|— City —|
|City of Flint|
|Flint River. Middle: GM Powertrain, Longway Planetarium. Bottom: Former site of Buick City, South Saginaw St., Citizens Bank Weatherball.|
|Motto: "Strong, Proud"|
|Genesee County, Michigan|
|• Type||Strong Mayor-Council
currently under a Financial Emergency
|• Emergency manager||Darnell Earley|
|• Mayor||Dayne Walling|
|• City||34.06 sq mi (88.21 km2)|
|• Land||33.42 sq mi (86.56 km2)|
|• Water||0.64 sq mi (1.66 km2)|
|Elevation||751 ft (229 m)|
|• Estimate (2012)||100,515|
|• Rank||US: 278th|
|• Density||3,065.1/sq mi (1,183.4/km2)|
|• Metro||422,080 (US: 120th)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP code||48501-48507, 48532|
|GNIS feature ID||0626170|
|Website||City of Flint, Michigan|
Flint is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan, located along the Flint River, 66 miles (106 km) northwest of Detroit. According to the 2010 census, Flint has a population of 102,434, making it the seventh largest city in Michigan.
Flint is the county seat of Genesee County in the Flint/Tri-Cities region of Michigan. Genesee County comprises the entirety of Flint's metropolitan area, the fourth largest metropolitan area in Michigan with a population of 425,790 in 2010.
Flint is best known as the birthplace of General Motors (GM) (and its numerous GM factories), and was the home of the Flint Sit-Down Strike of 1936–37 that played a vital role in the formation of the United Auto Workers. However, since 2007, it has been known for its high crime rates . It has also been in a financial emergency since 2011. 
The Saginaw Valley, particularly the vicinity of Flint, is considered by some to be the oldest continually inhabited area of Michigan. Regardless of the validity of this claim, the region was home to several Ojibwa tribes at the start of the 19th century, with a particularly significant community established near present-day Montrose. The Flint River had several convenient fords which became points of contention among rival tribes, as attested by the presence of arrowheads and burial mounds near it.
19th century: lumber and the beginnings of the automobile industryEdit
In 1819, Jacob Smith, a fur trader on cordial terms with both the local Ojibwas and the territorial government, along with his Ojibwe wife founded a trading post in Flint itself. On several occasions, Smith negotiated land exchanges with the Ojibwas on behalf of the U.S. government, and he was highly regarded on both sides. Smith apportioned many of his holdings to his children. As the ideal stopover on the overland route between Detroit and Saginaw, Flint grew into a small but prosperous village, and incorporated in 1855. The 1860 U.S. census indicated that Genesee County had a population of 22,498 of Michigan's 750,000.
In the latter half of the 19th century, Flint became a center of the Michigan lumber industry. Revenue from lumber funded the establishment of a local carriage-making industry. As horse-drawn carriages gave way to the automobiles, Flint then naturally grew into a major player in the nascent auto industry. Buick Motor Company, after a rudimentary start in Detroit, soon moved to Flint. AC Spark Plug (now part of Delphi) originated in Flint. These were followed by several now-defunct automobile marques such as the Dort, Little, Flint, and Mason brands. And Chevrolet's first (and for many years, main) manufacturing facility was also in Flint, although the Chevrolet headquarters were in Detroit. For a brief period, all Chevrolets and Buicks were built in Flint.
Early and mid-20th century: the auto industry takes shapeEdit
In 1904, local entrepreneur William C. Durant was brought in to manage Buick, which became the largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1908. In 1908, Durant founded General Motors, filing incorporation papers in New Jersey, with headquarters in Flint. GM moved its headquarters to Detroit in the mid-1920s. Durant lost control of GM twice during his lifetime. On the first occasion, he befriended Louis Chevrolet and founded Chevrolet, which was a runaway success. He used the capital from this success to buy back share control. He later lost decisive control again, permanently. Durant experienced financial ruin in the stock market crash of 1929 and subsequently ran a bowling alley in Flint until the time of his death in 1947.
For the last century, Flint's history has been dominated by both the auto industry and car culture. During the Sit-Down Strike of 1936–1937, the fledgling United Automobile Workers triumphed over General Motors, inaugurating the era of labor unions. The successful mediation of the strike by Governor Frank Murphy, culminating in a one page agreement recognizing the Union, began an era of successful organizing by the UAW. The city was a major contributor of tanks and other war machines during World War II due to its extensive manufacturing facilities. For decades, Flint remained politically significant as a major population center as well as for its importance to the automotive industry.
The eighth deadliest tornado on record in the United States struck Beecher, just north of Flint, on June 8, 1953, killing 115 people, injuring 844. Known as the "Beecher Tornado", after the North Side community which the tornado devastated. On the next day the same weather system spawned the worst tornado in New England in Worcester, Massachusetts, killing another 94 people.
The city's population peaked in 1960 at almost 200,000, at which time it was the second largest city in the state. The decades of the 1950s and 1960s are seen as the height of Flint's prosperity and influence. They culminated with the establishment of many local institutions, most notably including the Flint Cultural Center. This landmark remains one of the city's chief commercial and artistic draws to this day.
Late 20th century: Deindustrialization and demographic changesEdit
Since the late 1960s through the end of the 20th century, Flint has suffered from disinvestment, deindustrialization, depopulation and urban decay, as well as high rates of crime, unemployment and poverty. Initially, this took the form of "white flight" that afflicted many urban industrialized American towns and cities. Given Flint's role in the automotive industry, this decline was exacerbated by the 1973 oil crisis and subsequent collapse of the U.S. auto industry.
In the 1980s, the rate of deindustrialization accelerated again with local GM employment falling from a 1978 high of 80,000 to under 8,000 by 2010. Only 10% of the manufacturing work force from its height remains in Flint. Many factors have been blamed, including outsourcing, exporting jobs abroad, moving jobs to non-union facilities, unionization, exorbitant overhead, globalization, and more recently, a dramatic decline in General Motors sales. Locally, these rationales are often strictly applied along lines of political orientation, and labor remains a divisive and polarizing issue.
This decline was highlighted in the film Roger & Me by Michael Moore (the title refers to Roger B. Smith, the CEO of General Motors during the 1980s). Also highlighted in Moore's documentary was the failure of city officials to reverse the trends with entertainment options (e.g. the now-demolished AutoWorld) during the 1980s. Moore, a native of Davison (a Flint suburb), revisited Flint in his later movies, including Bowling for Columbine and Fahrenheit 9/11.
21st century Edit
First financial emergency: 2002–2004Edit
The first decade of the 21st century opened on the final stages of large-scale General Motors deindustrialization. By 2002, Flint had accrued $30 million in debt.
On March 5, 2002, the city's voters recalled mayor Woodrow Stanley. A few months later, on May 8, the State of Michigan appointed an emergency financial manager, Ed Kurtz. The emergency financial manager displaced the temporary mayor, Darnell Earley in the city administrator position. The City Council fought the takeover in court.
