Human haplogroup

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A human haplogroup is a group of characteristics studied in human genetics and increasingly useful for genealogy.

The term "haplogroup" covers all biology, but in this wiki (and, to some extent, in Wikipedia, such as the bulk of the Wikipedia:haplogroup article) it is generally used to mean "human haplogroup".

The following table needs updating, as of May 2010. It, with its introduction, may be best incorporated in another page such as Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, but if it can be effectively updated it may be worth keeping separate as a quick-reference page with a Y-DNA-specific title, such as Table of Y-DNA haplogroups. Updating should probably be done by careful comparison with relevant Wikipedia articles and the ISOGG website.

The following is based on information that was found in the [1] web site as well as Wikipedia articles including the page that we have now copied to Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It provides a quick summary of the major male-line haplogroups, as understood in 2007. While based on Genetree's presentation, some modifications have been made to reorganize the information more systematically to show

a) timing of origin,
b) place of origin, and
c) center of modern occurrence.

Some of this has required interpreting what Genetree said originally, and this may have introduced some ideas that they had not intended. Such passages are marked with an asterisk (*). Interested readers cannot, regrettably, examine the original GeneTree information. The nearest to it on the website in May 2010 is

HaplogroupDate of OriginPlace of OriginCenter of Modern Occurrence
A Haplogroup A is the oldest, considered the group from which arose "Y-Chromosomal Adam." most widespread Y-DNA haplogroup, Found throughout Africa, A's descendants include Tanzania's Hadza peoples and eastern Africa's bushmen.
B Like haplogroup A, B is among the oldest and most diverse of the Y-DNA haplogroups. Africa This group is best represented among African Pygmy populations (particularly among Baka and Mbuti peoples), in the sub-Sahara.
C Originated before c4,0000 BC * Asia * Scientists see this haplogroup as having migrated to the Americas circa 4,000-6,000 BC, settling in the Pacific Northwest. With progeny spanning Asia and the South Pacific, haplogroup C is believed to have helped colonize Australia and New Guinea. C's traces are also to be found - although less commonly - among indigenous American peoples.
D approximately 50,000 years ago Africa; experienced a great Southern Asian coastal migration. Its descendants populate Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim, including Japan (especially subgroup D2).
E This haplogroup represents a major segment of early mankind, with origins some 50,000 before our time. Its progeny is most common to the Middle East and northern Africa.
E3a c4000 years ago Northern Africa; and is notable in its frequent representation among modern day black Americans.
E3b appeared around 24,000 BC. E3b Middle East Thought to have emigrated from the Middle East into the Mediterranean region, westward during the agricultural expansion in the Neolithic era. Today's E3b descendants are said to be found in eastern and northern Africa, as well as southeastern Europe.
F c45,000 years ago It is sometimes believed to represent a "second-wave" of expansion out of Africa. However, the location of this lineage's first expansion and rise to dominance appears to have been in India or somewhere close to it within South Asia or the Middle East; The extent of its distribution not yet known for certain, but its two clades (F1 and F2) seem to occur only at a very low frequency among modern human populations and primarily only among populations of India. Despite its rare occurrence, 90% of the modern male population belongs to Haplogroups derived from HG F.
G It is thought to have its origins in circa 10,000-15,000 BC India or Pakistan, Migrated in a northwesterly direction; its descendants can be found in the eastern Mediterranean region, as well as the Middle East and western Asia. This haplogroup is widely distributed in Eastern Europe and Asia, despite a low overall representation in human populations.
H H is believed to have been born approximately 30,000 years ago Southern Asia. While scientists have traced H's roots to India itself, evidence also suggests a Middle Eastern/Iranian origin. It is well represented in today's Indian and Pakistani populations.
I A branch of haplogroup F, developed prior to about 20,000 years ago Middle East Believed to have migrated from the Middle East 20,000 to 25,000 years ago; it can be found in high concentrations in the Adriatic region (1/3 of modern day Croats), and is evidently also linked with Celtic populations. This haplogroup is thought to be linked with Scandinavia's Viking populations, ultimately spreading widely throughout modern-day Europe.
I1a Its roots have been traced to as recently as the past 1,000 years, Has been shown to be of non-Scandinavian origin, despite its nominal link with haplogroup I, a heavily Scandinavian segment. It is thought to be linked to Anglo-Saxon migrations from southern into northern Europe. The group's modern-day seat is in central Europe.
I1b Has been shown to be of non-Scandinavian origin, despite its nominal link with haplogroup I, a heavily Scandinavian segment. I1b's progeny can be found in modern day Greece, and less frequently in other areas of southern Europe.
J This descendant of haplogroup F emerged roughly 10,000-15,000 years ago Western Asia It is traceable to current European, Middle Eastern and North African peoples, with progeny also represented in India and Pakistan.
J2 Its 15,000-20,000 year old beginnings are said to have coincided with the spread of early agriculture, J2's descendants include modern Jewish populations, with frequent representation also in Central Asia and the Mediterranean. with additional populations in India. J2 is also said to be represented in some Arab peoples.
K 40,000 years ago. Central Asia some This subgroup of F gave rise to every remaining haplogroup - namely L, M, N, O and P (which would spawn haplogroups Q and R). Haplogroup K descendants would fathered most of the current population of the northern hemisphere; almost all Asians are descendants of this group, many Indian peoples, and most Europeans are also descendants
L Originating some 30,000 years ago, L is said to have yielded the first significant influx of humans into India. Its descendants are still represented in the Indian nation, with further progeny extending throughout southern Asia and the Middle East.
M M made its first appearance circa 10,000 BC in southeastern Asia, and spawned populations in Indonesia and much of Southeast Asia.
N This haplogroup's origins have been traced to northern Asia, where its peoples were divided between Siberia and a strong Eurasian migration. Today's N populations are found throughout much of Europe, including Russia and Scandinavian nations.
O First appearing roughly 35,000 years ago, O's membership is said to have left Siberia for the Pacific Rim region. Virtually all Chinese, Korean and Japanese males are descendants of haplogroup O, with almost no representation among western Asian populations.

P 30,000 to 40,000 years before the present day. Scientists have traced P's roots to northern Asia, This subgroup of K is ancestor to most Europeans, and has spawned nearly all Native American peoples. Today's P descendants are common to Asia and South America.
Q Originated approximately 20,000 years ago, in Siberia moving eastward across the Bering Strait into the American continent some c 15000 years ago Today's Q progeny is found in nearly all Native American peoples, having spread from northeastern America throughout the entire continent.Q's lineage is common to members of both Asian and North American populations,
R 30,000 years ago This haplogroup arose in northwestern Asia Central Asia, South Asia, Australia, Siberia, Native Americans, and Cameroon.
R1a <-- check --> circa 10,000 BC, likely originated in the Eurasian Steppes, and may be associated with the Kurgan culture and Proto-Indo-European expansion. It is primarily found in Central and Western Asia, India, and the Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe, as well as among some populations of Mongolia and southern Siberia, where it might reflect Scythian influences of classical antiquity.
R1b circa 10,000 BC, Its progenitors are said to have descended from Cro-Magnon man, which immigrated into Europe some 35,000 years before our present day. Most common of all haplogroups among European peoples. Generously exhibited in western European males, and thus within North American population groups, this haplogroup is represented most frequently in southern England, as well as among the Spanish and Portuguese. In fact, some western European regions (the Iberian peninsula and Ireland) contain R1b males at frequencies as high as 90%.

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