is the 54th day of the year in the February 23 Gregorian calendar. There are 311 days remaining until the end of the year (312 in leap years).
1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western book printed from movable type.
1660 - Charles XI becomes King of Sweden.
1778 - American Revolution: Baron von Steuben arrives at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania to help to train the Continental Army.
1797 - French Forces launch a failed invasion of Britain. See Last Invasion of Britain
1820 - Cato Street Conspiracy: A plot to murder all the British cabinet ministers is exposed.
1830 - Oxford, home of Miami University, is incorporated.
1836 - The Siege of the Alamo begins in San Antonio.
1847 - Mexican-American War: Battle of Buena Vista - In Mexico, American troops defeat Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
1854 - The official independence of the Orange Free State is declared.
1861 - President-elect Abraham Lincoln arrives secretly in Washington, after an assassination attempt in Baltimore.
1866 - Lebanon Valley College is founded in Annville.
1870 - Military control of Mississippi ends and it is readmitted to the Union.
1874 - Major Walter Clopton Wingfield patents a game called " sphairistike," now more commonly called lawn tennis.
1883 - Alabama becomes the first U.S. state to enact an antitrust law.
1887 - The French Riviera is hit by a large earthquake, killing around 2,000.
1893 - Rudolf Diesel receives a patent for the diesel engine.
1898 - Émile Zola is imprisoned in France after writing " J'accuse", a letter accusing the French government of anti-Semitism and wrongfully placing Captain Alfred Dreyfus in jail.
1900 - In South Africa the Boers and British troops fight in the Battle of Hart's Hill.
1903 - Cuba leases Guantanamo Bay to the United States "in perpetuity".
1904 - For $10 million the United States gains control of the Panama Canal Zone.
1905 - Chicago, Illinois attorney Paul Harris and three other businessmen meet for lunch to form the Rotary Club, the world's first service club.
1909 - The AEA Silver Dart makes the first powered flight in Canada and the British Empire.
1917 - First demonstrations in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The beginning of the February Revolution.
1918 - First victory of Red Army over the Kaiser's German troops near Narva and Pskov. Since 1923 this date become the Day of Red Army in honour of this victory.
1919 - Benito Mussolini forms the Fascist Party in Italy.
1927 - The Federal Radio Commission (later renamed the Federal Communications Commission) begins to regulate the use of radio frequencies.
1934 - Léopold III becomes King of Belgium.
1940 - World War II: Soviet Union troops conquer Lasi Island.
1941 - Plutonium was first produced and isolated by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg.
1944 - forced deportation of the Chechen and Ingush people to Central Asia
1945 - World War II: During the Battle of Iwo Jima, a group of United States Marines and a commonly forgotten US Navy Corpsman, reach the top of Mount Suribachi on the island and are photographed raising the American flag. The photo would later win a Pulitzer Prize.
1945 - World War II: The capital of the Philippines, Manila, is liberated by American forces.
1945 - World War II: Capitulation of German garrison in Poznań, city is liberated by Soviet and Polish forces.
1945 - World War II: The German town of Pforzheim is completely destroyed by a raid of 379 British bombers.
1947 - International Organization for Standardization(ISO) is founded.
1954 - The first mass vaccination of children against polio begins in Pittsburgh.
1955 - First meeting of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization ( SEATO).
1957 - The founding congress of the Senegalese Popular Bloc is opened in Dakar.
1958 - Cuban rebels kidnap 5-time world driving champion Juan Manuel Fangio.
1966 - A military coup in Syria replaces the previous government.
1974 - The Symbionese Liberation Army demands $4 million more to release kidnap victim Patty Hearst.
1975 - In response to the energy crisis, daylight saving time commences nearly two months early in the United States.
1980 - Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini states that Iran's parliament would decide the fate of the American embassy hostages.
1981 - 23-F, Antonio Tejero attempts a coup d'état by capturing the Spanish Congress of Deputies.
1983 - The Spanish Socialist government of Felipe González and Miguel Boyer nationalizes Rumasa, a holding of José María Ruiz Mateos.