In August, city voters elected former Mayor James Rutherford to finish the remainder of Stanley's term of office. On September 24, Kurtz commissioned a salary and wage study for top city officials from an outside accounting and consulting firm. The financial manager then installed a new code enforcement program for annual rental inspections and emergency demolitions. On October 8, Kurtz ordered cuts in pay for the mayor (from $107,000 to $24,000) and the City Council members (from $23,000 to $18,000). He also eliminated insurance benefits for most officials. After spending $245,000 fighting the takeover, the City Council ended the lawsuits on October 14. Immediately thereafter on October 16, a new interim financial plan was put in place by the manager. This plan initiated controls on hiring, overnight travel and spending by city employees. On November 12, Kurtz directed the city's retirement board to stop unusual pension benefits, which had decreased some retiree pensions by 3.5%. Kurtz sought the return of overpayments to the pension fund. However, in December, the state attorney general stated that Emergency Financial Managers do not have authority over the retirement system. With contract talks stalled, Kurtz stated that there either need to be cuts or layoffs to union employees. That same month, the city's recreation centers were temporarily closed.
Emergency measures continued in 2003. In May, Kurtz increased water and sewer bills by 11% and shut down operations of the ombudsman's office. In September 2003, a 4% pay cut was agreed to by the city's largest union. In October, Kurtz moved in favor of infrastructure improvements, authorizing $1 million in sewer and road projects. Don Willamson was elected a full-term mayor and sworn in on November 10. In December, city audits reported nearly $14 million in reductions in the city deficit. For the 2003–2004 budget year, estimates decreased that amount to $6 million to $8 million.
With pressure from Kurtz for large layoffs and replacement of the board on February 17, 2004, the City Retirement Board agreed to four proposals reducing the amount of the city's contribution into the system. On March 24, Kurtz indicated that he would raise the City Council's and the Mayor's pay and in May, Kurtz laid off 10 workers as part of 35 job cuts for the 2004–05 budget. In June 2004, Kurtz reported that the financial emergency was over. Of the nearly 80,000 people that worked for General Motors in Flint during its peak years in the late 1970s, only about 8,000 were left after the most recent 2006 buyouts.
RedevelopmentsEditIn the last decade, local efforts to counter deindustrialization have centered around diversifying the economy, either by attracting small parts manufacturers with vacant industrial space and tax incentives, or steering the city toward a more commercially driven economy.
Industrially, the vacated Buick City site is currently the United States' largest brownfield. Its accessibility to the Flint River and major rail networks have made it potentially attractive to shipping interests. A local shipping company has considered turning Buick City into a large shipping center. This center could provide 600 jobs and spur many small businesses. In a recent new GM-UAW deal, an agreement was reached to build a new engine plant on a portion of the Buick City site. This plant is expected to provide 800 new jobs.
Commercially, local organizations have attempted to pool their resources in the central business district and to expand and bolster higher education at four local institutions. Examples of their efforts include the following:
- Landmarks such as the First National Bank building have been extensively renovated, often to create lofts or office space, and filming for the Will Ferrell movie Semi-Pro resulted in renovations to the Capitol Theatre.
- The Paterson Building at Saginaw and Third street has been owned by the Collison Family, Thomas W. Collison & Co., Inc., for the last 30 years. The building is rich in Art Deco throughout the interior and exterior. The building also houses its own garage in the lower level, providing heated valet parking to The Paterson Building Tenants.
- In 2004 the first planned residential community in Flint in over 30 years, University Park was built north of Fifth Avenue off Saginaw Street, Flint's main thoroughfare.
- Local foundations have also funded the renovation and redecoration of Saginaw Street, and have begun work turning University Avenue (formerly known as Third Avenue) into a mile-long "University Corridor" connecting University of Michigan–Flint with Kettering University.
- Atwood Stadium, located on University Avenue, has already received extensive renovations and the Cultivating Our Community project is landscaping 16 different locations from in Flint as a part of a $415,600 beautification project.
- Wade Trim and Rowe Incorporated have made major renovations to transform empty downtown Flint blocks into business, entertainment, and housing centers. WNEM, a local television station, has signed a ten-year lease on space in the Wade Trim building facing Saginaw Street.
- The long-vacant Durant Hotel was turned into a mixture of commercial space and apartments attractive to young professionals or college students, with 93 units.
- In March 2008, the Crim Race Foundation put up an offer to buy the vacant Character Inn and turn it into a fitness center and do a multimillion dollar renovation.
Similar to a plan in Detroit, Flint is in the process of tearing down thousands of abandoned homes in order to curb crime and reduce city services to a level where the population can sustain it. As of June 2009, approximately 1100 homes have been demolished in Flint, with one official estimating another 3000 more will have to be torn down.
Second financial emergency: 2011–presentEdit
On September 30, 2011, Michigan Governor Rick Snyder appointed an eight-member review team to review Flint's financial state with a request to report back in 30 days (half the legal time for a review). On November 8, 2011, Mayor Dayne Walling defeated challenger Darryl Buchanan 8,819 votes (56%) to 6,868 votes (44%). That same day, the Michigan State review panel declared the City of Flint to be in the state of a "local government financial emergency" recommending the state again appoint an Emergency Manager. On November 14, the City Council voted 7 to 2 to not appeal the state review with Mayor Walling concurring the next day. Governor Snyder appointed Michael Brown as the city's Emergency Manager on November 29, effective December 1. On December 2, Brown dismissed a number of top administrators including City Administrator Gregory Eason, Human Resources Director Donna Poplar, Citizen Services Director Rhoda Woods, Green City Coordinator Steve Montle and independent officials including Ombudswoman Brenda Purifoy and Civil Service Commission Director Ed Parker. Pay and benefits from Flint's elected officials were automatically removed. On December 8, the office of Obudsman and the Civil Service Commission were eliminated by Brown.
On January 16, 2012, protestors against the emergency manager law including Flint residents marched near the governor's home. The next day, Brown filed a financial and operating plan with the state as mandated by law. The next month, each ward in the city had a community engagement meetings hosted by Brown. Governor Sydner on March 7 made a statewide public safety message from Flint City Hall that included help for Flint with plans for reopening the Flint lockup and increasing state police patrols in Flint.
On March 20, 2012, days after a lawsuit was filed by labor union AFSCME, and a restraining order was issued against Brown, his appointment was found to be in violation of the Michigan Open Meetings Act, and Mayor Walling and the City Council had their powers returned. The state immediately filed an emergency appeal, claiming the financial emergency still exists. On March 26, the appeal was granted, putting Brown back in power. The city can appeal 21 days after that date. Brown and a several unions agreed to new contract terms in April. Brown unveiled his fiscal year 2013 budget on April 23. It included cuts in nearly every department including police and fire, as well as higher taxes.
An Obsolete Property Rehabilitation District was created by Manager Brown in June 2012 for 11 downtown Flint properties. On July 19, the city pension system was transferred to the Municipal Employees Retirement System by The city's retirement board which leads to a legal challenge.
On August 3, 2012, the Michigan Supreme Court ordered the state Board of Canvassers to certify a referendum on Public Act 4, the Emergency Manager Law, for the November ballot. Brown made several actions on August 7 including placing a $6 million public safety milage on the ballot and sold Genesee Towers to a development group for $1 to demolish the structure. The Board certified the referendum petition on August 8, returning the previous Emergency Financial Manager Law into effect. With Brown previously temporary mayor with the last few years, Brown was ineligible to be the Emergency Financial Manager. Ed Kurtz is once again appointed Emergency Financial Manager by the Emergency Financial Assistance Loan Board.
