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Saint Dmitri Ivanovich Donskoy of Moscow, Grand Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir, was born 12 October 1350 in Moscow, Russia to Ivan II Ivanovich of Moscow (1326-1359) and Aleksandra Ivanovna Velyaminova (c1332-1364) and died 19 May 1389 in Moscow, Russia of unspecified causes. He married Evdokia Dmitriyevna (1352-1407) 18 January 1367 JL . Notable ancestors include Charlemagne (747-814), Alfred the Great (849-899). Ancestors are from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Sweden, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Belgium, the Byzantine Empire.

Saint Dmitri Ivanovich Donskoy (Russian: Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й), or Dmitri of the Don, sometimes referred to as Dmitri I (12 October 1350, Moscow – 19 May 1389, Moscow), son of Ivan II Krasny and his second wife Princess Alexandra Ivanovna, reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death. He was the first prince of Moscow to openly challenge Mongol authority in Russia. His nickname, Donskoy (i.e., "of the Don"), alludes to his great victory against the Tatars in the Battle of Kukikovo which took place on the Don River.[1] .

Biography

Early years

Dmitri Donskoy

Dmitry Donskoy, illustration in Tsarsky Titulyarnik, 17th century

After Ivan Ivanovich's death, his son, Dmitri, ascended the throne of Grand Principality of Moscow at the age of 9. During his minority, the government was actually run by Metropolitan Aleksi Fedorovich Byakont, who had a strong character and great authority. Ivan Ivanovich bequeathed the possessions [2] inherited from Ivan Kalita [3] to him and to his brother Ivan. After the early death of his younger brother, these possessions were united under the rule of Dmitri.

In 1360 the highest dignity among Russian princes, that of Grand Prince of Vladimir, was transferred by a Khan of the Golden Horde upon Dmitri Konstantinovich of Suzdal. In 1363, when that prince had been deposed, Dmitri Ivanovich was finally crowned at Vladimir. Three years later, he made peace with Dmitri Konstantinovich and married his daughter Evdokia. In 1376, their joined armies ravaged Volga Bulgaria.

The most important event during the early years of Dmitri's reign was construction of the first stone Moscow Kremlin, completed in 1367. The new fortress allowed the city to withstand two sieges by Algirdas of Lithuania, in 1368 and 1370. Attempt for the third siege in 1372 ended in Treaty of Lyubutsk. In 1375, Dmitri managed to settle his conflict with Mikhail II of Tver over Vladimir in his favour. Other princes of Northern Russia also acknowledged his authority and contributed their troops to his impending struggle against the Horde. By the end of his reign, Dmitri had more than doubled territory of Grand Principality of Moscow.

Fight against Mamai

Yvon kremlin

Dmitri Donskoy in the Battle of Kulikovo

Tokhtamysh moscow

Defense of Moscow against Tokhtamysh in 1382

Dmitri's thirty-year reign saw the beginning of the end for Mongol domination of parts of what is now Russia. The Golden Horde was severely weakened by civil war and dynastic rivalries. Dmitri took advantage of this lapse in Mongol authority to openly challenge the Tatars.

While he kept the Khan's jarlig to collect taxes for All Rus', Dmitri is also known for leading the first Russian military victory over the Mongols. Mamai, a Mongol general and claimant to the throne, tried to punish Dmitri for attempting to increase his power. In 1378 Mamai sent a Mongol army, but it was defeated by Dmitri's forces in the Battle of the Vozha River Two years later Mamai personally led a large force against Moscow. Dmitri met and defeated it at the Battle of Kulikovo.

The defeated Mamai was presently dethroned by a rival Mongol general, Tokhtamysh. That khan reasserted Mongol rule over parts of what now is Russia and overran Moscow for Dmitri's resistance to Mamai. Dimitri, however, pledged his loyalty to Tokhtamysh and to the Golden Horde and was reinstated as Mongol principal tax collector and Grand Prince of Vladimir. Upon his death in 1389, Dimitri was the first Grand Prince to bequeath his titles to his son Vasili without consulting the Khan.