1983 - The United States Environmental Protection Agency announces its intent to buy out and evacuate the dioxin-contaminated community of Times Beach.
1987 - A supernova is seen in the Large Magellanic Cloud (see Supernova 1987a).
1991 - Gulf War: Ground troops cross the Saudi Arabia border and enter Iraq, thus starting the ground-phase of the war.
1991 - In Thailand, General Sunthorn Kongsompong leads a bloodless coup d'état, deposing Prime Minister Chatichai Choonhavan.
1992 - The Socialist Labour Party is founded in Georgia.
1995 - The Dow Jones Industrial Average gains 30.28 to close at 4,003.33, closing above 4,000 for the first time.
1997 - A large fire occurs in the Russian Space station, Mir.
1998 - Kissimmee Tornado Outbreak: Tornadoes in central Florida destroy or damage 2,600 structures and kill 42.
1998 - Osama bin Laden publishes a fatwa declaring jihad against all Jews and Crusaders.
1999 - Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Öcalan is charged with treason in Ankara, Turkey.
1999 - An avalanche destroys the Austrian village of Galtür, killing 31.
2005 - Slovakia Summit 2005 begins, marking the first occasion when a sitting American President visits Slovakia; Bush and Putin are in attendance.
2005 - Vote of the controversial French law on colonialism, repealed start of 2006.
2006 - Dubai Ports World agrees to postpone its plans to take over management of six U.S. ports after the proposal ignited harsh bipartisan criticism on Capitol Hill.
2007 - Japan launches its fourth spy satellite, stepping up its ability to monitor potential threats such as North Korea.
2007 - A train derails on an evening express service near Grayrigg, Cumbria, United Kingdom, killing one person and injuring 22. This results in hundreds of points being checked over the UK after a few similar accidents.
1417 - Pope Paul II (d. 1471)
1583 - Jean-Baptiste Morin, French scientist (d. 1656)
1633 - Samuel Pepys, English naval administrator and man of letters, posthumously famous as a diarist (d. 1703)
1646 - Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, Japanese shogun (d. 1709)
1648 - Arabella Churchill, English mistress of James II of England (d. 1730)
1680 - Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, French colonizer and Governor of Louisiana (d. 1767)
1685 - Georg Friedrich Handel, German/British Baroque composer (d. 1759)
1688 - Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden (d. 1741)
1723 - Richard Price, Welsh philosopher (d. 1791)
1729 - Josiah Hornblower, American statesman (d. 1809)
1743 - Mayer Amschel Rothschild, German-born banker (d. 1812)
1809 - William Sprague, American minister and politician from Michigan (d. 1868)
1840 - Carl Menger, Austrian economist (d. 1921)
1842 - Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann, German philosopher (d. 1906)
1850 - César Ritz, Swiss hotelier (d. 1918)
1868 - W.E.B. DuBois, American civil rights leader (d. 1963)
1873 - Liang Qichao, Chinese scholar (d. 1929)
1874 - Konstantin Päts, Estonian president (d. 1956)
1878 - Kazimir Malevich, Ukrainian painter and art theorist (d. 1935)
1883 - Karl Jaspers, German philosopher (d. 1969)
1889 - Victor Fleming, American director (d. 1949)
1889 - Musidora, French actress and director (d. 1957)
1891 - Harold Horder, Australian Rugby League player (d. 1978)
1899 - Erich Kästner, German writer (d. 1974)
1899 - Norman Taurog, American film director (d. 1981)
1901 - Edgar Ende, German painter (d. 1965)
1904 - Terence Fisher, English film director (d. 1980)
1904 - William L. Shirer, American historian (d. 1993)
1904 - Leopold Trepper, Soviet spy (d. 1982)
1908 - William McMahon, twentieth Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1988)
