|— Town —|
|• Mayor||Tudor Nădrag (Social Democratic Party)|
|Elevation||20 m (70 ft)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
Carsium is the ancient name of Harsova (Hârşova). It is to be found in sources from the 2nd to the 10th century as Karsoum, Karsos, Karso in Greek text and Carso, Carsio, Carsion, Carsium in Latin ones. On cartography documents from the 16th to the 18th century on we encounter the variant Hirsova in Ottoman documents. The etymology of the ancient name but also of the modern one has aroused the scientists interest. Tomasek and Detschew believe that the place name Carsium-Carso is of Thracian origin (it may name, furrow, field, or, rock, stone); Beshevliev and Bogrea assign it a Celtic origin (stone). The modern variant has concerned C. Moisil and N.Iorga, according to whom the actual name derives from Hirsu) Romanian adaptation for Chrysos, about which we have information from the Byzantine chronist Nicetas Choniates). Popular etymologies are also mentioned, coming from Ottoman and Romanian traditions. Bulgarian scientists link the actual name to other South-Danubian place names, derived from Hors, a very ancient local divinity. Romanian linguists consider that the actual toponym Hârşova (Harsova) has its origins in the old variant Carsium, which has normally changed phonetically in time during language evolution (c-h, a-i-î(â), r=r, s-ş). The new variant Cîrs-/Cîrş-/Hîrş-, was completed with the Slav suffix -ova. In the 16th century the toponym Hirşova/Hîrşova was already definite. (Bibliography- Constantin Nicolae, CARSIUM-HÂRŞOVA, note de toponimie, Pontica, 44, 2011, p. 183-195)
Hârşova is an old town with seven millennia. In the south-east of the town, on the Danube, is a neo-Neolithic settlement developed as a bump about. 12 m due to destruction and repainting the house of clay. Research here have identified a human community that dealt with hunting, fishing, farming and animal husbandry. Have been identified through research, trading with communities in more remote areas. Following periods are illustrated. On the hearth of the village there are several settlements of the Bronze and Iron. In ancient times, communities here have experienced the strongest growth. They have been in close contact with cities on the western coast of the Black Sea (Histria and Tomis, especially). Strongly marked Roman history people here. Most likely, in the second half of century AD was built in the Roman fortress known Carsium name (a toponym related aspect of Thracian origin rocky area, from which its present name was derived.
City was destroyed in the age of invasions and rebuilt many times. Reconstruction was undertaken under emperors Constantine Great and Justinian in the 4-6th centuries AD. From the second half of the seventh century, after the settlement of Bulgarians south of the Danube, contacts with the Eastern world were interrupted. Only in the tenth century did the Byzantines return to the Danube and reconstruct old fortifications, among which Carsium. It is possible that in the thirteenth century settlement has been under Genoese administration. In XIV century, while Mircea the Old, enter into the Romanian Country. Between fifteenth century and early nineteenth-century it was an Ottoman fortress.
In 1651 Evlia Celebi is a description of it: have 1600 houses, mosque, bath, bazaar and was defended by a wall 3000 steps. Shortly before its destruction, the city is captured in a drawing after that are famous lithographs by A. von Saar in 1826. In the nineteenth century Transylvanian mocani coming here to build the modern city. The city center is situated on the Danube. around the port are built shops, warehouses, banks, and on the west hill, a school and a church as monumental. School housed a museum, the first regional museum of Dobrogea. During the first World War the city was burned completely. major damage has been done in World War II. era marked the beginning of the downfall of the communist regime city. From a center of grain trade, administrative and judicial center was rebuilt with a new identity. were closed court, prosecutor, Museum. economy has taken a craft nature. lack of resources, the city declined. Many residents have migrated to neighboring towns (Tulcea, Constanta, Slobozia).
