|Spoken in:|| Benin |
|Total speakers:||25 million as a first language, 18 million as a second language|
|Language family:|| Afro-Asiatic|
West Chadic A
|Writing system:||Latin, Arabic|
|This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...|
Native speakers of Hausa, the Hausa people are mostly to be found in the African country of Niger and in the north of Nigeria, but the language is used as a trade language across a much larger swathe of West Africa (Accra, Abidjan, Dakar, Lomé, Cotonou, Bamako, Conakry, Ouagadougou, etc.) and Central Africa (Douala, Yaoundé, Maroua, Garoua, N'djaména, Bangui, Libreville, etc.), particularly amongst Muslims. Radio stations like BBC, Radio France Internationale, China Radio International, Voice of Russia, Voice of America, Deutsche Welle, and IRIB broadcast in Hausa. It is taught at universities in Africa and around the world.
Traditional Hausa DialectsEdit
Western Hausa dialects include Sakkwatanci in Sokoto, Kutebanci in Taraba, Katsinanci in Katsina, Arewanci in Gobir, Adar, Kebbi, and Zamfara, and Kurhwayanci in Kurfey in Niger. Katsina is transitional between Eastern and Western dialects.
Northern Hausa dialects include Arewa and Arawa.
Zazzaganci in Zaria is the major Southern dialect.
Ghanaian Hausa DialectEdit
The Ghanaian Hausa dialect (Gaananci), forms a separate group, as it is falls outside of the contiguous Hausa-dominant area, and is usually identified by the use of c for ky, and j for gy. This is attributed to the fact that Gaananci was historically isolated from the other Hausa dialects. Despite this difference, grammatical similarities between Sakkwatanci and Ghanaian Hausa determine that the dialect was derived from Western Hausa.
Non-native Hausa is a term which defines the Hausa language as spoken by non-native speakers (especially as Hausa language is used as a lingua franca in West Africa). Non-native pronunciation vastly differs from native pronunciation by way of key omissions of implosive and ejective consonants present in native Hausa dialects, such as ɗ, ɓ and kʼ/ƙ, which are pronounced by non-native speakers as d, b and k respectively. This presents confusion among non-native and native Hausa speakers, as there exists a lack of difference between the pronunciation of words like daidai (correct) and ɗaiɗai (one-by-one) in non-native Hausa. Another difference between native and non-native Hausa is the omission of vowel length in words and change in the standard tone of native Hausa dialects (ranging from native Fulani and Tuareg Hausa-speakers omitting tone altogether, to Hausa speakers with Gur or Yoruba mother tongues using additional tonal structures similar to those used in their native languages). Use of masculine and feminine gender nouns and sentence structure are usually omitted or interchanged, and many native Hausa nouns and verbs are substituted for non-native terms from local languages.
Non-native speakers of Hausa number around 15 million, and in some areas live in close proximity to native Hausa.
Hausa has between 23 and 25 consonant phonemes depending on the speaker.
The three-way contrast between palatalized velars /c ɟ cʼ/, plain velars /k ɡ kʼ/, and labialized velars /kʷ ɡʷ kʷʼ/ is found only before long or short /a/, e.g. /cʼaːɽa/ ('grass'), /kʼaːɽaː/ ('to increase'), /kʷʼaːɽaː/ ('shea-nuts'). Before front vowels, only palatalized and labialized velars occur, e.g. /ciːʃiː/ ('jealousy') vs. /kʷiːɓiː/ ('side of body'). Before rounded vowels, only labialized velars occur, e.g. /kʷoːɽaː/ ('ringworm').
Hausa has glottalic consonants (implosives and ejectives) at four or five places of articulation (depending on the dialect). They require movement of the glottis during pronunciation and have a staccato sound.
They are written with modified versions of Latin letters. They can also be denoted with an apostrophe, either before or after depending on the letter, as shown below.
d' / ɗ, an implosive [ɗ], sometimes [dʔ];
ts', an ejective consonant, [tsʼ] or [sʼ] according to the dialect;
ch', an ejective [tʃʼ] (does not occur in Kano dialect)
k' / ƙ, an ejective [kʼ]; [kʲʼ] and [kʷʼ] are separate consonants;
'y is a palatalized glottal stop, found in only a small number of high frequency words. Historically it developed from palatalized [ɗ].
