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Main Births etc
Hyderabad
—  Metropolis  —
A montage of images related to Hyderabad city.
Clockwise from top left: Charminar, Birla Mandir, Hussain Sagar, Golconda Fort, Skyline at Lanco Hills, Chowmahalla Palace.
Nickname(s): City of Pearls



Andhra Pradesh locator map
Red pog.svg
Hyderabad
Location of Hyderabad in India
Coordinates: 17°21′58″N 78°28′34″E / 17.366, 78.476Coordinates: 17°21′58″N 78°28′34″E / 17.366, 78.476
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Deccan region of India, Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh state.
Districts Hyderabad, Rangareddy and Medak
Founded 1591 AD
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body GHMC, HMDA
 • Mayor Mohammad Majid Hussain
 • Police commissioner Anurag Sharma
Area
 • Metropolis 650 km2 (250 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Metropolis 6,809,970
 • Rank 4th
 • Density 18,480/km2 (47,900/sq mi)
 • Metro 7,749,334
 • Metro rank 6th
Demonym Hyderabadi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Pincode(s) 500 xxx, 501 xxx, 502 xxx, 508 xxx, 509 xxx
Area code(s) +91–40, 8413, 8414, 8415, 8417, 8418, 8453, 8455
Vehicle registration AP 09, 10, 11, 12, 13, 22, 23, 24, 28 & 29
Official languages Telugu; Urdu
Website ghmc.gov.in

Hyderabad ( /ˈhdərəbæd/) is the capital and largest city of the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It occupies 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) on the banks of the Musi River. As of 2011, the population of the city was 6.8 million while the metropolitan area had a population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration.

Hyderabad was established in 1591 CE as Bhaganagar by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, fifth sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golkonda. It remained under the rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1687, when Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the region and the city became part of the Mughal empire. In 1724 Asif Jah I, a Mughal viceroy, declared his sovereignty and formed the Asif Jahi dynasty, also known as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Nizams ruled the princely state of Hyderabad in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj for more than two centuries. The city remained the princely state's capital from 1769 to 1948, when the Nizam signed an Instrument of Accession with the Indian Union as a result of Operation Polo. Between 1948-1956 Hyderabad city was the capital of the Hyderabad State. In 1956, the States Reorganisation Act merged Hyderabad State with the Andhra State to form the modern state of Andhra Pradesh, with Hyderabad city as its capital.

Throughout its history, the city was a centre for local traditions in art, literature, architecture and cuisine. It is a tourist destination and has many places of interest, including Chowmahalla Palace, Charminar and Golkonda fort. It has several museums, bazaars, galleries, libraries, sports venues and other cultural institutions—Laad Bazar, Madina Circle, Begum Bazaar, Sultan Bazaar are bazaars from the Qutb Shahi and Nizam era; Salar Jung Museum, Nizam Museum, and AP State Archaeology Museum are notable museums. Hyderabadi biriyani and Hyderabadi haleem are examples of distinctive culinary products of the city.

Historically, Hyderabad was known for its pearl and diamond trading centres. Industrialisation brought major Indian manufacturing and financial institutions to the city, such as the Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the Defence Research and Development Organisation Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology and the National Mineral Development Corporation. The emergence of pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries from the 1990s earned it the titles of "India's pharmaceutical capital" and the "Genome Valley of India". The Telugu film industry is based in Hyderabad.

HistoryEdit

ToponymyEdit

The name Hyderabad derives from Persian/Urdu words "haydar" or "hyder" (lion) and "ābād" (city or abode).[1] So, Hyderabad means "Hyder's abode" or "lion city". According to John Everett-Heath, Hyderabad was named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, who was also known as Hyder (lion) because of his valour in battles.[1] One popular theory suggests that Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the founder of the city, named it "Bhaganagar" or "Bhāgnagar" after Bhāgmathi, a local nautch (dancing) girl with whom he had fallen in love.[2] She converted to Islam and adopted the title Hyder Mahal. The city was renamed Hyderabad in her honour.[2] According to another source, the city was named after Haidar, the son of Quli Qutb Shah.[3] Andrew Petersen, a scholar of Islamic architecture, says the city was originally called Baghnagar (city of gardens).[4] However, no sources defines when or by whom the city was named.

Early and medieval historyEdit

Archaeologists excavating near the city have unearthed Iron Age sites that may date from 500 BCE.[5] The region comprising modern Hyderabad and its surroundings was known as Golkonda ("shepherd's hill").[6] It was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 624 CE to 1075 CE.[7] Following the dissolution of the Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, Golkonda came under the control of the Kakatiya dynasty (1158–1310), whose headquarters was at Warangal, 148 km (92 mi) northeast of modern Hyderabad.[8]

The tomb of the former rulers of Hyderabad

The Qutb shahi tombs at Ibrahim Bagh, are the tombs of the seven Qutub Shahi rulers.