Korovin poster-1914f

Dmitri Donskoy in a World War I patriotic poster by Konstantin Korovin

In the reign of Dmitri the Grand Principality of Moscow became one of the main centers of the unification of the Russian lands, and the Grand Principality of Vladimir became the hereditary property of the Princes of Moscow, although at the same time Principality of Tver and Principality of Smolensk emerged from under their influence. During his reign the Grand Principality of Moscow had significant military victories over the Golden Horde. The white-stone Moscow Kremlin was also built. The life of the prince and details of his rule are detailed in the anonymous literary monument of the 14th century "The Word of Life and the Presentation of the Grand Prince Dmitri Ivanovich, the Tsar of Russia."

In the Golden Horde, with the death of Berdibek (1359), a long period of struggle for power began. The Grand Principality of Vladimir on the death of Ivan Ivanovich Krasnyi was given to the Princes of Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal. In 1362, for the first time mentioned by Russian chronicles in the western part of the Horde, Mamai, the de facto ruler on behalf of Khan Abdullah, issued a jarlig to Dmitri Ivanovich, and the army of the Principality of Moscow expelled Dmitri Konstantinovich from Pereyaslavl and Vladimir. Subsequently, Moscow supported his rights to Nizhny Novgorod in exchange for refusing claims against Vladimir, and Dmitri Ivanovich married his daughter Yevdokiya.

TThe collapse of the Golden Horde touched not only her Asian parts: the Mordovian lands strengthened Tagay, and in the Volga Bulgaria - Bulat-Timur. The one and the other were defeated by the Ryazans in 1365 in the Battle of the Shishev Forest and Suzdalians in 1367 in the Battle of the Pyana River. In this series of victories was the offensive action of the Suzdalians, when in 1370 they invaded the Volga Bulgaria and planted Mamai's henchmen there. Thus, Mamai's power spread to all lands west of the Volga, and it passed to the all-Russian scale of politics.

Intervention in Tver internecine strife and war with Lithuania

See also: The struggle between Moscow and Tver, the Lithuanian-Moscow war (1368-1372) and the Kremlin of Dmitri Donskoy

Дмитрий Донской печать 1
Дмитрий Донской печать 2
Дмитрий Донской печать 3

Seals of Dmitri Donskoy

In 1362, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Algirdas, defeated three princes of the Golden Horde in the Battle of Blue Waters, including Kiev, Podillia, Poksemye and Pereyaslavl Yuzhny in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, stopping the tributary dependence of these territories on the Golden Horde. In 1368, the conflict with the Principality of Tver which was under the control of Moscow escalated, for a long time after the defeat of 1327. The Prince of Mikulin Mikhail Alexandrovich, with the help of Algirdas, who was related to him, took the throne of the Grand Principality of Tver, expelled his uncle, Vasili Mikhailovich, the head of the Princes of Kashin, who were related to the Grand Princes of Moscow. Twice (in 1368 and in 1370 ) the Moscow army invaded Tver and twice after that Algirdas unsuccessfully besieged Moscow, in which in 1367 a new white-stone Kremlin was rebuilt [4].

By the beginning of the 1370s, researchers [5] refer to the resumption of the tributary dependence of the southern Russian lands that were part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the framework of the Lithuanian-Horde Union directed against the Moscow principality, which entailed the formation of opposition in the Eastern Slavic lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (in particular, on the side of Moscow passed Roman Mikhailovich). During the second campaign of Algirdas against Moscow, Metropolitan Aleksi was arrested and removed by Svyatoslav Ivanovich Prince of Smolensk for his support of Dmitri Donskoy (Earlier, Mikhail Aleksandrovich of Tver) had also removed [[Bishop Vasili of Tver (c1320-1372) for the same reason). Afterwards, in 1371 Algirdas requested the Patriarch of Constantinople Philothea to appoint a separate metropolitan in Kiev with power over Smolensk, Tver, Novosil and Nizhny Novgorod.

In 1370 Mamai issued a jarlig for the Grand Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal to Mikhail Aleksandrovich of Tver, and launched active military operations in North-Eastern Russia, including with the help of Lithuanian princes. Dmitri assembled troops and openly disobeyed the requirements of the ambassador who came with the Horde: I do not go to the jarlig, I will not let Vladimir go to the reign of Vladimir, but to you, the ambassador, the path is clear . In 1371, Dmitri concluded an agreement with Mamai, according to which the amount of the tribute was set lower than under Öz Beg Khan and Janibek, he himself received a jarlig and bought out the Tver prince who was in the Horde for 10,000 rubles. Algirdas for the third time personally moved to Moscow, the Moscow army came out to meet him, and the Treaty of Lyubutsk was concluded, and Vladimir Brave married Elena Olgerdovna (1372).

