|— District —|
|• Collector||P.I.Shaik Pareeth|
|• Density||1,053/km2 (2,730/sq mi)|
|• Official||Malayalam, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-KL-KO|
Ernakulam District is a district of the state of Kerala in southern India. The district includes the largest metropolitan region of the state Greater Cochin. Ernakulam District is the highest revenue yielding district in the state and is called and known as the commercial capital of Kerala. It is the third most populous district in Kerala,after Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram (out of 14). Ernakulam district also hosts the highest number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala state.
It is surrounded by Thrissur District to the north, Idukki District to the east, Alappuzha and Kottayam districts to the south and Arabian sea to west. Its headquarters is located at Kakkanad, a suburb of Kochi city.
The language people speak in Ernakulam is Malayalam which is the mother-tongue of the State of Kerala. English is widely used in business circles.
From ancient times Arabs, Chinese, Dutch, British and Portuguese seafarers followed the sea route to Kingdom of Cochin and left their impressions in the town. The word Ernakulam was drawn from the words Erayanar and kulam means abode of Lord Shiva temple near pond.
Ernakulam District was formed on 1 April 1958, from the taluks of Aluva, Kunnathunadu, Kochi, Kanayannur, and Paravoor, which were formerly part of Thrissur District. Initially the district headquarters was at Ernakulam, which gave the district its name; the headquarters was later shifted to Kakkanad. When Idukki District was formed on 26 January 1977, Thodupuzha taluk was joined with Idukki and Muvattupuzha taluk separated with to form Kothamangalam taluk.
Ernakulam district covers an area of 3068 km2 located on the Western Coastal Plains of India. The district can be divided geographically into highland, midland and coastal area. The altitude of the highland is about 300 m. The Periyar River, Kerala's second longest, flows through all the taluks except Muvattupuzha. The Muvattupuzha River and a branch of Chalakkudy River also flow through the district. The average yearly rainfaill in the district is 3432mm. The district has a moderate climate, and mostly falls within the Malabar Coast moist forests ecoregion, while the highlands are part of the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests ecoregion. Many types of sands, soil and also rocks which are geological importance is abundant here.Cohin international air port is located in northern part of the district at Nedumbasheri village in Angamaly. Owing to the international airport, water ways, railways, and road ways, Ernakulam is one of the most connected districts in the state.
The district is divided into three well-defined parts – lowland, midland and the highland consisting of seaboard, plains and the hills and forests respectively. 20 percent of the total area is low land region. The midland consists mainly of plain land and group of islands having natural facilities of drainage via backwaters and canals. The hilly or eastern portion is formed by a section of Western Ghats. Muvattupuzha and Kothamangalm can be called the highlands. Muvattupuzha and Periyar are the main rivers of which the latter flows through Thodupuzha, Muvattupuzha, Aluva, Kunnathunadu and Parur taluks. During rainy season these rivers are full and heavy floods affect the low-lying areas on the banks, but in the summer season they generally go dry and narrow. The Periyar is stretched over a length of 229 km.
|Climate data for Kochi|
|Record high °C (°F)||35|
|Average high °C (°F)||30|
|Average low °C (°F)||23|
|Record low °C (°F)||17|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||21.9|
|Source #1: |
|Source #2: |
Agriculture constitutes the most important segment of the district’s economy and it is the biggest source of employment. Of the geographical 235319 hectares, crops are grown in 0 hectares. Coconut is the principal crop followed by rubber, paddy, and tapioca. A paddy cultivation system called pokkali is peculiar to the district.
Ernakulam district is bestowed with all the geographical factors, which help the development of industry, and it is in the vanguard of all other districts in Kerala in the field of industry. The availability of all types of transport facilities viz., road, rail, canal, sea, air is a factor which is unique to this district. Ernakulam is perhaps the biggest commercial center in the state of Kerala. Its M.G. Road is the location of some of the biggest businesses in Kerala.