Two lawsuits were filed in September 2012, one by the City Council against Kurtz's appointment, while another was against the state in Ingham County Circuit Court claiming the old emergency financial manager law remains repealed.
Michael Brown was re-appointed Emergency Manager on June 26, 2013, and returned to work on July 8. Flint had an $11.3 million projected deficit when Brown started as emergency manager in 2011. The city faces a $19.1 million combined deficit from 2012, with plans to borrow $12 million to cover part of it.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 34.06 square miles (88.21 km2), of which, 33.42 square miles (86.56 km2) is land and 0.64 square miles (1.66 km2) is water. Flint lies just to the northeast of the Flint hills. The terrain is low and rolling along the south and east sides, and flatter to the northwest.
Flint has several neighborhoods grouped around the center of the city on the four cardinal "sides". The downtown business district is centered on Saginaw Street south of the Flint River. Just west, on opposite sides of the river, are Carriage Town (north) and the Grand Traverse Street District (south). Both neighborhoods boast strong neighborhood associations. These neighborhoods were the center of manufacturing for and profits from the nation's carriage industry until the 1920s, and to this day are the site of many well-preserved Victorian homes and the setting of Atwood Stadium.
The University Avenue corridor of Carriage Town is home to the largest concentration of "Greek" housing in the area, with fraternity houses from both Kettering University, and the University of Michigan Flint. Chapter houses include Phi Delta Theta, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Delta Chi, Theta Chi, Lambda Chi Alpha, Theta Xi, Alpha Phi Alpha, and Delta Tau Delta Fraternities.
The North Side and 5th Ward are predominantly African American, with such historic districts as Buick City and Civic Park on the north, and Sugar Hill, Floral Park, and Kent and Elm Parks on the south. Many of these neighborhoods were the original centers of early Michigan blues. The South Side in particular was also a center for multi-racial migration from Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and the Deep South since World War II. These neighborhoods are most often lower income, but have maintained some level of economic stratification. The East Side is the site of the Applewood Mott Estate, and Mott Community College, the Cultural Center, and East Village, one of Flint's more prosperous areas.
Just north is Eastside Proper, also known as the "State Streets", an area that has recently diversified and has much of Flint's Hispanic community. The West Side includes the main site of the 1937 sitdown strike, the Mott Park neighborhood, Kettering University, and the historic Woodcroft Estates, owned in the past by legendary automotive executives and current home to prominent and historic Flint families such as the Motts, the Manleys, and the Smiths.
Facilities associated with General Motors in the past and present are scattered throughout the city, including GM Truck and Bus, Flint Metal Center and Powertrain South (clustered together on the city's southwestern corner); Powertrain North, Flint Tool and Die and Delphi East. The largest plant, Buick City and adjacent facilities, have been demolished.Half of Flint's fourteen tallest buildings were built during the 1920s. The city's tallest building, the 19-story Genesee Towers, was completed in 1968. The building has become unused in recent years and has fallen into severe disrepair: a cautionary sign warning of falling debris was put on the sidewalk in front of it. An investment company purchased the building for $1, and it was demolished (by implosion) on December 22, 2013. Among other possible ventures, there are plans to relocate the local Flint Farmer's Market to the site.
Flint lies within the humid continental climate zone (Köppen Dfb), with four distinct seasons. Summer is very warm and humid, with a July daily mean temperature of 70.5 °F (21.4 °C), and highs reaching 90 °F (32 °C) on about 9 days per year. Though days of 100 °F (38 °C) are rare, the record high is 108 °F (42 °C), set on July 8 and 13, 1936. Winters are cold and snowy, with a January average of 22.4 °F (−5.3 °C) and lows falling to 0 °F (−18 °C) or below on 9.3 nights a season.
The lowest temperature on record is at most −25 °F (−32 °C), set on January 18, 1976. Though snow averages 48 inches (122 cm) per season, snow cover is not necessarily reliable and may disappear for short periods of time. Precipitation is greatest toward the end of summer.
|Climate data for Flint, Michigan (Bishop Int'l), 1981–2010 normals|
|Record high °F (°C)||65|
|Average high °F (°C)||29.6|
|Average low °F (°C)||15.3|
|Record low °F (°C)||−25|
|Precipitation inches (mm)||1.62|
|Snowfall inches (cm)||13.0|
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||13.6||10.5||11.3||12.6||11.1||10.6||9.5||10.0||10.0||10.8||11.8||13.9||135.6|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||12.6||9.9||5.9||2.4||0||0||0||0||0||.3||3.1||10.2||44.5|
|Source: NOAA (extremes 1921–present)|
As of the 2000 census, there were 124,943 people, 48,744 households, and 30,270 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,714.9 per square mile (1,434.5/km²). There were 55,464 housing units at an average density of 1,649.1 per square mile (636.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 53.27% Black or African American, 41.39% White, 0.64% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.11% from other races, and 3.14% from two or more races. 2.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 7.2% were of German and 5.6% American ancestry. 96.0% spoke English and 2.5% Spanish as their first language.
There were 48,744 households out of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.0% were married couples living together, 27.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.9% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.16.
In the city the age distribution of the population shows 30.6% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 19.2% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,015, and the median income for a family was $31,424. Males had a median income of $34,009 versus $24,237 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,733. About 22.9% of families and 26.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.4% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2010, there were 102,434 people, 40,472 households, and 23,949 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,065.1 inhabitants per square mile (1,183.4 /km2). There were 51,321 housing units at an average density of 1,535.6 per square mile (592.9 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 37.4% White, 56.6% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 1.1% from other races, and 3.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.9% of the population. Non-Hispanic Whites were 35.7% of the population in 2010, compared to 70.1% in 1970.
There were 40,472 households of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 23.1% were married couples living together, 29.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 40.8% were non-families. 33.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.13.
The median age in the city was 33.6 years. 27.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 11.3% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.5% were from 25 to 44; 25.1% were from 45 to 64; and 10.7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female.
The Flint City Derby Girls is a non profit League of Women skaters. FCDG is currently a WFTDA Apprentice League, with expectations of becoming a full member in 2012. Roller Derby is easily the fastest growing sport in America if not the world. FCDG played to over 3,600 fans in 2011, in 2012 they move to Perani Arena, with hopes to sell out each of their 6 home bouts. FCDG has two teams. The FCDG A Team and the Grand Funk Hellcats. The first Home Bout is March 24, 2012 at Perani (A Team vs. Lansing Mitten Mavens and Hellcats vs. Eastside Derby Girls).
The Michigan Warriors are a tier-A junior hockey team in the North American Hockey League. They are in their third season, and play their home games at Perani Arena, which has a seating capacity of 4,021, and 4,421 with standing room. In their inaugural season, they were defeated in the championship game. Attendance, however, has been a major obstacle for the Warriors.
