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Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning,[1] and its history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities.[2] The Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites.[3][4] Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard was a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.[5] A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant. James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College.

The university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area:[6] its 209-acre (84.6 ha) main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, approximately 3 miles (5 km) northwest of Boston; the business school and athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston and the medical, dental, and public health schools are in the Longwood Medical Area.[7] The endowment of Harvard's is worth $37.1 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution.[8]

Harvard is a large, highly residential research university.[9] The nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages.[10] The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items.[11][12][13] Harvard's alumni include eight U.S. presidents, several foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, and 242 Marshall Scholars.[14][15][16] To date, some 157 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, and 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or staff.[17] In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes,[18] and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold, 41 silver and 21 bronze).[19] Harvard has been among the top universities worldwide on various league tables.[20][21] [22][23]

References Edit

  1. ^ Rudolph, Frederick (1961). The American College and University. University of Georgia Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8203-1285-1. 
  2. ^ Keller, Morton; Keller, Phyllis (2001). Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University. Oxford University Press. pp. 463–481. ISBN 0-19-514457-0. "Harvard's professional schools... won world prestige of a sort rarely seen among social institutions. (...) Harvard's age, wealth, quality, and prestige may well shield it from any conceivable vicissitudes." 
  3. ^ Story, Ronald (1975). "Harvard and the Boston Brahmins: A Study in Institutional and Class Development, 1800–1865". Journal of Social History 8 (3): 94–121. DOI:10.1353/jsh/8.3.94. 
  4. ^ Farrell, Betty G. (1993). Elite Families: Class and Power in Nineteenth-Century Boston. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1593-7. 
  5. ^ "Member Institutions and years of Admission". Association of American Universities. http://www.aau.edu/about/article.aspx?id=5476. Retrieved August 28, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Faculties and Allied Institutions". Office of the Provost, Harvard University. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100611155105/http://www.provost.harvard.edu/institutional_research/09_03OrgChtFac.pdf. Retrieved August 27, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Faculties and Allied Institutions". Office of the Provost, Harvard University. 2012. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130523000940/http://www.provost.harvard.edu/institutional_research/harvard_fact_book_2012_physical_plant.pdf. Retrieved June 15, 2013. 
  8. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named HarvardGlance
  9. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Carnegie
  10. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named fa
  11. ^ "Harvard Library Annual Report FY 2013". Harvard University Library. 2013. http://library.harvard.edu/annual-report-fy-2013. Retrieved January 3, 2015. 
  12. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named largestlibs
  13. ^ "Speaking Volumes". Harvard Gazette (The President and Fellows of Harvard College). February 26, 1998. http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/02.26/SpeakingVolumes.html. 
  14. ^ "Joining the ranks of Rhodes". Harvard Gazette. http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2016/11/harvard-students-rhodes-scholars/. Retrieved December 3, 2016. 
  15. ^ Janhavi Kumar Sapra (August 11, 2010). "Billionaire Universities". Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/2010/08/11/harvard-stanford-columbia-business-billionaires-universities.html?boxes=businesschannelsections. Retrieved August 31, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Statistics". http://www.marshallscholarship.org/about/statistics. 
  17. ^ "The complete list of Fields Medal winners". areppim AG. 2014. http://stats.areppim.com/listes/list_fieldsxmedal.htm. Retrieved September 10, 2015. 
  18. ^ "Pulitzer Prize Winners". https://www.harvard.edu/about-harvard/harvard-glance/honors/pulitzer-prize-winners. 
  19. ^ "Harvard Olympians". http://www.calbears.com/ViewArticle.dbml?ATCLID=208193984. Retrieved February 2, 2018. 
  20. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities——Harvard University Ranking Profile". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. http://www.shanghairanking.com/World-University-Rankings/Harvard-University.html. Retrieved September 7, 2016. 
  21. ^ Ted Nesi (October 9, 2009). "Brown slips in world university rankings". Providence Business News. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20091015103940/http://www.pbn.com/detail/45410.html. Retrieved August 31, 2010. 
  22. ^ Morgan, John. "Top Six Universities Dominate THE World Reputation Rankings". http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2011/reputation-ranking/analysis. ""The rankings suggest that the top six-...Stanford University and the University of Oxford – form a group of globally recognised "super brands"." 
  23. ^ "World Reputation Rankings 2016". Times Higher Education. 2016. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/world-university-rankings/2016/reputation-ranking#!/page/0/length/25/sort_by/rank_label/sort_order/asc/cols/rank_only. Retrieved September 7, 2016.