Duncan Campbell, 1st Lord Campbell (Classical Gaelic Donnchadh mac Cailein, and also called Donnchadh na-Adh (English: Duncan the fortunate) of Loch Awe, (died 1453), was an important figure in Scottish affairs in the first half of the fifteenth century and Justiciar of Argyll. He was head of the Clan Campbell for 40 years.
Duncan's date of birth is not known. He was the son of Colin Campbell of Lochawe Lord of Argyll (called Colin Iongantach 'Wonderful', and 'Colin The Good Knight'), and Mariota, daughter of John Campbell, heiress to the lands of Ardscotnish and Glen Orchy. Colin obtained a dispensation by 13 January 1366 permitting the marriage of Mariota to his son John. He evidently changed his plans and married Mariota himself as in 1372 he obtained a second dispensation, this allowing Colin and Mariota to remarry, after a separation, having already married although within the prohibited degree of kinship.
Duncan may not have been their eldest son: a brother named John Annam, John the Weak, is said to have been passed over. Duncan was seemingly the chosen heir by 6 February 1393 when he was granted the lands of Menstrie by his father. On Colin's death, some time before 19 January 1414, Duncan became head of the Campbells of Loch Awe.
Duncan was twice married, first to Marjorie (d. before August 1432), daughter of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, secondly to Margaret Stewart of Ardgowan (d. after August 1442).
Duncan's closeness to the Albany Stewarts led to King James I of Scotland viewing him with some suspicion, and James sent Duncan south as a hostage in England. The documentary record calls him Campbell of Argyll, and gives his share of the liability for the king's ransom as 1500 merks, more than any other hostage save one. In time Duncan and the king were somewhat reconciled and following James's assassination Duncan was among the supporters of Queen Dowager Joan.
During the minority of King James II, Duncan professed support and loyalty to the regency, while constantly expanding his power in Argyll, often at the expense of the Crown. He was nevertheless knighted before March 1440 and created a Lord of Parliament as Lord Campbell of Lochawe by James II in 1445.
His second son by his wife Margaret, Colin, was the founder of the Campbell of Glenorchy and Breadalbane line. His other sons by his second marriage, Archibald, Duncan, and Neil, created the Campbell septs of Otter, Kilmichael and Ormidale, respectively.
His grandson Colin, son of his only child by his first wife, Gillespic (Archibald) (d. 1440), succeeded him as Chief of the Clan Campbell and continued Duncan's efforts to increase their power.
|Offspring of Duncan Campbell and Marjorie Stewart (-bef1432)|
|Archibald Campbell (-c1435)||1435|| Elizabeth Somerville|
|Offspring of Duncan Campbell and Margaret Stewart (c1410-)|
|Colin Campbell (-c1475)|| |
|Neil Campbell|| |
|Duncan Campbell|| |
- ^ Balfour Paul, Sir James, The Scots' Peerage, Edinburgh, 1904, vol.1, p.328-330.
- ^ Boardman, The Campbells, pp. 72–72, 102 & 104; Paul, The Scots Peerage, Vol I, p. 330.
- ^ Boardman, The Campbells, pp. 104 & 109–110.
- ^ Boardman, The Campbells, p. 291. William Douglas, heir of the Lord of Dalkeith, was also assessed as liable for 1500 merks. See also Paul, The Scots Peerage, vol. I, p. 330, where the amount is described as Duncan's income. The value of 1500 Scots merks in English Pounds sterling, in then-current gold coin was some 750 English merks or 500 pounds sterling. The Scots demy (108 pence Scots money) was considered to be of equal value to the English half-noble (54 pence English money); Grueber, Handbook, p. 171.
- Boardman, Stephen (2000), "The Tale of Leper John and the Campbell Acquisition of Lorn", in Cowan, E.J.; McDonald, R. Andrew, Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Medieval Era, East Linton: Tuckwell, ISBN 1-86232-151-5
- Boardman, Stephen (2006), The Campbells, 1250–1513, Edinburgh: John Donald, ISBN 0-85976-662-4
- Grueber, Herbert Appold (1899), Handbook of the Coins of Great Britain and Ireland in the British Museum, London: The British Museum, http://www.archive.org/details/handbookofcoinso00brituoft
- Paul, Sir James Balfour (1904), The Scots Peerage, 1, Edinburgh: David Douglas, http://www.archive.org/details/scotspeeragefoun01pauluoft
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