There is semi-pro football at Atwood Stadium with the Flint Fury. Atwood is an 11,000+ seat stadium in downtown Flint which has hosted many events, including baseball. When artificial turf was installed, it was no longer able to host baseball games. The Flint Fury have been in action since 2003, and are currently a part of the Great Lakes Football League. The team was founded by two of its players; Charles Lawler and Prince Goodson, who both played for the defunct Flint Falcons semi-pro team. The team is now solely owned by Lawler.
Although they no longer play their games in Flint, the Rampage semi-pro football team keeps Flint in their name, despite the fact that their new home field is located in Fenton, Michigan. They currently play in the Great Lakes Football League.
Although Flint does not have its own NBA team, it does boast that many of its local players have gone to the NBA or on to play Division 1 or European professional basketball. Glen Rice and Eddie Robinson both hail from Flint, as do Morris Peterson, Mateen Cleaves, and Charlie Bell (four of the five starters from Michigan State University's "Flintstones" 2000 National Championship team).
A local teacher, turned independent film maker, Marcus Davenport chronicles Flint's ties to Basketball and the basketball culture in Flint Star: The Motion Picture, a documentary film Will Ferrell's 2008 movie Semi-Pro is based on the fictional basketball team the Flint Tropics.
The 2009 Heisman Trophy winner Mark Ingram born and raised in grand blanc attended his final year of high school at Southwest Flint Academy, Flint. He beat out Stanford Running Back, Toby Gerhart and Texas Quarterback, Colt McCoy. He won with 1304 total votes. Mark Ingram attends the University of Alabama and is their first Heisman winner. He was a member of the National Champion 2009 Alabama Crimson Tide football team.
2011 Conn Smythe winner and Stanley Cup champion Tim Thomas was born in Flint. In the 2010–11 National Hockey League season, Thomas boasted a .938 save percentage, setting a new NHL record among goaltenders.
Other athletes from Flint include Jim Abbott, Ron Pruitt, Rick Leach, Herb Washington, Don Coleman, Andre Rison, Andre Weathers, Mark Ingram, Sr., Todd Lyght, JaVale McGee, Brian Rolston, Booker Moore, Robaire Smith, George Hoey, Claressa Shields, Andre Dirrell, Anthony Dirrell, Chris Byrd, Courtney Hawkins, Carl Banks, Jeff Grayer, Darryl Johnson, Lonnie Young, Herb Orvis, John Thornton, Jon Runyan, Clarence Peaks, Eugene Marve, Mike Miller, Leo Sugar, Brent Williams, Dennis Johnson, Fernando Smith, Jim Morrissey, Brian Carpenter, Terry Crews, Ricky Patton, Daryl Turner, Reggie Williams, Paul Staroba, Demetrius Calip, Desmon Farmer, Terry Furlow, Roy Marble, Keith Smith, Barry Stevens, Scott Aldred, Joe Mays, Merv Rettenmund, Bob Powell, Mickey Weston, Steve Boros, Larry Mitchell, Jeff Hamilton and Bobby Reynolds.
Former sports teamsEdit
The city has operated under at least four charters (1855, 1888, 1929, 1974). The City is currently run under an Emergency Manager as the State of Michigan has declared a state of local government financial emergency. The Emergency manager supplants the City Council and Mayor. The 1974 Charter is the City's current charter that gives the city a Strong Mayor form of government. Its also instituted the appointed independent office of Ombudsman, while the city clerk is solely appointed by the City Council. The City Council is composed of members elected from the city's nine wards.
Most politicians are affiliated with the Democratic party despite the city's elections being nonpartisan. In 2006, Flint was the 10th most liberal city in the United States, according to a nationwide study by the non-partisan Bay Area Center for Voting Research which examined the voting patterns of 237 cities with a population over 100,000. Flint placed just after San Francisco (9) and before Seattle (16) and New York City (21).
Residents are served by the Flint Police Department (with mutual aid from the Genesee County Sheriff's Department and Michigan State Police), the Flint Fire Department, and several private ambulance companies. Flint has its own 9-1-1 call center, which operates independently of Genesee County's call center in Flint Township. The Public Safety Director is Alvern Lock. On April 20, 2012, Barnett Jones was named the Public Safety Administrator (he resigned on January 10, 2013 after it was discovered he has a second job as chief security and integrity officer for the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department). Lock will remain the Public Safety Director. Brown revealed his Public Safety Plan on May 4, 2012. It includes increased partnerships with Michigan State Police, reopening the City Lockup, upgrading technology, a possible closure of the city's 9-1-1 center and consolidation with the countywide 9-1-1 center, and a new violent crime task force in partnership with the Genesee County Sheriff's Department. On November 6, 2012 Flint voters approved a 0.6% tax increase to be used for the police and fire departments. A week later on November 14, ten new police officers were hired. On March 11, 2013 the city hired seven police officers, raising its staff to 124 people. Flint Police Officers Union President Kevin Smith says more are still needed. Police Chief Alvern Lock agreed, saying the force needs at least 200 officers to get the crime problem under control. On July 24, 2013 after seven homicides in six days, the Michigan State Police announced it will transfer ten current officers and eight probationary officers to the Flint Post. The city's police department also announced it is in the process of hiring new officers. Later, on August 7, 2013 the department said it plans on hiring eight new officers after they graduate from Mott Community College's police academy in 2014. Lock resigned on September 27, 2013. His successor is former Detroit Deputy Police Chief James Tolbert.
Recent crime statisticsEdit
According to FBI statistics, Flint's violent crime rate has been in the top five among U.S. cities with a population of at least 50,000 people for the years 2007, 2008, 2009. In 2007 the FBI ranked Flint as the second most violent city in the U.S, while in both 2008 and 2009 Flint had the fifth highest violent crime rate. FBI data shows in 2009 Flint had 2,244 violent crimes, including 36 homicides, 91 rapes and 1,527 felonious assaults. While homicides and assaults increased in 2009, rapes and robberies decreased, contributing to an overall 3 percent drop in crime.
On December 16, 2010, Flint's 64th homicide of the year occurred. "It's been a very difficult year," Walling said hours later. However, in dealing with the city's multimillion-dollar deficit, Walling laid off 66 police officers in 2010, including the 20 layoffs that took effect December 17, 2010.
"Families of Murder Children Support Group" Robert Johnson noted the growing numbers of unsolved Homicides in the City of Flint: 2008 32 homicides, 19 convictions; 2009 36 homicides and 12 unsolved; and 2010 to date 64 homicides with 33 unsolved. As a result of the record number of homicides in 2010, a research report was published by the Center for Homicide Research describing the problem and proposing public policy changes. The Layoff numbers, according to Keith Spears (Police officers Union President) "In February '09 Walling laid off 46. December 17, 2010 Mayor Walling laid off another 20. In 2008 we had 208 patrol officers (this is not counting Sergeants, Lieutenants, Captains, and the Chief). As of December 17, 2010, we had 67 patrol officers left. In 2008 Williamson laid off 48 officers. There have been a total of 114 lay offs since 2008, but we have lost a total of 141 positions. That's because they did not replace some positions after officers retired" "We’re trying to take care of it as much as we can."
According to a study of FBI crime statistics by CQ Press, in 2010, Flint was named the "fourth most dangerous city in the United States."