The sea along the entire coast of the district and the backwaters abound in fish of various kinds offer enormous natural facilities for both marine and inland fisheries. Kochi is an ideal place that supports fisheries in its various aspects like education, research and development.
The district has the most number of taluks in the state. District is divided by two revenue divisions namely Fort Kochi and Muvattupuzha with 7 taluks.
Ernakulam district has the most number of municipalities in the state.
- North Paravoor
- Chalakudy Parliamentary Constituency
- Ernakulam Parliamentary Constituency
- Idukki Parliamentary Constituency
- Kottayam Parliamentary Constituency
Ernakulam district is blessed with all types of transport. It has the most number of Regional Transport Offices in the state. There are 9 Regional Transport Offices.
- Ernakulam - KL 07
- Muvattupuzha - KL 17
- Thripunithura - KL 39
- Perumbavoor - KL 40
- Aluva - KL 41
- North Paravur - KL 42
- Mattanchery - KL 43
- Kothamangalam - KL 44
- Angamaly - KL 63
Also the district has got the maximum number of vehicles in the state.
Ernakulam district has excellent road connectivity. The 3 major national highways passing through Ernakulam District are the Cochin-Mumbai Highway (NH 17), Salem-Kanyakumari (NH 47 part of NSEW corridor) and Cochin-Dhanushkodi highway (NH 49).
The North South Corridor highway system starting from Edapally in Cochin on NH47 and connects the cities Thrissur, Palakkad, Coimbatore, Salem and finally to Chennai and rest of the country towards north and Alapuzha, Kollam, Trivandrum, Nagercoil and Kanyakumari towards south. The National Highway 17 also starting from Edapally and connects the cities Calicut, Kannur, Mangalore, Mormugao and Mumbai. The National Highway 49, also known as Madurai Highway starts from Kundannur near Cochin and passes through Kolenchery, Muvattupuzha, Kothamangalam, Adimaly, Munnar, Theni, Madurai and finally terminates at Dhanushkodi. The district also has the two small national highways namely NH 47A for Cochin Port connectivity (Smallest Indian National Highway) and NH 47C as part of the International Container Transshipment Terminall connectivity.
The district is also well connected by state highways and other roads. Important state highway SH 1 also known as Main Central Road(MC Road) starts from Angamaly, a suburb of Kochi city which connects to the state capital Trivandrum via Perumbavoor, Kottayam.
Other Major roads
- Palarivattom- Moovattupuzha - Punalur SH:- Connects Kakkanad, Pallikkara, Kizhakkambalam, Pattimattom, Moovattupuzha, Vazhakulam, Thodupuzha, Pathanamthitta
Ernakulam district has a total of 17 railway stations and the Ernakulam Junction and Ernakulam Town are the major railway stations. The other stations are Aluva, Angamaly, Thripunithura, Edapally, Mulamthuruthy, Cochin Harbour Terminus, Karakutty, Chowara, Kalamassery, Nettor, Kumbalam, Mattanchery H., Chottanikkara road and Piravom road. The railroutes are via thrissur,Kottayam, Cochin H.T. and Allapuzha. Routes are also proposed via N.Paravur-Guruvayur,Moovattupuzha-Theni. The Angamaly-Erumely Sabarimala route(Proposed) is also passing through the district.
Ernakulam district has two airports, Naval airport in W.island(Old Cochin airport) and Cochin International Airport(CIAL). CIAL is the fourth largest airport in the country after Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai having International passengers. Currently flights are operating to the Persian Gulf region, Malayasia, Singapore, Sri Lanka and to major cities in India.
Ernakulam district lies in the flat delta region of the Periyar and Moovattupuzha rivers. Water transport is prominent in the district through rivers and lagoons. The major boat services are in Ernakulam area and other areas having small ferry services. The district boasts of having the largest port in the west coast of the country: the Cochin port, which is also the reason for large scale developments in the district. Now a new International port is nearing completion in Vallarpadam which will boost the developments in the district further.