Fighting the Golden Horde

Victory over Mamai

Main articles: Battle of the Vozha River (1378), Battle of Kulikovo (1380)

Dmitry Donskoy in front of Marinkina tower (Kolomna Kremlin)

Monument to Dmitry Donskoy in front of the Marinka Tower of the Kolomna Kremlin

In 1371 Dmitri tried to take control of Ryazan (the army was headed by Dmitri Bobrok, who transferred to Moscow from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ), drove Oleg Ivanovich out of it and put Vladimir Dmitriyevich on board , but Oleg returned in 1372 and at the conclusion of the Treaty of Lyubutsk mentioned as a prince who is in alliance with Moscow. According to Ryazan, Mamai's first blow also occurred, in 1373, and already in 1374 Dmitri established a "truce" with him. Researchers [6] believe that this meant the end of the tribute payment and in the amount that was established in 1371. In 1374 the same year, a congress of princes was held in Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, which supposedly [5] served as the consolidation around Moscow of the antiordian forces, including those who were part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1374, Mamai once again tried to influence Dmitri through Mikhail Tverskoy, once again giving him a jarlig, which caused a march of the combined forces of North-Eastern Russia, as well as Smolyan, to Tver, as a result of which Mikhail recognized himself as Dmitri's younger brother, undertook to participate in all antiordian shares of Moscow and refused to claim Kashin (1375). Olgerd led a punitive expedition to the Smolensk lands.

In 1376 Dmitri sent an army led by Dmitri Bobrok to the Volga Bulgaria. A ransom was taken from Mamai's henchmen and Russian customs officers were planted. In the same year, Dmitri went far beyond the Oka, beware of the Tatar army. Approximately in that area (Wolf Water) indicates the location of the detachment of Arapshi, preparing to invade Rus, "the chronicle of the massacre on Pyan." In 1377, the Moscow-Suzdal army marched to the eastern borders of Russia and was destroyed there by Tatars from Mamai's horde, Nizhny Novgorod and then Ryazan were ravaged.

Дмитрий Донской на Куликовом поле

V. K. Sazonov - Dmitri Doskoy in the Battle of Kulikovo

Saint Demetrius ivory (Byzantine, 13-14th c., Moscow Kremlin) by shakko 01

According to legend, this icon of St. Demetrius of Thessalonica was sent to Prince Dmitri Donskoy by the Byzantine emperor in honor of his victory at Kulikovo Field on September 8, 1380

In 1378, on the orders of Mamai, five Horde tugens (50,000) led by Murza Begich marched against Moscow, were soon defeated by the prince's retinue in the Battle of the Vozha River (1378). In the battle also participated Andrei Olgerdovich Pskov, who went to the service to Dmitri from Lithuania after the death of Olgerd and the loss of Polotsk in favor of Jagiello and his ally Skirgailo . In the same year, Metropolitan Aleksi died, and Dmitri, wanting to have Metropolitan Mikhail Mikhail-Mitya , forced him to take monastic vows and take up an archimandrite in the court monastery of Spassky.[7] The Grand Prince refused to accept Metropolitan Cyprian (his people robbed the metropolitan and did not let him into Moscow), for which the organizers and those involved were a special message from Cyprian excommunicated and cursed "according to the rules of the holy fathers" [8].

In 1379, Mamai again ruined the principality of Ryazan, in the winter of 1379/1380, Dmitri Olgerdovich moved to Moscow service in Pereyaslavl-Zalessky Old-Dub and Pulchevsky. In 1377, from [[Jagiyl[[, the Gediminovichi pf Volhynia and Podolsk crossed over to the Hungarian and Polish King Louis I of Great , who began military operations against the Horde back in 1374 [5].