In December 2011, Flint rose to the number 1 spot on the "Most Violent Cities in America" list. According to a 2011 national poll by 24/7 Wall St. Flint was named the most dangerous city in the U.S. in 2011.
On September 28, 2011 it was announced the Flint Police Department has been awarded $1,225,638 from the Department of Justice's Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) program to re-hire 6 laid off patrol officers. The officers are scheduled to be on the job starting in October 2011. On December 19, 2011, it was reported that Flint's violent crime rate for the first half of 2011 was ranked No. 2 by the FBI, with St. Louis, Missouri taking the No. 1 spot. The report stated crime in every category, except motor vehicle thefts, was down as compared to the same period in 2010.
On June 12, 2012, Flint took the #1 spot of the FBI's 2011 List of Most Violent Cities With Populations of over 100,000 people. The report stated Flint had 2,237 violent crimes (murders, rapes, robberies, and aggravated assaults) in 2011. It also stated Flint had increases in non-violent crimes (burglaries, larcenies, auto thefts, arson fires, and other property crimes). The next day, 24/7 Wall Street claimed Flint also made the #1 spot on a similar list, and stated in 2011 Flint had twice as many violent crimes (2,392) as those on their list of the "10 safest cities in America" combined (which in total was 1,246). Additionally, Flint had the most arson fires (287) in 2011 per capita per the FBI. In response, Governor Snyder again visited Flint on June 18, 2012 and announced he will send more state troopers to Flint, and give state money to Flint to run the city lockup. Additionally, on the same day, state representative Jim Ananich proposed the Michigan State Housing Development Authority give state money from the federal foreclosure benefit fund to the Flint Police Department to hire more officers. A month later on July 17, 2012 Ananich reiterated his push to secure those funds from the state, and also pointed out that scrap metal thefts are on the rise in the city, and proposed a portion of the $97 million fund be set aside to prevent them, which he claimed will also benefit the local economy by attracting new businesses to the city. On October 29, 2012, the FBI announced Flint is now ranked second in violent crime per capita of cities with over 50,000 residents, behind Camden, New Jersey. On December 30, 2012, Flint's 66th homicide of the year occurred, tying a record set in 2010. However on March 11, 2013, this figure was increased to 67 after a man who was shot in November died from his injuries. On June 4, 2013 it was reported the FBI has ranked Flint the most violent city per capita for the third consecutive year. According to FBI's statistics, Flint had more than 2,774 violent crimes in 2012. They included 63 murders, 108 rapes, 673 robberies and 1,930 aggravated assaults. However, the same report said non-violent property crime was down 14%, including a 21% drop in arson fires: 226 intentionally set fires last year compared to 287 in 2011. Additionally, auto thefts dipped from 770 reported thefts in 2011 to 459 in 2012. Burglaries dropped from 3,628 in 2011 to 2,979 in 2012, a 17% drop. Larceny-thefts increased from 2,200 to 2,207, less than 1%. In all, the city reported 5,645 property crimes in 2012, compared to 6,618 in 2011.
On November 21, 2013, Police Chief James Tolbert claimed his statistics show violent crime is down 30% compared to 2012, and property crime is down 26% compared to 2012. 
On December 30, 2013, it was reported homicides there were 20% less homicides in 2013 compared to 2012, 52 in 2013 compared to 67 in 2012.  However it was also reported robberies went up 21% in 2013 compared to 2012.  Additionally, arson fires were down 50% in 2013 compared to 2012; 107 in 2013 compared to 226 in 2012. 
Colleges and universitiesEdit
- The University of Michigan–Flint is one of three campuses in the University of Michigan system.
- Kettering University is a four-year Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) school.
- Mott Community College is headquartered in Flint with satellite campuses in nearby Fenton, Lapeer, Clio, and Howell.
- Flint is also served by Baker College's flagship campus in nearby Flint Township.
Primary and secondary schoolsEdit
Public K-12 education is provided under the umbrella of the Flint Community Schools. Students attend 14 elementary schools, and three high schools, which accommodate grades 7-12 (Flint Northern High School, Flint Northwestern High School, and Flint Southwestern Academy). The city's original high school, Flint Central High School, was closed in 2009 due to a budget deficit and a lack of maintenance on the building by the Flint School District. The building, however, still stands. Flint Northern High School was converted to an alternative education school at the start of the 2013-14 school year.
The Catholic high school is Fr. Luke M. Powers Catholic High School which is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lansing and serves the entire county. The school moved from its location in the north end of Flint in 2013 into the former Michigan School for the Deaf building off of Miller Road which received a $22 million renovation.
The Valley School is a small private K-12 school.
- Flint Public Library main branch location: 1026 East Kearsley Street; 454,645 books; 22,355 audio materials; 9,453 video materials; 2,496 serial subscriptions
The county's largest newspaper is The Flint Journal, which dates back to 1876. Effective June 2009 the paper ceased to be a daily publication, opting to publish on Thursdays, Fridays and Sundays. The move made Genesee County the largest county in the United States without a daily newspaper. The Flint Journal began publishing a Tuesday edition in March 2010. The East Village Magazine is a non-profit news magazine providing information about neighborhood issues since 1976. The monthly magazine centers on the East Village neighborhood, outside downtown Flint, but is distributed throughout the city. The Uncommon Sense was a recent publication featuring critical journalism, satirical cartoons, and articles on music and nightlife, but it ceased publishing in 2007. In January 2009, Broadside became the current independent newspaper, exclusively available in print. In early 2009 Flint Comix & Entertainment began circulating around college campuses, and local businesses. This monthly publication features local and nationally recognized comic artists, as well as editorials, and other news.
Two quarterly magazines have appeared in recent years: Innovative Health Magazine and Downtown Flint Revival Magazine. Debuting in 2008, Innovative Health highlights the medical advancements, health services and lifestyles happening in and around Genesee County, while Downtown Flint Revival reports on new developments, building renovations and the many businesses in the Downtown area.
University publications include University of Michigan–Flint's student newspaper The Michigan Times, Kettering University's The Technician and the MCC Chronicle, formerly the MCC Post, which is a monthly magazine from Mott Community College.
WJRT-TV (ABC), formerly one of ten ABC owned-and-operated stations, is currently the only area station to operate from Flint. WSMH (Fox) and WCMZ-TV (PBS) are licensed to Flint, but their programming originates from outside of Flint proper, with WSMH originating from Flint suburb Mt. Morris Township (though its mailing address says Flint) and WCMZ rebroadcasting WCMU-TV of Mount Pleasant. WEYI (NBC), licensed to Saginaw, and WBSF (The CW), licensed to Bay City, has their studios in nearby Vienna Township, just north of Flint. Other stations outside the Flint area that serve the area include Saginaw-based WNEM-TV (CBS) (which has a news bureau in Downtown Flint), Delta College's WDCQ-TV (PBS), and Saginaw's WAQP (TCT).
The Flint radio market has a rich history. WAMM-AM 1420 (started in 1955, now gospel station WFLT) on the city's eastside was one of the first stations in the country to program to the black community and was also where legendary DJ Casey Kasem had his first radio job.