According to the 2011 census Ernakulam district has a population of 3,279,860, roughly equal to the nation of Mauritania or the US state of Iowa. This gives it a ranking of 104th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 1,069 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,770 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 5.6 %. Ernakulam has a sex ratio of 1028 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 95.68 %.
This district is listed as the "most advanced" district in Kerala. It had a resident population of 3,105,798 as of 2001, excluding the huge commuter traffic from neighbouring districts. It is urbanised 68.07%. Hindus accounts for the largest community followed by Christian and Muslims. A small population of Jains, Jews and Sikhs are also residing in Kochi. Also, Ernakulam district has the highest number of Christian Population in India (More than 12 Lakhs)
The most important religious communities of the district are Hindus, Christians and Muslims. In addition to the major communities the Buddhists, the Jains, the Sikhs, and the Jews also form part of the cosmopolitan population. The ancestors of the Jews migrated from Jerusalem in 72 A.D. Now there are very few Jewish families in Cochin.
Festivals and traditionsEdit
The famous Sivarathri at the Aluva Manappuram (situated on the banks of river Periyar) in Aluva attracts people from different parts of the country. There are lots of old Siva Temples in Ernakulam. In Sanskrit "Siva" means kalyan (good wishes, doing good and taking care of all).
Adi Shankaracharya was born in Kalady and considered as a major pilgrimage centre for Hindus around the world.
Kallil Kshethram (Jain temple) near Perumabavoor is also very famous.
The world famous Christian pilgrim center at Malayattoor is in this district. The festival here lasts for 10 days in April. St. George Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church at Kadamattam is very old and was founded by Mar Abo Syrian Metropolitan in 5th Century A.D. He brought a cross from Persia, which is still preserved in the church. The festival at the church of Vallarpadam on September 24 attracts people belonging to all religions. The icon of Virgin Mary in this church is credited with many miracles. St. George Forane Church at Edappally, which was founded in 593 A.D., is considered to be the oldest church in Kerala after the 7 churches founded by St. Thomas. St. Antony’s church at Kannamaly is famous for the Feast of St. Joseph on March 19 where a large number of people are fed.
One of the ancient mosques in Kerala is at Kanjiramattam. Chandanakkudam Festival in Kanjiramattom Mousque is very famous.
Thrippakudam Temple- Ana Kallaya Kulam -PARVATHIMANGALAM is the famous pooja in this temple.
Arayankavu Thookkam- Otta Thookkam and Garudan Thookkam is very famous.
Cherai Pooram is famous festival in island. Celebrating this full moon day having two purpose. Fields are ready for cropping, Start cropping with prayers and some auspicious puja. Next reason is People are ready to go in to sea. So on this day women of India generally having fasting of full day and pray for her brothers, father, husband and Nation 's victory.
Two important Pilgrim places in Ernakulam are St. Thomas Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church North Paravur and Mor Thoma Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church (Cheriapally) Kothamangalam. The relics of Gregorios Abdul Jaleel preserved at the St. Thomas church North Paravur. Thousands of pilgrims from different parts of Kerala culminating on the 27th of April for attending the Dhukrono of the Saint. Feast of Eldho Mor Baselios is celebrated in the Mor Thoma Church (Cheriapally) at Kothamangalam with spiritual grandeur every year on October 2 and 3. Thousands of pilgrims from various parts of Kerala were attending the Feast.
Places of InterestEdit
- Bolgatty Island: has a palace built by the Dutch in 1744, and a golf course.
- Marine Drive, Kochi: Enjoy a scenic view of the sea and the Cochin Port Trust. Shopping can be done at the GCDA shopping center. Two spectacular bridges have also been built along the shore. Boat rides are available.
- Willington Island: Formed from the sand deposited when Cochin Port was deepened, Willington Island has a naval base, a railway terminus, a port, and customs offices.