The Battle of Kulikovo (1380)

By April 1380, Mamai's enemy Tokhtamysh came to the mouth of the Don, but Mamai undertook a campaign against Moscow with a large number of mercenaries (due to the heavy losses of his troops in the Battle of the Vozha River), primarily the Genoese . Mamai planned to connect on the southern bank of the Oka with Jagiello Lithuanian and Oleg Ryazan. When Dmitri withdrew his troops to Kolomna, he came to Mamai's demand to restore the payment of tribute in the amounts that were under Uzbek and Janibek. Then Dmitri refused and withdrew troops from Kolomna for the Oka with the abandonment of the strategic reserve in Moscow, and then beyond the Don, speeding up the clash with Mamai alone. Episode with the blessing of the Russian army by Sergius of Radonezhpart of the historians refer to the Battle of the Vozha River, also some of those killed in the Battle of Kulikovo are simultaneously named as dead in the Battle of the Pyana River and Battle of the Vozha River. After the victory at Kulikovo, Dmitri did not continue his march deep into the steppes (although he had such a plan indicated by the presence in his army of escort guides [9]) because of high losses. At the same time, Mamai, having returned to the Crimea, gathered the rest of his strength in order to go to Russia with exile, but was compelled to withdraw this army against Tokhtamysh and was defeated. Russian princes only exchanged embassies with Tokhtamysh about his accession. For robbery returning from Kulikov's box of carts Oleg was again expelled by Dmitri from Ryazan, but in 1381, according to the peace conditions similar to the world with Mikhail Tver in 1375, he recognized himself as the younger brother of the Grand Prince of Moscow.

In the context of consolidating Moscow's role as the center for consolidating Russian lands and fighting the Horde, the metropolitan of all Russia, Cyprian, became a natural ally of Dmitri. In 1381, Cyprian arrived in Moscow. Meanwhile, in Lithuania, supporters of the antiordian alliance with Moscow, headed by Prince Keystut, came to power, who recognized Moscow's influence in Smolensk and in the supreme princedoms. Andrei Olgerdovich returned to Polotsk. However, already in 1382, under direct military pressure of the Teutonic Order and diplomatic support of the Horde, Jagiello returned to power.

The invasion of Tokhtamysh

Main article: Siege of Moscow (1382)

Facial Chronicle - b.10, p.049 - Tokhtamysh at Moscow

The siege of Moscow by Tokhtamysh

Tokhtamysh, trying to restore the tributary dependence of the lands of the Vladimir prince, in 1382 conducted a campaign against Russia , designed to ensure that the Russian troops did not manage to collect, took Moscow by fraud, but one of his detachments was defeated by Vladimir Andreyevich under Volokolamsk. Mikhail Tverskoy again declared his rights to Vladimir's reign, and Dmitri signed an agreement with Tokhtamysh, according to which the jarligl remained in the family of the Moscow princes, Dmitri paid Tokhtamysh tribute for the two Mamai years that had passed since the defeat [6], but at the same time Tver gained independence from Vladimir's reign (in the peace treaty of 1399 the Tver prince is already called not a younger brother of Moscow, but simply a brother). Then Kashin returned to the Tver principality. Already in 1382, Cyprian split with Dmitri Donskoy, and Dmitri returned to the policy of creating his own metropolia [10]. The prospect of tributary dependence on the Horde played a role in the issue of self-determination of the Russian principalities disputed between Moscow and Vilna. Novgorod, in which in 1379-1380 the Lithuanian prince Yuri Narimuntovich was sitting [11] , in 1383 he received his brother Patrikei .

In 1384 with the mediation of Algirdas'a widow Uliana Aleksandrovna was signed a preliminary agreement between Dmitri and Vladimir, on the one hand, and Jagiello, Skirgaila and Koribut, on the other, the marriage of Jagiello with the Dmitri's daughter and declaration of Orthodoxy the state religion of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania [5], but in the same year Jagiello signed the Treaty of Dubysa treaty with the Teutonic Order, which, on the contrary, he committed to accept Catholicism within four years. The second intention was realized: in 1385 Jagiello concluded a union with Poland and married the heiress of the Polish throne Jadwiga. The approval of the union in the Lithuanian-Russian lands was associated with resistance: in particular, Svyatoslav Ivanovich Smolensky died in a battle with the Lithuanians (1386), and Andrei Olgerdovich lost Polotsk ( 1387 ).

In 1386, after the ushkuynik attacks on the lands along the Volga, Dmitri Donskoy led troops from 29 townships to a distance of 15 versts to Novgorod and received from him an 8,000 rubles contribution in two terms (the amount was exactly the same as the debt recognized by Dmitri for the Horde exit for 1381-82, evidently, Dmitri wanted to make up the sum collected in 1383-1384 with the war-torn territory of the Grand Principality and the sum of paid to the Horde [6]). After another conflict with Ryazan, an "eternal peace" was concluded, sealed by the marriage of Fyodor Olgovich with Dmitry Doskoy's daughter Sofia Dmitriyeva.