WTAC-AM 600 (now religious station WSNL) was a highly rated and influential Top 40 station in the 1960s and 1970s, showcasing Michigan artists and being the first in the U.S. to play acts like The Who and AC/DC. WTAC changed its format to country music in 1980 and then became a pioneering contemporary Christian music station a few years later; the calls are now on 89.7 FM, a member of the "Smile FM" network. WTRX-AM 1330 also played Top 40 music for a time in the 1960s and '70s.
The city's very first radio station, AM 910 WFDF, first went on the air in 1922. It has since relocated south into the Detroit market, changing its city of license to Farmington Hills and increasing its power to 50,000 watts.
In 1985, WWCK-FM 105.5 became the highest-rated rock station in America. The station (whose calls were derived from those of Windsor, Ontario's legendary CKLW) continued as a market leader after changing its format to CHR, which it has remained since, in 1989.
- 600 WSNL – Flint (Religious, Victory 600, Christian Broadcasting System)
- 1160 WCXI – Fenton (Oldies, Birach Broadcasting)
- 1330 WTRX – Flint (Sports, Sports Xtra 1330, Cumulus Media)
- 1420 WFLT – Flint (Urban Gospel, Flint Evangelical Broadcasting Association)
- 1470 WFNT – Flint (Adult Standards/Oldies, Unforgettable 1470, Townsquare Media)
- 1570 WWCK – Flint (Talk, SuperTalk 1570, Cumulus Media)
- 88.9 WAKL – Flint (Contemporary Christian, Educational Media Foundation; K-Love network affiliate)
- 89.7 WTAC – Burton-Flint (Contemporary Christian, Superior Communications; "Smile FM" network affiliate)
- 91.1 WFUM – Flint (Public Radio, Michigan Radio, University of Michigan; simulcast of WUOM Ann Arbor)
- 92.7 WDZZ – Flint (Urban Adult Contemporary, Z92.7, Cumulus Media)
- 93.7 WRCL – Frankenmuth (Rhythmic CHR, Club 93-7, Townsquare Media)
- 94.3 WKUF – Flint (Kettering University student station)
- 95.1 WFBE – Flint (Country, B95, Cumulus Media)
- 98.9 WOWE – Vassar (Urban Adult Contemporary, Praestantia Broadcasting)
- 101.5 WWBN – Tuscola-Flint (Active Rock, Banana 101.5, Townsquare Media)
- 102.5 WIOG – Bay City (CHR)
- 103.1 WQUS – Flint (Classic Rock, US 103.1, Townsquare Media)
- 103.9 WRSR – Owosso-Flint (Classic Rock, 103.9 The Fox, Potential Broadcasting)
- 105.5 WWCK – Flint (Mainstream CHR, CK105.5, Cumulus Media)
- 107.9 WCRZ – Flint (Adult Contemporary, Cars 108, Townsquare Media)
Townsquare Media's WCRZ is consistently the top-rated station in Flint and has been near the top of the ratings consistently since changing format from beautiful music WGMZ in 1984. Sister stations WRCL and WWBN also regularly chalk up top 10 ratings in Flint. Cumulus Media's top stations are WDZZ (usually the No. 2 rated station 12+ in Flint, second only to WCRZ) and WWCK. Cumulus also owns popular country station WFBE (which for many years was a classical-music public radio station owned by the Flint school system), as well as sports-talker WTRX and Saginaw/Bay City's WHNN (96.1 FM, Oldies) and WIOG (102.5 FM, Top 40), which both have good signals and significant listenership in Flint.
Radio stations from Detroit, Lansing, Lapeer and Saginaw may also be heard in the Flint area; Detroit's WJR (760 AM) is regularly rated among the top 10 stations in Flint and often higher-rated than any local Flint-based AM station.
The city of Flint is served by various bus lines. For travel within and around the city, the Flint Mass Transportation Authority (MTA) provides local bus services. Greyhound Lines runs inter-city bus services north to Bay City and south to Detroit; and Indian Trails runs inter-city bus services west to Chicago. MTA's main hub is in Downtown Flint, while the Greyhound and Indian Trails station is located on Dort Highway, just north of I-69.
- I-69 runs east and west through Flint.
- Template:Jct/2 runs north and south through the southwestern part of the city.
- I-475 runs north and south through Flint.
- M-21 (also known as Corunna Road and Court Street) runs nearly due east and west through Flint.
- M-54, also known as Dort Highway after Flint automotive pioneer Josiah Dallas Dort, runs north and south through the eastern part of the city.
- Saginaw Street runs north and south through the central part of the city, including the Downtown area.
- Hurley Medical Center
- McLaren Regional Medical Center
- Flint once had 2 other full service hospitals: St. Joseph's Hospital and Flint Osteopathic Hospital. They are now medical clinics which are part of the Genesys Health System, and currently referred to as Genesys East Flint Campus and Genesys West Flint Campus respectively with Genesys Regional Medical Center at Health Park located in Grand Blanc Township.
- Changchun, Jilin, China
- Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
- Kielce, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland
- Tolyatti, Samara Oblast, Russia
The following books are set in Flint or relate to the city.
- Rivethead: Tales from the Assembly Line by Ben Hamper.
- Teardown: Memoir of a Vanishing City by Gordon Young.
Movies and TVEdit
The following movies and TV shows have taken place or were filmed in Flint.
- The Fitzpatricks (1977–78) was a short-lived CBS TV drama about an Irish Catholic working-class family living in Flint. The show was filmed in Hollywood, but set in Flint. Also, the families were portrayed as steelworkers, not autoworkers.
- TV Nation (1994–1995) was the debut TV series by Michael Moore. Numerous segments were filmed in and around Flint, including one where Moore uses declassified information to find the exact impact point from the nuclear ICBM that targeted the city (ground zero was Chevrolet Assembly, one of the General Motors plants at Bluff & Cadillac Streets). Moore then went to Kazakhstan to try to redirect the ICBM away from Flint.
- The Awful Truth (1999–2000) was Michael Moore's second TV show. It featured segments from Flint.
- To Touch a Child (1962) A look into Community Schools, a concept pioneered by Charles Stewart Mott and spread throughout the United States.
- With Babies and Banners: Story of the Women's Emergency Brigade (1979) Documentary about the women of the Flint Sit-Down Strike.
- Roger & Me (1989) Documentary about the economic depression in the Flint area caused by the closure of several General Motors factories in the late 1980s.
- Pets or Meat: The Return to Flint (1992) Follow-up of Roger & Me.
- The Big One (1998) Documentary film Moore urges Nike to consider building a shoe factory in Flint. Moore succeeds in convincing Nike CEO Philip Knight to match his offer to donate money to Buell Elementary School, which would eventually become the locale of the infamous Kayla Rolland shooting.
- Shattered Faith (2001) Independent (Fifth Sun Productions) written and directed by Flint native Stephen Vincent. Movie was filmed in Flint. Cast was made mostly of Flint residents but did feature Joe Estevez. Vincent's multi-year project debuted September 20, 2001 and was released directly to DVD.
- Bowling for Columbine (2002) Moore's take on the gun industry also profiles the shooting of Kayla Rolland.
