The district was ceded by the Nawab of Awadh to the British East India Company in 1801. With this cession, Gorakhpur was raised to the status of a district. The first district collector was Mr. Routledge. In 1829, Gorakhpur was made the headquarters of Gorakhpur Division, comprising the districts of Gorakhpur, Ghazipur and Azamgarh. Mr. R.M. Biad was first appointed Commissioner.
In 1865 Basti District was carved out from Gorakhpur. The latter was further split up in 1946 to form Deoria District. The third division of Gorakhpur led to the creation of Maharajganj District in 1989.
Gorakhpur district lies between latitude 26° 46´ N and longitude 83° 22´ E. The district covers an area of 3,483.8 square kilometres (1,345.1 sq mi). It is bounded by Maharajganj district to the north, Kushinagar and Deoria districts in the east, Ambedkar Nagar, Azamgarh, and Mau districts to the south, and Sant Kabir Nagar district to the west. The district is part of Gorakhpur Division.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Gorakhpur one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 34 districts in Uttar Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
According to the 2011 census Gorakhpur district has a population of 4,436,275, roughly equal to the nation of Croatia or the US state of Kentucky. This gives it a ranking of 40th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 1,336 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,460 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 17.69 %. Gorakhpur has a sex ratio of 944 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 73.25 %.
- ^ "Gorakhpur". Gorakhpur district administration. http://gorakhpur.nic.in/. Retrieved 2010-08-05.
- ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (September 8, 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. http://www.nird.org.in/brgf/doc/brgf_BackgroundNote.pdf. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. http://www.census2011.co.in/district.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html. Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Croatia 4,483,804 July 2011 est."
- ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Kentucky 4,339,367"
- ^ M. Paul Lewis, ed (2009). "Bhojpuri: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bho. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
|Siddharthnagar district||Maharajganj district||Kushinagar district|
|Sant Kabir Nagar district||Deoria district|
|Ambedkar Nagar district||Azamgarh district||Mau district|
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