- Chinese Fishing Nets (Cheena Vala): can be seen at Fort Cochin.
- Parikshith Museum, a museum with memories of 19th century.
- Dutch Palace: Made in 1568 by the Portuguese. Later re-structured by the Dutch.
- Hill Palace Museum: at Tripunithura. Paintings, epigraphy, furnitures of the royal family etc. are displayed.
- Kodanad: Elephant training centre is located here.
- Kerala Historical Museum: Located at Edappally, on the Aluva–Ernakulam road.
- Chendamangalam, a village that is the location of the Paliam palace, Vypeenakotta Seminary, and is also remarkable for having a Hindu Temple, Synagogue, Church, and Mosque, all within one kilometer of each other.
- Bhoothathankettu, a scenic dam site with boating facilities is situated in a vast virgin forest.
- St. Thomas Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, Malayattoor: The only international shrine in Asia. Also believed to have been visited by St. Thomas, the apostle.
The below are the prominent personalities from the district:
- Adi Sankaracharya (Saint Advaita)
- Swami Chinmayananda (Indian spiritual leader and geetacharya )
- Varghese Payapilly Palakkappilly (Servant of God and Founder of S.D.)
- Shadkala Govinda Marar (Carnatic Musician)
- K J Yesudas (singer)
- Changampuzha (Poet)
- G. Sankara Kurup (Poet)
- P K Vasudevan Nair (Ex-Chief Minister)
- Daniel Acharuparambil (Late Arch.Bishop of Varpolly Diosse)
- Balachandran Chullikad (Poet and Actor)
- Mammooty (actor)
- Jayaram (actor)
- Lalu Alex (actor)
- Roshan Varghese (Business Re-Engineering)
- Sreesanth (cricketer)
- K. V. Thomas (politician)
- Asin Thottumkal (actress)
- Jayasurya (actor)
- Cochin Haneefa (actor)
- Sreejesh Ravindran (Indian Hockey Player)
- Sankaradi (actor)
- Mar Varkey Cardinal Vithayathil (Major Arch Bishop of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church)
- Salim Kumar (actor) - National Award winner for Best actor 2011.
Flora and faunaEdit
The flora of this district is tropical. The heavy rainfall combined with moderate temperature and fertile soil support abundant vegetation. Many of the common plants are found in the coastal area, which forms the low land region. Coconut is extensively cultivated here. The midland region is mainly occupied by coconut palms. Paddy, tapioca, pepper and pulses are also cultivated here. The lower slopes of the highland region are under teak, and rubber cultivation. The eastern part of the district has dense forests with its characteristic fauna.
Ernakulam occupies an important place among the districts of Kerala in the field of literacy and educational standards. Ernakulam District is the first district in the whole country to have 100 percent literacy by 1990. Pothanicad, first panchayath in India that achieved 100% literacy according to state literacy programme is in this district. There are two prominent universities in this district - Sanskrit University, Kalady and Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT), Kalamassery. Ernakulam district has the most number of educational institutions in the state. Kendriya Vidyalaya is located here.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. http://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/278-ernakulam.html. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- ^ "District-wise Income". Govt of Kerala. http://www.kerala.gov.in/dept_planning/er/chapter3.pdf. 2
- ^ "Kochi, India". Whetherbase. August 2011. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=35334&refer=&units=metric. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- ^ "Kochi, India". MSN India. http://weather.uk.msn.com/monthly_averages.aspx?wealocations=wc:INXX0032&q=Cochin,+IND+forecast:averagesm. Retrieved 2010-08-03.
- ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html. Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Mauritania 3,281,634 July 2011 est."
- ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Iowa 3,046,355"
- ^ censusindia.gov.in
- ^ Official Ernakulam District Profile
|Thrissur district||Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu|
|Lakshadweep Sea||Idukki district|
|Alappuzha district||Kottayam district|
|This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Ernakulam district. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.|