The question of succession to the throne

Cathedral of the Archangel in Moscow K.A.Fisher (1905) 05

Cathedral of the Archangel. Perspective of the ends of tombstones Grand Princes Ivan Ivanovich and Dmitri Ivanovich Donskoy. Gravestones in the 2nd row near the south wall. Photo by K.A. Fisher. From the collections of the Museum of Architecture. A.V. Shchusev

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In 1388, shortly before the death of Dmitri Donskoy, there was a conflict with Vladimir Andreyevich on the issue of the succession of the Moscow throne by Dmitri's son Vasili. At first, the boyars of Serpukhov were arrested by Dmitri, then, after Dmitri Vladimir's promises of additional possessions, Vladimir recognized Dmitri as his father, and Dmitriyevich as his elder brothers (after Dmitri's death Vasili had to realize his father's promises: Volodymyr received Volokolamsk and Rzhev, and then traded them for Uglich and Kozelsk). Dmitri managed to reconcile with this with Vladimir two months before his death: he died on May 19, 1389 .

In his will [12] Dmitri Donskoy is the first Grand Prince of Moscowto mention the great reign (Vladimir, Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, Kostroma), Beloozero, Dmitrov, Uglich, Galich. No less new was the order of Dmitri, that the little princes of the Moscow land llived in Moscow at the court of the Grand Prince, and not in their own estates. However, the will contained ambiguous instructions on who should inherit the Grand Prince after Vasili Dmitriyevich, and the will was then used by Yuri Dmitrievich in the struggle against Vasili Vasiliyevich's nephew, who in 1425, with the support of his grandfather, Vytautas 's mother and Khan Ulu-Muhammad , violation of the patrimonial principle of inheritance passed the great reign.

Evaluation of personality in historiography

"Brought up in the midst of the dangers and noise of the military, he had no knowledge in the books, but he knew Russia and the science of government; by the strength of one mind and character, deserved from contemporaries the name of an eagle of high-spiritedin affairs of the state, with words and an example poured courage into the hearts of soldiers and, being a child of nonchildness, was able with hardness to execute villains. Contemporaries were especially surprised at his humility in happiness. What victory in ancient and new times was more glorious than Donskoy, where every Russian fought for his country and neighbors? But Demetrius, showered with the praises of the grateful people, lowered his eyes downward and rose in his heart solely to God the All-Pervading. - Chaste in the pleasures of legal marital love, he kept his maiden shyness for the rest of his life, and zealous in piety like Monomakh, went to church daily, every week in the Great Lent he associated the Holy Mysteries and wore a hair shirt on his bare body; However, he did not want to follow the habit of his ancestors, who always died monks: for he thought" - N. M. Karamzin , "The History of the Russian State", Volume 5, Chapter I.

Results of the board

Helmet (by Dm. Donskoy?, 14th c., Kremlin) 02 by shakko

Helmet, the second half of the XIV century. (Armouries). Perhaps it was made by Greek masters for Dmitry Donskoy

During the first 20 years of his reign, Dmitri managed to become the recognized head of the antiordian policy in the Russian lands, the collector of Russian lands ("all princes of Russian despot under their will"). The idea of ​​the independence and political unity of Rus began to coincide with him with the idea of ​​a strong Grand Prince of Moscow. The Grand Duchy of Vladimir has finally passed under the authority of Moscow, thereby making the process of Moscow's rise irreversible. The territory of the Moscow principality expanded under Dmitri at the expense of the territories of Pereyaslavl, Galich, Beloozero, Uglich, Dmitrov, part of Meshchera, as well as Kostroma, Chukhlom, Starodub and northern Komi-Zyryansky (where the Perm episcopacy was founded ).

On the other hand, Western lands were lost, including Tver (1383) and Smolensk (1386), and the main territory was devastated by wars with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (with the first Lithuanian invasion in 1368, the great silence ended by the chronicler was 40 years old , North-Eastern Russia after the defeat of Tver) and other principalities, and the invasion of Tokhtamysh and the subsequent payment of a significant tribute. According to Kostomarov N.I.