In the last years of communism, all old buildings, the historic downtown, especially left in ruins were demolished and blocks were built. the neighborhood stood and where he built an industrial wire and cable undertaking that operates a shipyard partially rusted today. At 20 years after the collapse of the communist regime, and found the old town not destiny. Those dreams have taken place yet to make a strong industrial center, which is impossible in the absence of natural resources and adequate infrastructure. This is that the city emblem adopted in 1933, the cross and crescent were replaced with semiroata toothed, almost nonexistent symbol of an industry, and anchor, symbol port, but also of hope, in this case, quite by chance. Starting from experience of other similar settlements in Europe and the near space, should be put in the resources available: clay, very good for building materials, scale, historical monuments can be a basis for cultural tourism and sulphurous thermal waters upstream excellent rheumatic diseases. (C.Nicolae)
- Aricescu, Andrei, Noi date despre cetatea de la Hârșova, Pontica, IV, 1971, p. 351-370;
- Bătrâna, Lia; Bătrâna, Adrian; Bolomey, Alexandra; Buzdugan, Costache;Popovici, Dragomir; Trohani, George; Oberlander, Ernest, Cercetări în necropola romano- bizantină de la Hârșova, raport, Sesiunea anuală, Pitești, 1988;
- Buzdugan, Costache; Popovici, Dragomir; Bătrâna, Lia; Bătrâna, Adrian; Murat, Actuan, Cercetările preliminare în necropola tumulară de la Hârșova, Cercetări Arheologice, XI, București, p. 425-455;
- Boca, M., Dobrogea veche în stampe și gravuri (1826–1882), Pontica, 1968, p. 455-507;
- Bounegru, Octavian; Hașotti, Puiu; Murat, Actuan; Așezarea daco-romană de la Hârșova și unele aspecte ale romanizării în Dobrogea, SCIVA, 40, 3,1989, p. 273-293;
- Brătulescu, V.,Cetatea Hârșova în legătură cu Dobrogea și ținuturile înconjurătoare, Buletinul Comisiei Monumentelor Istorice, XXXIII, 105, 1940, p. 3-24;
- Cantacuzino, Gheorghe, Cercetări arheologice la fortificațiile de la Hârșova, Buletinul Comisiei Monumentelor Istorice, 3, 1992, p. 58-67;
- Chiriac, Costel; Nicolae, Constantin; Talmațchi, Gabriel, Noutăți epigrafice de epocă romană la Carsium, Pontica, XXXI, 1998, p. 139-162;
- Ciobanu, Radu, Un monument istoric mai puțin cunoscut: cetatea feudală de la Hârșova Buletinul Monumentelor Istorice, XXXIV, 1970, p. 25-29
- Covacef, Z., Pionieri ai culturii românești în Dobrogea;Ioan Cotovu și Vasile Cotovu, Analele Dobrogei, I, 1,1995, p. 127-134;
- Craciun, Cristina, Studiu privind topografia sitului Carsium (sec. 1-6 d.Hr.) Buletinul Comisiei Monumentelor Istorice, 19, 1-2, 2008;
- Damian, Oana; Damian, Paul, Date preliminare despre un edificiu romano-biazntin descoperit la Hârșova, Cercetări Arheologice, X, 1997, p. 231-240;
- Florescu, Grigore, Raport asupra activității arheologice de la Hârșova în Template:Not a typo 1943,Buletinul Comisiei Monumentelor Istorice,, 1943, București, 1946,p. 179-180.
- Galbenu, Doina, Așezarea neolitică de la Hârșova, SCIV, 2, 13, 1962, p. 285-290.
- Hașotti, Puiu; Popovici, Dragomir, Cultura Cernavoda I în contextul descoperirilor de la Hârșova, Pontica, 25, 1992, p. 15-44;
- Morintz, Sebastian; Șerbănescu, Done, Cercetările arheologice la Hârșova și împrejurimi, SCIVA, 25, 1, 1974, p. 47-69;
- Nicolae, Constantin, Câteva opaițe descoperite la Carsium, Pontica, XXVII, 1994, p. 199-207;
- Nicolae, Constantin, Descoperiri de epocă romană și bizantină la Carsium, Pontica, XXVIII-XXIX, 1995–1996, p. 135-160;
- Nicolae, Victorița; Nicolae, Constantin, O tegulă ștampilată descoperită la Carsium,SCIVA, 42, 1991, p. 79-80;
- Nicolae, Constantin; Banoiu, Daniela; Nicolae, Vlad, Aspecte noi privind topografia cetatii de la Harsova (jud.Constanta), Pontica, 41, 2008, p. 313-342;
- Nicolae, Constantin, Stadiul cercetărilor arheologice la Hârşova, jud. Constanţa. Contribuţii la harta arheologică a localităţii, Pontica, 43, 2010, p. 221-249;
- Panait, Panait,I.;Rădulescu, Adrian; Ștefănescu, A.; Flaut D., Cercetări arheologice în cetatea de la Hârșova, Campania 1995, Pontica, XXVIII-XXIX, 1995–1996, p. 121-134;
- Petolescu, Constantin, C.; Popovici, Dragomir, O inscripție inedită de la Carsium,SCIVA, 40, 3, 1989, p. 241-247;
- Pârvan, Vasile, Descoperiri nouă în Scythia Minor, Analele Academiei Române, Memoriile Secțiunii Istorie, II, 35, 1913, p. 487-491;
- Talmațchi, Gabriel; Paraschiv-Talmațchi, Cristina, Un fragment din istoria Hârșovei,redat prin prisma mărturiilor documentare, Analele Dobrogei, V, 2, 1999, p. 31-46
At the 2011 census, Hârșova had 7,476 Romanians (84.47%), 6 Hungarians (0.07%), 490 Roma (5.54%), 829 Turks (9.37%), 9 Tatars (0.10%), 27 Lipovans (0.31%), 4 others (0.05%), 9 with undeclared ethnicity (0.10%) .
See also Edit
- ^ "Constanta County at the 2011 census" (in Romanian). INSSE. February 2, 2012. http://www.constanta.insse.ro/phpfiles/COMUNICAT_RPL_CONSTANTA.pdf. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
- ^ "Elected mayors at the 2012 local election" (in Romanian). Central Electoral Committee. 15 June 2012. http://www.beclocale2012.ro/DOCUMENTE%20BEC/REZULTATE%20FINALE/Primari/P_lista_moc.pdf. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
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