- Chameleon Street (1990) Wendell B. Harris Jr.'s story of famed con man Douglas Street. Winner of Grand Jury Prize at Sundance.
- The Real Blair Witch (2003) Documentary about group of Flint teenagers kidnapping and terrorizing a fellow student.
- The Michigan Independent (2004) Documentary film about the Michigan independent music community. Many segments were shot in Flint, particularly at the Flint Local 432.
- Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004) Moore takes on the George W. Bush administration. Moore filmed students from Flint Southwestern Academy. Filmed Marine recruiters at Courtland Center and references Genesee Valley Center as a mall for more wealthy citizens, "The rich mall in the suburbs."
- Michael Moore Hates America (2004) Filmmaker Mike Wilson travels to Flint to document small businesses and other development efforts in the city, and compares it to the depictions of the city in Moore's documentaries.
- Flintown Kids (2005) Documentary film about violence in Flint.
- Semi-Pro (2008) Will Ferrell movie which centers around a fictitious 1970s ABA basketball team, the Flint Tropics. It was partially filmed in Flint.
- Capitalism: A Love Story (2009) A Michael Moore documentary about the negative impacts capitalism can have on people and communities.
- Notable natives and residents of Flint, Michigan
- Saginaw Trail
- urban decay
- urban renewal
- Michael Moore
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- ^ Adams, Dominic. (September 11, 2013) Darnell Earley promises bold steps as Flint emergency manager. MLive Media Group: The Flint Journal. Accessed on October 18, 2013.
- ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/files/Gaz_places_national.txt. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/data/cities/totals/2012/SUB-EST2012.html. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
- ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- ^ "Genesee County, MI official website". Gc4me.com. February 28, 2012. http://www.gc4me.com/. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ "2010 Census and Michigan Demographic Data". Michigan.gov. November 6, 2009. http://www.michigan.gov/cgi/0,4548,7-158-54534_51707---,00.html. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ a b Flint most violent city in the nation in 2012 for third year running, according to FBI statistics The Flint Journal via MLive.com, June 4, 2013
- ^ a b Bright spot: Property crime drops 14 percent in Flint, according to FBI stats The Flint Journal via MLive.com, June 6, 2013
- ^ a b Public safety still a big concern as Mike Brown readies return as Flint's emergency manager The Flint Journal via MLive.com, June 30, 2013
- ^ General Motors | Corporate Information – History | GM
- ^ "Detroit News, Rearview Mirror, ''The Sitdown strike at General Motors''.". http://info.detnews.com/history/story/index.cfm?id=115&category=business. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ Bjørnsson, Nils (1994) (in Norwegian). Å være eller ikke være – Under orlogsflagget i den annen verdenskrig. Haakonsvern: Sjømilitære Samfund ved Forlaget Norsk Tidsskrift for Sjøvesen. p. 23. ISBN 82-990969-3-6.
- ^ "Flint Cultural Center". Flintcultural.org. http://flintcultural.org/. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ a b c d e Mostafavi, Beata (November 10, 2011). "What happened last time? A look back at Flint's 2002 state takeover". The Flint Journal. http://www.mlive.com/news/flint/index.ssf/2011/11/what_happened_last_time_a_look.html. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- ^ Longley, Kristin (November 8, 2011). "Flint would be only Michigan city to twice undergo emergency state takeover". The Flint Journal. http://www.mlive.com/news/flint/index.ssf/2011/11/flint_would_be_only_michigan_c.html. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- ^ "What's Up Downtown?". http://www.whatsupdowntown.com.
- ^ "WNEM plans studio in downtown Flint". The Flint Journal. http://blog.mlive.com/flintjournal/newsnow/2007/09/wnem_plans_studio_in_downtown.html.
- ^ "Crim offers to purchase Character Inn". http://abclocal.go.com/wjrt/story?section=news/local&id=6028243.
- ^ Tom Leonard (June 12, 2009). "US cities may have to be bulldozed in order to survive". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/financetopics/financialcrisis/5516536/US-cities-may-have-to-be-bulldozed-in-order-to-survive.html. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
- ^ Longley, Kristin (September 30, 2011). "Gov. Snyder appoints team to review Flint's finances under emergency manager law, requests report within 30 days". The Flint Journal. http://www.mlive.com/news/flint/index.ssf/2011/09/gov_snyder_appoints_team_to_re.html. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
- ^ Longley, Kristin (November 9, 2011). "About 19 percent of voters turned out to re-elect Flint Mayor Dayne Walling". Flint Journal. http://www.mlive.com/news/flint/index.ssf/2011/11/about_19_percent_of_voters_tur.html. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- ^ Longley, Kristin (November 9, 2011). "Dayne Walling re-elected mayor as state declares financial emergency in Flint". Flint Journal. http://www.mlive.com/news/flint/index.ssf/2011/11/dayne_walling_re-elected_as_st.html. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f g Longley, Kristin (December 1, 2012). "Flint emergency: Timeline of state takeover". Flint Journal. http://www.mlive.com/news/flint/index.ssf/2012/12/flint_emergency_timeline_of_st_1.html. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
- ^ a b Longley, Kristin (November 29, 2011). "Former Acting Mayor Michael Brown named Flint's emergency manager". Flint Journal. http://www.mlive.com/news/flint/index.ssf/2011/11/former_acting_mayor_michael_br.html. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
- ^ Longley, Kristin (December 2, 2011). "Shakeup at Flint City Hall as new emergency manager issues layoffs, pay cuts". The Flint Journal. http://www.mlive.com/news/flint/index.ssf/2011/12/layoffs_pay_cuts_for_some_at_f.html. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- ^ "Judge: State violated law in appointing Flint emergency manager; Powers of mayor, city council reinstated". The Flint Journal. March 20, 2012. http://www.mlive.com/news/flint/index.ssf/2012/03/emergency_manager_lawsuit.html.
- ^ State plans emergency appeal after judge removes Flint emergency manager, restores mayor and city council The Flint Journal via MLive.com, March 20, 2012
- ^ Flint emergency manager reinstated as battle over Public Act 4 continues The Flint Journal via MLive.com, March 26, 2012
- ^ Flint emergency manager unveils budget with fee hikes, public safety layoffs The Flint Journal via MLive.com, April 24, 2012
- ^ State treasury: Flint emergency financial manager still needed The Flint Journal via MLive.com, November 30, 2012
- ^ Emergency manager in Flint will be Michael Brown after Ed Kurtz steps down The Flint Journal via MLive.com, June 26, 2013
- ^ New Flint emergency manager Darnell Earley to take over after Michael Brown resigns The Flint Journal via MLive.com, September 11, 2013
- ^ "Flint, Michigan". SkyscraperPage.com. http://www.skyscraperpage.com/cities/?cityID=1064/. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ a b c "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/xmacis.php?wfo=dtx. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- ^ "Station Name: MI FLINT BISHOP INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/normals/1981-2010/products/station/USW00014826.normals.txt. Retrieved 2013-03-19.
- ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". http://www.census.gov/popest/data/cities/totals/2012/SUB-EST2012-3.html. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- ^ a b "Flint (city), Michigan". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/26/2629000.html. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
- ^ "Michigan - Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0076/twps0076.html. Retrieved May 13, 2012.