1914 - Theofiel Middelkamp, Dutch cyclist (d. 2005)
1915 - Jon Hall, American actor (d. 1979)
1915 - Paul Tibbets, US Air Force retired Brigadier General and Pilot of B-29 " Enola Gay" over Hiroshima (d. 2007)
1918 - Richard G. Butler, American fascist (d. 2004)
1920 - Paul Gérin-Lajoie, French Canadian politician
1923 - Rafael Addiego Bruno, Uruguayan politician
1924 - Allan McLeod Cormack, South-African born physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1998)
1924 - Claude Sautet, French film director (d. 2000)
1928 - Vasili Lazarev, cosmonaut (d. 1990)
1931 - Tom Wesselmann, American collage artist (d. 2004)
1932 - Majel Barrett, American actress
1937 - Tom Osborne, American football coach and politician
1938 - Diane Varsi, American actress (d. 1992)
1940 - Peter Fonda, American actor
1941 - Ron Hunt, baseball player
1943 - Fred Biletnikoff, American football player and coach
1944 - Bernard Cornwell, English historical novelist
1944 - Johnny Winter, American musician
1945 - Allan Boesak, South African activist
1946 - Rusty Young, American country-rock guitarist ( Poco)
1948 - Doug Moench, American comic book writer
1949 - Marc Garneau, French Canadian astronaut
1950 - Maxi, Irish singer and radio personality
1951 - Ed Jones, American football player
1951 - Patricia Richardson, American actress
1952 - Brad Whitford, American musician ( Aerosmith)
1953 - Satoru Nakajima, Japanese racing driver
1954 - Viktor Yushchenko, President of Ukraine
1955 - Tom Bodett, American voice actor, radio personality, and writer
1955 - Howard Jones, British pop singer
1958 - Tony Barrell, English writer and journalist
1958 - David Sylvian, English singer, musician and composer ( Japan, Nine Horses)
1959 - Richard Dodds, British field hockey player
1960 - Alan Griffin, Australian politician
1960 - Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan
1962 - Michael Wilton, American musician ( Queensrÿche)
1963 - Bobby Bonilla, former baseball player
1963 - Radosław Sikorski, Polish politician
1964 - John Norum, Norwegian guitarist ( Europe)
1965 - Kristin Davis, American actress
1965 - Michael Dell, American computer manufacturer
1965 - Helena Suková, former Czech tennis player
1965 - Veronica Webb, American supermodel and actress
1968 - Justin Bell, British racing driver
1969 - Marc Wauters, Belgian cyclist
1970 - Marie-Josée Croze, French Canadian actress
1970 - Niecy Nash, American actress
1971 - Jeong Chan, South Korean actor
1971 - Don Maxwell, Canadian cricketer
1971 - Melinda Messenger, English television presenter
1972 - Steve Holy, American country singer
1972 - Rondell White, American baseball player
1973 - Jack Case, American artist
1973 - Lars-Olof Johansson, Swedish musician ( The Cardigans)
1974 - Leko, American DJ
1974 - Jaime Villarreal, Mexican musician
1974 - Herschelle Gibbs, South African cricketer
1975 - Michael Cornacchia, American actor
1975 - Robert Lopez, American composer
1976 - Kelly Macdonald, British actress
1977 - Kristina Šmigun, Estonian cross-country skier
1978 - René Pérez, Puerto Rican musician ( Calle 13)
1978 - Dan Snyder, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2003)
1979 - D-Roc, American rapper ( Ying Yang Twins)
1981 - Gareth Barry, English footballer
1981 - Charles Tillman, American football player
1983 - Mirco Bergamasco, Italian rugby player
1983 - Mido, Egyptian footballer
1986 - Holly Brook, American musician
1986 - Kazuya Kamenashi, Japanese idol, (member of KAT-TUN)
1989 - Evan Bates, American ice dancer
1991 - Kelly Hansen, American drummer (Summer Lights)
1994 - Dakota Fanning, American child actress
943 - Herbert II, (b. 884)