When Sultan Alauddin Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate took over Warangal after a long siege, the Kakatiya dynasty was allowed to rule the region under the subjugate of the Khilji dynasty (1310–1321), and finally in 1321 the Kakatiya dynasty annexed to Allaudin Khilji general Malik Kafur.[9] Alauddin Khilji took the Koh-i-Noor diamond, which is said to have been mined from the Kollur Mines in Golkonda,[10] to Delhi. Muhammad bin Tughluq succeeded to the Delhi sultanate in 1325, bringing Warangal under the rule of the Tughlaq dynasty until 1347. Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, a governor under bin Tughluq, rebelled against the sultanate and established the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan Plateau, with Gulbarga, 200 km (124 mi) west of Hyderabad, as its capital. The Bahmani kings ruled the region until 1518, and were the first independent Muslim rulers of the Deccan.[8]

Sultan Quli, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518.[8] Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth sultan of this dynasty, established Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591[11] to avoid the water shortages experienced at Golkonda, the sultanate's capital.[12] He built the Charminar and Mecca Masjid in the city.[13] On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort.[14][15] The annexed area was renamed Deccan Suba (Deccan province), and the capital was moved from Golkonda to Aurangabad, about 550 km (342 mi) northwest of Hyderabad.[14][16]

Nizam periodEdit

In 1712, Farrukhsiyar, the sixth of Aurangzeb's successors, appointed Asif Jah I to be Viceroy of the Deccan, with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (Administrator of the Realm). In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the region Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad.[14][16] When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. Asif Jah II, who reigned from 1762 to 1803, ended the instability. In 1768 he signed the treaty of Masulipatnam, surrendering the coastal region to the East India Company in return for a fixed annual rent.[17]

In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams.[14][16] In response to regular threats from Hyder Ali, Dalwai of Mysore, Baji Rao I, Peshwa of the Maratha Empire, and Basalath Jung (Asif Jah II's elder brother, who was supported by the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau), the Nizam signed a subsidiary alliance with the East India Company in 1798, allowing the British Indian Army to occupy Bolarum (modern Secunderabad) to protect the state's borders, for which the Nizams paid an annual maintenance to the British.[17] From the late nineteenth century on, Hyderabad was transformed into a modern city with the establishment of railways, transport services, underground drainage, running water, electricity, Begumpet Airport, telecommunications, universities and industries. The Nizams ruled the state from Hyderabad until 17 September 1948, a year after India's independence from Britain.[14][16]

Post-independenceEdit

Hyderabad state from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909

Hyderabad state in 1909

Following the independence of India from British rule, the Nizam declared his intention to remain independent rather than become part of the Indian Union.[17] The Hyderabad State Congress, with the support of the Indian National Congress and the Communist Party of India, began agitating against Nizam VII in 1948. On 17 September the Indian Army took control of Hyderabad State after an invasion codenamed Operation Polo. When his forces were defeated, Nizam VII capitulated to the Indian Union by signing the "Instrument of Accession", which made him the Rajpramukh (Princely Governor) of the state.[16][18] Between 1946 and 1951, the Communist Party of India led a peasant rebellion called the Telangana uprising against the feudal lords of the Telangana region and later against the princely state of Hyderabad.[19] The Constitution of India, which became effective on 26 January 1950, made Hyderabad State one of the part B states of India, with Hyderabad City continuing to be the capital. In his 1955 report Thoughts on Linguistic States, B. R. Ambedkar, then chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution, proposed designating the Hyderabad city as the second capital of India because of its amenities and strategic central location.[20] Since 1956, the Rashtrapati Nilayam in Hyderabad has been the second official residence and business office of the President of India.[21]

On 1 November 1956, the states of India were reorganised by language group. Hyderabad State ceased to exist; it was split into three parts, which were included in the modern Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The nine Telugu- and Urdu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State that make up the Telangana region were merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State to create Andhra Pradesh,[22] with Hyderabad as its capital. Several protests, known collectively as the Telangana movement, attempted to invalidate the merger and demanded the creation of a new Telangana state. Major actions took place in 1969 and 1972, with a third beginning in 2010.[23] In 2002, blast occurred in Dilsukhnagar claiming two lives.[24] In May and August 2007, terrorist groups detonated a series of bombs in the city, causing communal tension and riots.[25] The series of blasts that occurred at Dilsukhnagar in February 2013 are the latest terrorist attacks in Hyderabad.[26]

GeographyEdit

TopographyEdit

A large manmade lake, formerly used as a source of drinking water.

