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In human genetics, Haplogroup J2 (M172) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subdivision of haplogroup J.

Haplogroup J2 is widely believed to be associated with the spread of agriculture from the northern Fertile Crescent, the Levant, and Anatolia [1],[2]. This connection is supported by its age (8,500 +/- 3,500 thousand years ago) [2], which is very close to the beginning of the Neolithic, its distribution, which is centered in West Asia and Southeastern Europe, as well as its association with the presence of Neolithic archaeological artifacts, such as figurines and painted pottery [3].

DistributionEdit

J2a1

subclades of J2 Haplogroup

Haplogroup J2 is found mainly in the northern Fertile Crescent, the Mediterranean (including Southern Europe and North Africa), the Iranian plateau and Central Asia. [Semino et Al., 2004][4], in Greece 33% and Italy and Balkan]][5], and more frequently in Kurdistan 28% of the population (semino et al),Iraq 25% of the population,, in Lebanon 30% of the population, and in Jordan, in Syria , Palestine in [2], in Turkey [1], and in the southern Caucasus region [6]. According to Semino et al and the National Geographic genographic project, the Frequency of haplogroup J2 generally declines as one moves away from the Northern fertile crescent. Haplogroup J2 is carried by 6% of Europeans and its frequency drops dramatically as one moves northward away from the Mediterranean. Sephardic Jews have roughly twice as much J2 as J1 and Ashkenazi Jews have a near equal proportion of J1 and J2 haplogroup markers. (Behar et al.) J2 (M-172) is divided into eight sub-Haplogroups defined by mutations M12/M102, M47, M67/M92, M68, M137, M158, M339, and M340 (see Diagram), four of which occur at informative frequencies [Simono et Al., 2004][7] [2], The less-heterogeneous J2 (J-M172), which occurs as frequently as J1( J-M267) in some Middle Eastern populations, is the more prevalent in Europe. J-M102 illustrates population expansions from the southern Balkans. J-M67 is most frequent in the Caucasus (Georgia) , and J-M92, which indicates affinity between Anatolia and southern Italy. Whereas J-M67* and J-M92 show higher frequencies and variances in Europe and in Turkey. Likewise, J-M47 and J-M68 characterize very few Near Eastern and Asian samples.[8]

Another important fact about the distribution of Haplogroup J2 is that it appears to have dispersed from a Middle Eastern homeland to the west through a primarily maritime or littoral route, as it is found in high concentrations among the populations of the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea in both Eurasia and Africa, and particularly along the coasts of the eastern Mediterranean in Europe. This distribution may be more consonant with a Neolithic or post-Neolithic maritime dispersal from the Middle East, such as through Phoenician commercial and colonial activities, or even through Greek colonization.

Turkey is one of the countries with major J2 population. About 25% of Turkish men are J2 according to a recent study [1]. Combined with J1, one third of the total population of Turkish people belongs to Haplogroup J.

Typically, modern populations of the southern Middle East (especially Arabic-speaking ones) have a higher frequency of the related haplogroup J1, whereas the great majority of Haplogroup J representatives among the populations of the Northern Middle East, Lebanon, Europe, and India belong to the subclade J2. Haplogroup J2 has been shown to have a more northerly distribution in the Middle East when compared to its brother haplogroup, J1, which has a more southerly distribution. This suggests that, if the occurrence of Haplogroup J among modern populations of Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia does reflect Neolithic demic diffusion from the Middle East, the source population is more likely to have originated from Anatolia, the Levant or northern Mesopotamia than from regions further south. .

SubdivisionsEdit

Haplogroup J2 is subdivided into two complementary sub-haplogroups: J2a, defined by the M410 genetic marker, and J2b, defined by the M12 genetic marker. A subclade of haplogroup J2a, defined by the M92 marker has been implicated in the ancient Greek colonization [9].

The subclades of Haplogroup J2 with their defining mutation, according to the 2006 ISOGG tree:

  • J2 (M172)
    • J2*
    • J2a (M410)
      • J2a*
      • J2a1 (DYS413≤18)
        • J2a1*
        • J2a1a (M47, M322)
        • J2a1b (M67 (S51))
          • J2a1b*
          • J2a1b1 (M92, M260)
            • J2a1b1*
            • J2a1b1a (M327)
          • J2a1b2 (M163, M166)
        • J2a1c (M68)
        • J2a1d (M137)
        • J2a1e (M158)
        • J2a1f (M289)
        • J2a1g (M318)
        • J2a1h (M319)
        • J2a1i (M339)
        • J2a1j (M419)
        • J2a1k (DYS445≤7)
      • J2a2 (M340)
    • J2b (M12, M314, M221)
      • J2b*
      • J2b1 (M102)
        • J2b1*
        • J2b1a (M241)
          • J2b1a*
          • J2b1a1 (M99)
          • J2b1a2 (M280)
          • J2b1a3 (M321)
        • J2b1b (M205)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^  C. Cinnioglu et al. (2004), Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia, Human Genetics 114(2):127-48.
  2. ^  O. Semino et al. (2004), Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area, American Journal of Human Genetics 74(5):1023-34.
  3. ^  R. King and P.A. Underhill (2002), Congruent distribution of Neolithic painted pottery and ceramic figurines with Y-chromosome lineages, Antiquity 76:704-714
  4. ^  F. Di Giacomo et al. (2003), Clinal patterns of human Y chromosomal diversity in continental Italy and Greece are dominated by drift and founder effects, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28(3):387-95.
  5. ^  I. Nasidze et al. (2003), Testing hypotheses of language replacement in the Caucasus: evidence from the Y-chromosome, Human Genetics 112(3):255-61.
  6. ^  Sanghamitra Sengupta et al. (2006), Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists, American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221
  7. ^  Renfrew, A.C. (1987). Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins, London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6612-5
  8. ^  A. Nebel et al. (2001), The Y chromosome pool of Jews as part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East, Americal Journal of Human Genetics 69(5):1095-112.
  9. ^  F. Di Giacomo et al. (2004), Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe, Human Genetics 115(5):357-71.

External linksEdit



Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313                K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]</small>    P1     P2
N O Q     R
Footnotes 
  1. ^ (2014) "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. DOI:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A-L1085 (and previously as A0'1'2'3'4).
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T-M184 was known as "Haplogroup K2". That name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K-M2313 were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: (2016) "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics '48' (6): 593–9. DOI:10.1038/ng.3559. PMID 27111036.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA). The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.