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Coordinates: 54°46′34″N 1°34′24″W / 54.7761, -1.5733
Durham
Durham Millburngate Bridge
Durham Cathedral and the River Wear



Durham outline map with UK (2009)
Red pog.svg
Durham

Red pog.svg Durham shown within County Durham
Population 29,091 (2001)
OS grid reference NZ274424
Unitary authority County Durham
Ceremonial county County Durham
Region North East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town DURHAM
Postcode district DH1
Dialling code 0191
Police Durham
Fire County Durham and Darlington
Ambulance North East
EU Parliament North East England
UK Parliament City of Durham
List of places: UK • England • County Durham

Durham (pronounced /ˈdʌrəm/ (deprecated template) in RP, locally IPA: [ˈdʏrəm]) is a small city and main settlement of the City of Durham district of County Durham, England.

It is well known for its Norman Cathedral and Castle, and is home to Durham University. HM Prison Durham is also located close to the city centre.

HistoryEdit

Toponymy Edit

The name "Durham" comes from Old English "dun-holm", meaning "hill-island". It was given this name due to its steep, hilly embankments .

Early historyEdit

Durham 1610

A map of the city from 1610

Archeological evidence suggests a history of settlement at Durham since roughly 2000 BC. The present city can clearly be traced back to 995 AD, when a group of monks from Lindisfarne chose the strategic high peninsula as a place to settle with the body of Saint Cuthbert, that had previously lain in Chester-le-Street, founding a church there. (Legend says that the monks were led to the location by a milk maid who had lost her dun cow, which was found resting on this spot.) The present Durham Cathedral was built from 1093, and still contains the remains of St Cuthbert as well as The Venerable Bede. It is regarded by many - such as travel writer Bill Bryson -- as the finest cathedral in the world [2][1].

UK Durham Dun-Cow

Legend of founding of Durham

Facing the cathedral across Palace Green is Durham Castle, originally built by the Normans from 1071, on William the Conqueror's return from campaigning in Scotland. Some of the present structure is more recent, notably Anthony Salvin's Victorian restorations. The two buildings are jointly designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site- one of the original six in the United Kingdom. Since 1837 the castle has been home to University College, the first college of the University.

In the three centuries following the construction of the Castle, Durham was regularly besieged by the Scots, with the notable Battle of Neville's Cross (1346) occurring just one mile west of the city.

In medieval times Durham was a major centre of both political and ecclesiastical power, mainly due to its strategic importance near the border with Scotland. County Durham was a palatinate, ruled by Prince-Bishops who had secular authority and considerable autonomy from Westminster, minting their own coinage, dispensing their own justice and with the right to maintain their own armies. Every Bishop of Durham from 1071 to 1836 was a Prince Bishop except for the first Norman-appointed bishop Walcher, who was an Earl-Bishop. (The term Prince Bishop, while a useful one, is not one which the Durham Bishops themselves would have recognised.) Henry VIII curtailed some of the Prince-Bishop's powers, and smashed the shrine of Cuthbert in 1538.

19th Century onwardsEdit

Finally, the public climate surrounding the Great Reform Act of 1832 removed the Bishop's extraordinary powers.

In 1832 the University of Durham was founded, which has several buildings on the peninsula and on Elvet Hill on the other side of the river. The 19th century also saw Durham grow as a centre of the coal mining industry. The first Durham Miners' Gala was held in 1871, and remains a popular annual event.

Governance Edit

The municipal borough was known as 'Durham and Framwelgate', until it was merged with Durham Rural District and Brandon and Byshottles urban district to form the City of Durham district. Durham's MP is Roberta Blackman-Woods (Labour).

GeographyEdit

Durham castle

Durham Castle and Cathedral

Durham Market Place

Durham Market Place

File:2006-08-12-DSCN8305.JPG
File:2006-08-12-DSCN8287.JPG
File:2006-08-12-DSCN8292.JPG
Viaductview

Durham City and Cathedral from Station Approach

Flag of Durham

Durham's traditional flag

Durham is situated 13 miles (21 km) to the south west of Sunderland, England. The River Wear flows north through the city, enclosing the centre on three sides to create Durham's "peninsula". Durham is a hilly city, claiming to be built upon the symbolic seven hills. Upon the most central and prominent position high above the Wear, the cathedral dominates the skyline. The steep riverbanks are densely wooded, adding to the picturesque beauty of the city. West of the city centre, another river, the River Browney, drains south to join the Wear to the south of the city.

Durham won the Large Town award in the Britain in Bloom awards of 2005.

The county town of County Durham, Durham is located in the City of Durham local government district, which extends beyond the city, and has a total population of 87,656, and covers 186.68 square kilometres. The unparished area of Durham had a population of 29,091, whilst the built-up area of Durham had a population of 42,939.

Areas of DurhamEdit

The centre of Durham sits on a peninsula created by the River Wear. At the base of the peninsula is the market square, which still hosts regular markets; a permanent indoor market is also situated on the square. The square and surrounding streets are one of the main commercial and shopping areas of the city. From the market square, The Bailey leads south past Palace Green: The Bailey is almost entirely owned and occupied by the University and Cathedral.