The reign of Dimitri Donskoy belongs to the most unhappy and sad epochs of the history of the long-suffering Russian people. Infinite ruin and devastation, then from external enemies, then from internal strife, followed one after another in enormous proportions - Russian history in the biographies of its main figures

To incessant devastation and devastation, then from external enemies, then from internal strife, it is necessary to add the extraordinary natural circumstances of that time-invasion of the plague, a rare intensity of solar activity and, as a result, fires, droughts, and famine. For example, NM Karamzin wrote:

"This cruel ulcer several times passed and returned. In Smolensk, it raged three times: finally (in 1387), only five people remained in it; which, according to the annals, left and closed the city filled with corpses. "[13]

In Moscow, apart from the white-stone Kremlin, monastery-fortresses (Simonov, Andronikov) were built, covering the approaches to the city center. At Dmitry Donskoy in Moscow, the coinage of a silver coin was first begun [14][15] - earlier than in other Russian principalities and lands. The cultural life of the principality of the Donskoy period is characterized by the creation of works connected with the victory of Russian weapons (which later became the basis for the " Tales of the Mamai Battle " and "Zadonshchina" , glorifying the successes of Russian weapons on Kulikovo Field).

Grand Duke of Vladimir and Moscow Dmitri Ivanovich Donskoy died May 19, 1389, was buried in Moscow in the Archangel Cathedral of the Kremlin .

Family

Dmitri's only wife was Yevdokiya Dmitriyevna, the daughter of the Grand Prince of Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod Dmitri Konstantinovich . Dmitri and Yevdokiya had twelve children:

Memory

Counted as the saints at the Local Council of the ROC in 1988 . Memorial Day - May 19 (June 1 of the new style). His memory is also celebrated in the Cathedral of the Tula Saints , a memorial day on September 22 [17].. Since 2015, a general commemoration of the memory of Dmitry Donskoi and Princess Evdokia was established on May 19 ( June 1 ) [18].

The name of Dmitry Donskoy for several centuries became a symbol of Russian military glory. During the Great Patriotic War in honor of Dmitry Donskoy was named tank column , created on the initiative of the Moscow Patriarchate on the donations of believers and transferred in 1944 to tank troops of the USSR. In 2002, the Order "For Service to the Fatherland" was established in memory of the holy Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy and the Monk Hegumen Sergius of Radonezh . In the Russian fleet, the name of the prince at different times was named sailing line ships of 1771 and 1809 years of construction, a screw frigate , an ocean-going armored cruiser and an atomic submarine.

In the name of Dmitry Donskoy are named:

1000 Donskoi

Dmitry Donskoy at the Monument "1000 anniversary of Russia" in Veliky Novgorod

Donskoy Kolomna

Monument to Dmitry Donskoy in front of the Marinkina Tower Kolomna Kremlin

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RusStamp1995RusVelKneze1

On the postage stamp of Russia, 1995

Портрет 3

Portrait of Dmitry Donskoy Burganov IA

Bulvar Dmitriya Donskogo 01

The metro station Dmitri Donskoy Boulevard

The image of Dmitri Donskoy in movies

Cartoons

  • Peresvet and Oslabya ( 2010 ; Russia ) director Stanislav Podivilov .
  • Swans Nepryadvy (1980; USSR) director Roman Davydov

