigul district in the southeast. The district has an area of 7,649 square kilometers. The southwestern and northern parts are hilly, part of the Western Ghats, and enjoys pleasant climate all throughout the year. To the west is the Palghat Gap, the only major pass in the long stretch of the ghats abutting Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The Palghat Gap, connecting Coimbatore city and Palakkad city, serves as an important transit link for both the states. The rest of the district lies in the rain shadow region of the Western Ghats and experiences salubrious climate most parts of the year. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures for Coimbatore city during summer and winter vary between 35°C to 18°C. The average annual rainfall in the plains is around 700 mm with the northeast and the southwest monsoons contributing to 47% and 28% respectively to the total rainfall.
Waterfalls in Coimbatore District include Chinnakallar Falls, Monkey Falls, Sengupathi Falls, Siruvani Waterfalls, Thirumoorthy Falls and Vaideki Falls.
Flora and fauna Edit
Coimbatore district is home to Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park. The park and sanctuary are the core of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and is under consideration by UNESCO as part of the Western Ghats World Heritage site. The park is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna typical of the South Western Ghats. There are over 2000 species plants of which about 400 species are of prime medicinal value. The animals in the park include Tiger, Leopard, Sloth Bear, Elephant, Indian Giant Flying Squirrel. The birds endemic to the Western Ghats residing here include Nilgiri Wood Pigeon, Nilgiri Pipit, Nilgiri Flycatcher, Malabar Grey Hornbill, Spot-billed Pelican etc. The Amaravathi reservoir and the Amaravathi river are breeding grounds for the Mugger Crocodiles.
Major suburbs and TaluksEdit
- Pollachi(Taluk) - Major agricultural trading centre and town (in the south of Coimbatore city).
- Vellalore - A suburb of Coimbatore city located on the south bank of Noyyal. It is rich in agriculture. It has a natural tank which is host for birds.
- Kinathukadavu(Taluk) - A suburb of Coimbatore city located at the midpoint of Coimbatore and Pollachi. It is famous for its tomato market and fencing stones.
- Mettupalayam(Taluk) - Agriculture (arecanut and betel) centre (in the north of Coimbatore).
- Valparai(Taluk) - A hill station in the district(in the south of coimbatore city)
- Sirumugai - A town panchayat, rich in agriculture and textile. It is famous for Kora puttu, SIV industry (rayon) and Temples (in the north of Coimbatore).
- Annur(Taluk) - A suburb of Coimbatore city, rich in textile industry and agriculture (located on the north-east of Coimbatore on the National Highway 209).
- Sulur - A suburb of Coimbatore city, rich in textile industry (located on the east of Coimbatore).
Textiles are the major industry in the Coimbatore district; it is one of the important textile hubs of India. Coimbatore is also called the "Manchester of South India" because it houses many textile industries. India's leading textile machinery manufacturer, Lakshmi Machine Works Ltd, produces machinery for textile mills in India and abroad. LMW is the pride of Coimbatore.
There are many electric pump manufacturing companies in and around Coimbatore, such as Deccan, CRI, Texmo, KSB, Sharp. Coimbatore houses some auto component manufacturing brands, such as Roots, Pricol and LGB. German auto component major Robert Bosch started their R & D facility in Coimbatore. Rowsons Transformers supply its electrical transformers to these companies. Coimbatore houses many information technology and business process outsourcing companies such as Cognizant Technology Solutions and Perot Systems. The district is home to almost 50% of the poultry population of Tamil Nadu.
Major crops Edit
- Gingelly (With 34% share, the district is the top producer in Tamil Nadu.)
- Arenut and betel
- Corn, maize and millet, harshi
- Wheat and rice (limited areas)
- Sugarcane (limited areas)
Coimbatore has three universities: Anna University Coimbatore, Bharathiar University and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. To add to this, there are several deemed universities in the district. There are engineering, medical, law, hotel management, and arts and science colleges. The most prominent ones are PSG College of Technology, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore Institute of Technology and Government Law College.
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- ^ a b "Business Plan for Coimbatore Corporation". Wilbur Smith Associates. http://www.tn.gov.in/cma/CDP/Corporations/Coimbatore.pdf.
- ^ "Noyyal flows on like a quiet killer". Deccan Chronicle. 28 January 2011. http://www.deccanchronicle.com/chennai/noyyal-flows-quiet-killer-080. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- ^ "A river runs through it". The Hindu. 28 January 2006. http://www.hindu.com/mp/2006/01/28/stories/2006012802630300.htm. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- ^ "‘Maintenance of tanks not at cost of environment'". The Hindu. 27 October 2010. http://www.hindu.com/2010/10/27/stories/2010102751810300.htm. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- ^ "Corporation begins storm water drain project in Coimbatore". The Hindu. 5 January 2011. http://www.hindu.com/2011/01/05/stories/2011010551610300.htm. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- ^ "CONSERVATION OF BIRD LIFE IN AN URBAN WETLAND: PROBLEMS CONCERNS — A CASE STUDY". CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Proceedings of the International Conference on CBEE 2009. World Scientific Publishing Co. http://eproceedings.worldscinet.com/9789814295048/9789814295048_0102.html. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- ^ "Coimbatore - a hot spot of bio-diversity". The Hindu. 17 February 2011. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-editorialfeatures/article1463292.ece. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
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- ^ http://www.coimbatore.tn.nic.in/pdf/SHB002.pdf
- ^ UNESCO, World Heritage sites, Tentative lists, Western Ghats sub cluster, Anamalai, 2007. 
- ^ Whitaker Rom, Whitaker Zai (1989). Crocodiles, Their Ecology, Management, and Conservation. Madras Crocodile Bank, Madras, India.: IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group, Phil Hall, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. p. 278. ISBN 2-88032-987-6, 9782880329877. http://books.google.com/books?id=97oE6gTFW8EC&pg=PA278&lpg=PA278&dq=tilapia+%22Amaravathi+reservoir%22&source=web&ots=f-XkHZUttL&sig=V_rinXqD68jA9hYAxrqF-P_v6ZI&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=6&ct=result#PPA276,M1. Retrieved 2008-09-30.
- ^ Animal husbandry
- ^ http://www.tn.gov.in/deptst/agriculture.pdf
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