- ^ Flint Star: The Greatest Player From Flint You’ve Never Heard Of, HoopsAddict.com Retrieved July 19, 2007
- ^ "Flint Star: The Motion Picture". Flintstarmovie.com. http://www.flintstarmovie.com/. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ "Catching up with Marcus Davenport maker of Flint Star "The Motion Picture"". Elevationmag.com. http://www.elevationmag.com/basketball/index.php?itemid=206. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ "Flint Tropics". Flinttropicsshirts.com. http://www.flinttropicsshirts.com/. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ "The History of Genesee County, MI. Chapter XIII: Early Years of Flint City". Usgennet.org. March 1, 2002. http://www.usgennet.org/usa/mi/county/lapeer/gen/ch13/earlyflint1.html. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ "Hon. William A. Atwood". 1892 Portrait & Biographical Album of Genesee, Lapeer & Tuscola Counties, Chapman Bros.. 1892. pp. 801–803. http://www.usgennet.org/usa/mi/county/tuscola/book/800-803.htm. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
- ^ a b c City of Flint, Michigan Charter 1974.
- ^ "The Most Conservative and Liberal Cities in the United States" (PDF). http://alt.coxnewsweb.com/statesman/metro/081205libs.pdf. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ Flint requests ex-public safety administrator Barnett Jones' Detroit job records The Flint Journal via MLive.com, January 23, 2013
- ^ Hiring of new Flint public safety administrator part of bigger plan, emergency manager says The Flint Journal via MLive.com, April 20, 2012
- ^ Reopening Flint lockup, additional state police partnerships in emergency manager's public safety plan as city braces for staff cuts The Flint Journal via MLive.com, May 4, 2012
- ^ Flint public safety plan unveiled, called "work in progress" ABC12, May 4, 2012
- ^ City of Flint Public Safety Plan May 2012
- ^ 10 officers to be added to Flint Police Department WJRT-TV, November 15, 2012
- ^ Flint police union leader says more officers still needed on city streets The Flint Journal via MLive.com, March 13, 2013
- ^ Emergency manager says Flint's crime reduction plan on right track despite homicide outbreak The Flint Journal via MLive.com, July 24, 2013
- ^ Flint to get eight more officers, eyes tweaking public safety plan The Flint Journal via MLive.com, August 7, 2013
- ^ Lock resigns as police chief in nation's most violent city, tenure in Flint marked by successes, controversy The Flint Journal via MLive.com. September 27, 2013
- ^ Detroit Deputy Police Chief James Tolbert tagged as next Flint police chief The Flint Journal via MLive.com, September 30, 2013
- ^ David Harris (September 17, 2010). "FBI statistics show Flint fourth most violent city in America". Flint Journal. http://www.mlive.com/news/flint/index.ssf/2010/09/fbi_statistics_show_flint_four.html. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
- ^ 2010 a 'difficult year' for public safety, Flint Mayor Dayne Walling says The Flint Journal via MLive.com, December 17, 2010
- ^ Drake, Proskin, & Crain. "Analysis of Flint Homicides". Center for Homicide Research. http://www.chronline.org/Flint%20Michigan%20Research%20Report.pdf. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
- ^ Flint Police officers union head: Response times expected to go up another 25 percent after layoffs The Flint Journal December 19, 2010
- ^ The 25 Most Dangerous Cities in the U.S. Are Mostly Nice Places Gawker November 21, 2010
- ^ Most Dangerous Cities In America: Flint, Michigan Tops CQ Press List Huffington Post December 12, 2011
- ^ The most dangerous city in America Market Watch May 24, 2011
- ^ 6 additional Flint police to be rehired with $1.2 million federal grant The Flint Journal via MLive.com September 28, 2011
- ^ Early FBI stats show crime down in Flint; City falls to No. 2 on 'most violent' list The Flint Journal via MLive.com December 19, 2011
- ^ Forbes Magazine ranks Flint sixth most dangerous city for women in the nation The Flint Journal via MLive.com, April 27, 2012
- ^ Flint No. 1, Detroit second among nation's most violent cities The Flint Journal via MLive.com, June 12, 2012
- ^ Report: Flint violent crimes double all 'safest' cities' crimes combined The Flint Journal via MLive.com, June 13, 2012
- ^ Flint ranks first in per capita arson for second year in a row The Flint Journal via MLive.com, June 13, 2012
- ^ Gov. Snyder hopes reopening city jail, more state police will have 'major difference' on Flint crime The Flint Journal via MLive.com, June 18, 2012
- ^ Flint lawmaker requests settlement money to pay for more police as Flint tops nation's violent crime list The Flint Journal via MLive.com, June 18, 2012
- ^ Flint lawmaker pushes for public safety funding out of foreclosure settlement The Flint Journal via MLive.com, July 17, 2012
- ^ Flint drops title of most violent in nation, according to expanded FBI stats The Flint Journal via MLive.com, October 29, 2012
- ^ [Flint records 66th homicide of 2012, matching all-time high set two years ago] The Flint Journal via MLive.com, December 31, 2012
- ^ Flint breaks homicide record after November shooting victim dies The Flint Journal via MLive.com, March 20, 2013
- ^ The 25 Most Dangerous Cities In America Business Insider, June 13, 2013
- ^ Violent crime in Flint down nearly 30 percent, police chief says The Flint Journal via MLive.com, November 21, 2013
- ^ Homicides in Flint down about 20 percent in 2013 after record-breaking year The Flint Journal via MLive.com, December 30, 2013
- ^ Flint Homicides Down, Robberies Up in 2013 WEYI-TV, December 31, 2013
- ^ Flint’s arson rate falls 50-percent in 2013 WEYI-TV, January 3, 2014
- ^ Four Flint schools to be closed, Flint Northern to become alternative school The Flint Journal via MLive.com, March 13, 2013
- ^ "Michigan School for the Deaf". Deaftartars.com. http://www.deaftartars.com/about.cfm?subpage=231935. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ Flint Powers Catholic High School students, alums, close chapter on old building, look forward to new home The Flint Journal via MLive.com, June 13, 2013
- ^ Marjory Raymer. "Flint Journal: "Flint Journal to return to Newsstands on Tuesdays starting March 23", 3/7/2010". Mlive.com. http://www.mlive.com/news/flint/index.ssf/2010/03/flint_journal_to_return_to_new.html. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ "Broadside". Flintbroadside.com. http://www.flintbroadside.com/. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ "Innovative Health Magazine homepage". http://www.innovativehealthmagazine.com/.
- ^ "Downtown Flint Revival Magazine homepage". http://www.downtownflintrevival.com/.
- ^ WFLT AM 1420 Flint. "WFLT AM 1420 Flint". Michiguide.com. http://www.michiguide.com/dials/rad-d/wflt.html. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ "Flint Bishop International Airport". Bishopairport.org. http://www.bishopairport.org/. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- ^ "About Sister Cities of Flint Michigan". Archived from the original on October 19, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071019150808/http://www.visitflint.org/sistercities/About_Sister_Cities_of_Flint.htm. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
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