Notes

  1. ^ Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Chronology of the World. New York: HarperCollins, 1989; p. 186.
  2. ^ Духовная грамота великого князя Ивана Ивановича
  3. ^ Духовная грамота великого князя Ивана Даниловича Калиты
  4. ^ In 1365 a great fire, known as the "All Saints Fire", named so, because it began in the Church of All Saints, raged through Moscow. For 2 hours the fire was destroyed by the Kremlin, Posad, Zagorodie and Zarechye. The All Saints Fire led to a wave of stone construction in the capital of the principality.
  5. ^ a b c d Шабульдо Ф. М. Земли Юго-Западной Руси в составе Великого княжества Литовского
  6. ^ a b c Горский А. Москва и Орда
  7. ^ Template:Книга:Воронов А. А. Монастыри Московского Кремля
  8. ^ Послание митрополита Киприана игуменам Сергию и Феодору
  9. ^ Разин Е. А. История военного искусства VI—XVI вв. — СПб.: Полигон, 1999. — 656 с. — (Военно-историческая библиотека) — Тираж 7000 экз. — ISBN 5-89173-040-5
  10. ^ Подробнее об этом см. Митяй, Пимен (митрополит Киевский), Дионисий (митрополит Киевский)
  11. ^ Греков И. Б., Шахмагонов Ф. Ф. Мир истории. Русские земли в XIII—XV веках. — Template:М.: Молодая гвардия, 1988. — ISBN 5-235-00702-6.
  12. ^ Духовная грамота (вторая) великого князя Дмитрия Ивановича
  13. ^ Н. М. Карамзин, «История государства Российского», том 5, глава I
  14. ^ Толстой И. И. Деньги великого князя Дмитрия Ивановича Донского
  15. ^ Колызин А. М. Начало чеканки монет в Москве // Московский Кремль XIV столетия. Древние святыни и исторические памятники. (Памяти святейшего патриарха Московского и Всея Руси Алексия II). — М., 2009. — С. 442—447.
  16. ^ ВТ-РБС - Галицкие (князья) -Корсакова В.
  17. ^ "Собор Тульских святых". Официальный календарь Русской православной церкви. https://mospat.ru/calendar/sobor1/tul.html. Retrieved 2014-08-28. 
  18. ^ Журналы заседания Священного Синода от 13 июля 2015 года
  19. ^ a b бульвар дмитрия донского — Яндекс. Карты
  20. ^ Карта Московского метрополитена: схема метро Москвы на Яндекс. Картах

Bibliography

Ссылки



Children


Offspring of Dmitri Ivanovich Donskoy
Дмитрий Иванович Донской, князь Московский and Evdokia Dmitriyevna (1352-1407)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Daniil Dmitriyevich of Moscow (c1370-1379) 1370 9999 1379
Vasili I Dmitriyevich of Moscow (1371-1425) 30 December 1371 Moscow, Russia 27 February 1425 Moscow, Russia Sophia of Lithuania (1371-1453)

Sofya Dmitriyevna of Ryazan (c1373-1427) 1373 1427 Fyodor Olgovich of Ryazan (c1360-1427)

Yuri Dmitriyevich of Zvenigorod (1374-1434) 26 November 1374 Pereslavl-Zalessky, Russia 6 June 1434 Moscow, Russia Anastasia Yuryevna of Smolensk (c1383-1422)

Maria Dmitriyevna (c1376-1399) 1376 15 May 1399 Simeon Lengvenis (c1358-1431)

Anastasiya Dmitriyevna (c1378-c1430) 23 September 1397 Ivan Vsevolodovich of Kholm (c1355-1402)
Simeon Lengvenis (c1358-1431)

Simeon Dmitriyevich (1379-1379) 1379 11 September 1379
Ivan Dmitriyevich (c1380-1393) 1380 Moscow, Russia 19 July 1393 Moscow, Russia
Andrei Dmitriyevich of Mozhaysk (1382-1432) 14 August 1382 9 July 1432
Pyotr Dmitriyevich of Dmitrov (1385-1428) 1385 Russia 1428 Russia
Anna Dmitriyevna (1387-c1430) 8 January 1388 Yuri Patrikeyevich of Starodub-Seversky (c1380-c1440)

Konstantin Dmitriyevich of Uglich (1389-1433) 14 May 1399 1433

Siblings


Offspring of Ivan II of Moscow (Иван II Иванович Красный) and Aleksandra Ivanovna Velyaminova (c1332-1364)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Dmitri Ivanovich Donskoy (1350-1389) 12 October 1350 Moscow, Russia 19 May 1389 Moscow, Russia Evdokia Dmitriyevna (1352-1407)

Lyuba Ivanovna
Mariya Ivanovna
Ivan Ivanovich of Zvenigorod (1354-1364) 1354 23 October 1364

Residences


Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ivan II Ivanovich
Grand Prince of Moscow
1359–1389
Succeeded by
Vasili I Dmitriyevich
Preceded by
Dmitri Konstantinovich
Grand Prince of Vladimir
1363–1389
Succeeded by
Vasili I Dmitriyevich
Russian royaltyWp globe tiny
Preceded by
Ivan II
Heir to the Russian Throne
1350–1353
Succeeded by
Daniil Dmitryevich

See also

References

External links

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Footnotes (including sources)