There are three old road bridges leading onto the peninsula, now all pedestrianised. Prebends Bridge is at the southern tip of the Bailey. Heading east from the square, Elvet Bridge leads to the Elvet area of the city. Heading west, Framwellgate Bridge leads to the Framwelgate district, Crossgate and North Road, the other main shopping area of the city. West of here is an area colloquially known as "The Viaduct" after the structure which dominates, now largely student-populated. Beyond The Viaduct lie the outlying districts of Framwellgate Moor and Neville's Cross. Heading north from the market place leads to Claypath. The road curves back round to the east and beyond it lie Gilesgate and Gilesgate Moor. You also have Dragonville. Towards the hospital lies Whitesmocks and Aykley Vale.

ClimateEdit

Climate chart for Durham
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
56.2
 
6.2
0.6
 
 
38.8
 
6.7
0.8
 
 
51.1
 
9.0
2.1
 
 
52.0
 
11.2
3.3
 
 
49.5
 
14.5
5.7
 
 
54.8
 
17.2
8.5
 
 
44.5
 
19.8
10.7
 
 
61.3
 
19.6
10.6
 
 
57.5
 
16.7
8.6
 
 
56.9
 
13
6.0
 
 
61.5
 
9.0
3.1
 
 
59.2
 
7.0
1.5
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: [2]


Like the rest of the United Kingdom, Durham has a temperate climate. At 643.3 millimetres (25 in)[2] the average annual rainfall is lower than the national average of 1,125 millimetres (44 in)[3]. Equally there are only around 121.3 days[2] where more than 1 millimetre (0.04 in) of rain falls compared to a national average of 154.4 days[3]. The area sees on average 1374.6 hours of sunshine per year[2], compared to a national average of 1125.0 hours[3]. There is an air frost on 52 days[2] compared to a national average of 55.6 days[3]. Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures are 12.5 °C (54.5 °F) and 5.2 °C (41.4 °F) [2]compared to a national averages of 12.1 °C (53.8 °F) and 5.1 °C (41.2 °F) respectively[3].

The table below gives the average temperature and rainfall figures taken between 1971 and 2000 at the Met Office weather station in Durham:

Durham Climate
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average max. temperature °CF) 6.2
(43)
6.7
(44)
9.0
(48)
11.2
(52)
14.5
(58)
17.2
(63)
19.8
(68)
19.6
(67)
16.7
(62)
13
(55)
9.0
(48)
7.0
(45)
12.5
(55)
Average min. temperature
°C (°F)
0.6
(33)
0.8
(33)
2.1
(36)
3.3
(38)
5.7
(42)
8.5
(47)
10.7
(51)
10.6
(51)
8.6
(47)
6.0
(43)
3.1
(38)
1.5
(35)
5.2
(41)
Rainfall
mm (inches)
56.2
(2.2)
38.8
(1.5)
51.1
(2.0)
52.0
(2.0)
49.5
(1.9)
54.8
(2.2)
44.5
(1.8)
61.3
(2.4)
57.5
(2.3)
56.9
(2.2)
61.5
(2.4)
59.2
(2.3)
643.3
(25.3)
Source: Met Office

EconomyEdit

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of County Durham at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[4] Agriculture[5] Industry[6] Services[7]
1995 4,063 47 1,755 2,261
2000 4,783 40 1,840 2,904
2003 5,314 39 1,978 3,297

LandmarksEdit

File:2006-08-12-DSCN8280.JPG
Durham viaduct

The Viaduct

DurhamPalaceGreenInOctober2006

Durham Castle from Palace Green

The whole of the centre of Durham is designated a conservation area. The conservation area was first designated on 9 August 1968, and was extended on 25 November 1980.[8] In addition to the Cathedral and Castle, Durham contains over 630 listed buildings,[9] 569 of which are located within the city centre conservation area. Particularly notable properties include:

Grade I listedEdit

Grade II* listedEdit

TransportEdit

Durham railway station is situated on the East Coast Main Line between Edinburgh and London; rail travellers coming from the south enter Durham over a spectacular Victorian viaduct high above the city. By road, the A1(M), the modern incarnation of the ancient Great North Road, passes just to the east of the city. (Its previous incarnation, now numbered A167, passes just to the west.) Newcastle Airport lies to the north, and Durham Tees Valley Airport to the south, both being approximately 25 miles away. The Market Place and peninsula form the UK's first (albeit small) congestion charging area, introduced in 2002. [10]

A park and ride service is also available.

Notable peopleEdit

Sister citiesEdit

Durham has one sister city, as designated by the Sister Cities International, Inc.:[13]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1511841.stm
  2. ^ a b c d e f Durham 1971-2000 averages, Met Office. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  3. ^ a b c d e UK 1971-2000 averages, Met Office. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  4. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  5. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  6. ^ includes energy and construction
  7. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  8. ^ http://www.durhamcity.gov.uk/Pid/511
  9. ^ http://www.cartoplus.co.uk/durham/text/01_introduction.htm
  10. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2721545.stm
  11. ^ a b c d e http://www.thechoristerschool.com/alumni/rollcall.php
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ Sister Cities information obtained from the Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI)." Retrieved on June 28, 2007.

External linksEdit

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This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Durham. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

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