Hausa has 5 phonemic vowel sounds which are both single and long, giving a total of 10 vowel phonemes which are called Monophthongs and 4 joint vowel sound that are called Diphthongs giving a total number of 14 vowel phonemes.
Single Vowels :/a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ and /u/. Long Vowels:/aa/, /ee/, /ii/, /oo/, and /uu/.
Diphthongs are: /ai/, /au/, /iu/ and /ui/.
For representing tones accented vowels may be used:
à è ì ò ù (low tone)
á é í ó ú (high tone)
â ê î ô û (falling tone)
In standard written Hausa, tone is not marked. However it is needed for disambiguation and thus it is marked in dictionaries and other scientific works.
|A a||B b||Ɓ ɓ||C c||D d||Ɗ ɗ||E e||F f||G g||H h||I i||J j||K k||Ƙ ƙ||L l|
|M m||N n||O o||R r||S s||Sh sh||T t||Ts ts||U u||W w||Y y||(Ƴ ƴ)||Z z||ʼ|
Tone, vowel length, and the distinction between /r/ and /ɽ/ (which does not exist for all speakers) are not marked in writing. So, for example, /daɡa/ "from" and /daːɡaː/ "battle" are both written daga.
Examples of SentencesEdit
Here are some random Sentences in this language; Ina son satirarka yau. Jiya ban ga wannan kyakkyawar kwanakin ga alama za su ruɓe, amma ga shi yau, da kyau.
Hausa has also been written in ajami, a variant of the Arabic script, since the early 17th century. There is no standard system of using ajami, and different writers may use letters with different values.
In the following table, vowels are shown with the Arabic letter for t as an example.
|ɓ||/ɓ/||ب (same as b), ٻ (not used in Arabic)|
|ɗ||/ɗ/||د (same as d), ط (also used for ts)|
|e||/e/||تٜ (not used in Arabic)|
|e||/eː/||تٰٜ (not used in Arabic)|
|ƙ||/kʼ/||ك (same as k), ق|
|o||/o/||ـُ (same as u)|
|o||/oː/||ـُو (same as u)|
|ts||/(t)sʼ/||ط (also used for ɗ), ڟ (not used in Arabic)|
|u||/u/||ـُ (same as o)|
|u||/uː/||ـُو (same as o)|
At least three other writing systems for Hausa have been proposed or "discovered." None of these are in active use beyond perhaps some individuals.
- A Hausa alphabet supposedly of ancient origin and in use in north of Maradi, Niger.
- A script that apparently originated with the writing/publishing group Raina Kama in the 1980s.
- A script called "Tafi" proposed in the 1970s(?)
- ^ Ethnologue (2009) cites 18,5 million L1 and 15 million L2 speakers in Nigeria as of 1991; 5,5 million L1 speakers and half that many L2 speakers in Niger as of 2006, 0,8 million in Benin as of 2006, and just over 0,1 million in other countries.
- ^ Njas.helsinki.fi
- ^ Ethnorema.it
- ^ Schuh, Russell G.; Lawan D. Yalwa. "Hausa". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 90–95. ISBN 0-521-63751-1.
- ^ "Hausa alphabet"
- ^ Hausa alphabet from a 1993 publication
- ^ Hausa alphabet from a 1993 publication
|For a list of words relating to Hausa language, see the Hausa language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary|
- VOA Hausa - Based in Washington, D.C.
- Hausa Vocabulary List (from the World Loanword Database)
- Kasahorow Hausa Dictionary
- Ethnologue report on Hausa
- Hausa Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh list appendix)
- Hausa at UCLA
- Kofar Hausa dictionary at University of Vienna
- Bargery's Hausa Dictionary Online
- Learning Hausa Online
- Hausa Wiktionary
- Hausa phrasebook
- PanAfriL10n page on Hausa
- BBC World Service Hausa - Based in London
- Zuria FM Kumasi Ghana - Radio broadcasting in Ghanaian and Standard Hausa
|This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Hausa language. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.|