1011 - Willigis, Archbishop of Mainz
1100 - Emperor Zhezong of China (b. 1076)
1270 - Saint Isabel of France, daughter of Louis VIII of France (b. 1225)
1447 - Pope Eugene IV (b. 1383)
1447 - Humphrey (b. 1390)
1464 - Zhengtong, Emperor of China (b. 1427)
1526 - Diego Colón, Spanish Viceroy of the Indies
1554 - Henry Grey, English politician (executed) (bc. 1515)
1572 - Pierre Certon, French composer
1603 - Andrea Cesalpino, Italian philosopher, physician, and botanist (b. 1519)
1669 - Leo Aitzema, Dutch historian and statesman (b. 1600)
1704 - Georg Muffat, French composer (b. 1653)
1730 - Pope Benedict XIII (b. 1649)
1766 - Stanislaw Leszczynski, King of Poland (b. 1677)
1781 - George Taylor, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (bc. 1716)
1792 - Joshua Reynolds, English painter (b. 1723)
1800 - Joseph Warton, English literary critic (b. 1722)
1821 - John Keats, English poet (b. 1795)
1848 - John Quincy Adams, 6th President of the United States (b. 1767)
1855 - Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, astronomer, and physicist (b. 1777)
1859 - Zygmunt Krasiński, Polish Romantic poet (b. 1812)
1879 - Albrecht Graf von Roon, Prime Minister of Prussia (b. 1803)
1897 - Woldemar Bargiel, German composer (b. 1828)
1908 - Johannes Friedrich August von Esmarch, German surgeon (b. 1823)
1922 - Albert Victor Bäcklund, Swedish physicist (b. 1845)
1930 - Horst Wessel, Nazi ideologue and composer (b. 1907)
1931 - Nellie Melba, Australian opera soprano (b. 1861)
1934 - Edward Elgar, English composer (b. 1857)
1937 - Victim 7 of the Cleveland Torso Murderer
1944 - Leo Hendrik Baekeland, Belgian-American chemist and inventor of the first synthetic plastic, Bakelite (b. 1863)
1946 - Tomoyuki Yamashita, Japanese general (hanged) (b. 1885)
1948 - John Robert Gregg, Irish-born publisher and inventor (b. 1866)
1955 - Paul Claudel, French poet and playwright (b. 1868)
1957 - Marika Ninou, Greek singer (b. 1918)
1960 - Arthur Legat, Belgian racing driver (b. 1898)
1965 - Stan Laurel, British born actor and comedian (b. 1890)
1969 - King Saud of Saudi Arabia (b. 1902)
1973 - Dickinson W. Richards, American physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1895)
1974 - Harry Ruby, American composer and writer (b. 1895)
1976 - LS Lowry, English artist (b. 1887)
1979 - W.A.C. Bennett, Canadian politician (b. 1900)
1983 - Herbert Howells, English composer (b. 1892)
1990 - José Napoleón Duarte, President of El Salvador (b. 1925)
1992 - Markos Vafiadis, Greek politician (b. 1906)
1995 - Melvin Franklin, American singer ( The Temptations) (b. 1942)
1995 - James Herriot, English writer (b. 1916)
1997 - Tony Williams, American jazz drummer (b. 1945)
1999 - Carlos Hathcock, USMC Sniper, 93 Confirmed Kills (b. 1942)
2000 - Ofra Haza, Israeli singer (b. 1957)
2000 - Stanley Matthews, English footballer (b. 1915)
2001 - Robert Enrico, French film director and screenwriter (b. 1931)
2003 - Robert K. Merton, American sociologist (b. 1910)
2003 - Howie Epstein, American bass guitarist ( Tom Petty & the Heartbreakers) (b. 1955)
2004 - Vijay Anand, Indian film director (b. 1934)
2004 - Carl Anderson, American singer (b. 1945)
2004 - Sikander Bakht, Governor of Kerala (b. 1918)
2004 - Don Cornell, American singer (b. 1919)
2004 - Carl Liscombe, Canadian hockey player (b. 1915)
2006 - Benno Besson, Swiss actor and film director (b. 1922)
2006 - Telmo Zarraonaindía, Spanish footballer (b. 1921)
2007 - John Ritchie, British footballer (b. 1941)
Holidays and observances Edit
Liturgical feasts Edit
External links Edit
69 Familypedia people were born on February 23
80 Familypedia people died on February 23
69 Familypedia people were first married on February 23