Hussain Sagar lake, built during the reign of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, was once the source of drinking water for Hyderabad.[27]

Hyderabad is situated in the north-western part of Andhra Pradesh, located 1,566 kilometres (973 mi) south of Delhi, 699 kilometres (434 mi) southeast of Mumbai, and 570 kilometres (350 mi) north of Bangalore by road.[28] It lies on the banks of the Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau in South India.[29][30] The city is spread over 650 km2 (250 sq mi), making it one of the largest metropolitan areas in India.[29] Hyderabad, with an average altitude of 1,778 feet (542 m), has predominantly sloping terrain of grey and pink granite, dotted with small hills; Banjara Hills, at 2,206 feet (672 m), is the highest.[30][31] The city's lakes are often called sagar ("sea"). Hussain Sagar, built in 1562, is near the city centre. Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar are artificial lakes created by dams on the Musi.[30][32] As of 1996, the city had 140 lakes and 834 water tanks (ponds).[33]

ClimateEdit

Hyderabad has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw) bordering on a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh).[34] The annual mean temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 21–32 °C (70–90 °F).[35] Summers (March–June) are hot and humid, with average highs in the mid 30s Celsius;[36] maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) between April and June.[35] Winter lasts for only about 2+12 months, during which the lowest temperature occasionally dips to 10 °C (50 °F) in December and January.[35] May is the hottest month, when daily temperatures range from 26 to 38.8 °C (79 to 102 °F); January, the coldest, has temperatures varying from 14.7 to 28.6 °C (58 to 83 °F).[36] Temperatures in the evenings and mornings are generally cooler because of the city's moderate elevation.

Rains brought by the south-west summer monsoon lash Hyderabad between June and September,[37] supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 812.5 mm (32 in).[36] The highest total monthly rainfall, 181.5 mm (7 in), occurs in September.[36] The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period was 241 mm (9 in) on 24 August 2000. The highest temperature ever recorded was 45.5 °C (114 °F) on 2 June 1966, and the lowest was 8 °C (46 °F) on 8 January 1946. The city receives 2,731 hours of sunshine per year; maximum daily sunlight exposure occurs in February.[37][38] Template:Hyderabad, India weatherbox

AdministrationEdit

Local governmentEdit

A white building with multiple domes

The Andhra Pradesh State Assembly building houses the bicameral Andhra Pradesh Legislature.

Hyderabad is administered by several government agencies. The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city's 18 "circles", which together encompass 150 municipal wards. Each ward is represented by a corporator, elected by popular vote. The corporators elect the Mayor, who is the titular head of GHMC; executive powers rest with the Municipal Commissioner, appointed by the Government of Andhra Pradesh. The GHMC carries out the city's infrastructural work such as building and maintenance of roads and drains; town planning including construction regulation; maintenance of municipal markets and parks; solid waste management; the issuing of birth and death certificates; the issuing of trade licences; collection of property tax; and community welfare services such as mother and child healthcare service, pre-school education, and non-formal education.[39] The GHMC was formed in April 2007 by merging the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH) with 12 municipalities of the Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy and Medak districts covering a total area of 650 km2 (250 sq mi).[40][41]:3 In the 2009 municipal election, an alliance of the Indian National Congress and Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen formed the majority.[42] The Secunderabad Cantonment Board is a civic administration agency overseeing an area of 40.1 km2 (15.5 sq mi),[43]:93 where there are several military camps.[44]:2 The Osmania University campus is administered independently by the university authority.[43]:93

Hyderabad's administrative agencies have varied jurisdictions. The Hyderabad Police area is the smallest, followed in ascending size by Hyderabad district, the GHMC area ("Hyderabad city") and the area under the Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA). The HMDA is an apolitical urban planning agency that encompasses the GHMC and its suburbs, extending to 54 mandals in five districts occupying an area of 7,100 km2 (2,700 sq mi).[45] It coordinates the development activities of GHMC and suburban municipalities and manages the administration of the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (HMWSSB), the Andhra Pradesh Transmission Corporation, the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) and other bodies.[45]

The jurisdiction of the Hyderabad Police Commissionerate is divided into five police zones, each headed by a deputy commissioner.[46] The Hyderabad Traffic Police is headed by a deputy commissioner who reports to the commissioner.[47] In 2012 the Andhra Pradesh Government announced its intention to merge the Hyderabad and Cyberabad Police Commissionerates into a single Greater Hyderabad Police Commissionerate.[48]

As the seat of the Government of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad is home to the Andhra Pradesh Legislature, the state secretariat and the Andhra Pradesh High Court, as well as to various local government agencies. The Lower City Civil Court and the Metropolitan Criminal Court are under the jurisdiction of the High Court.[49][50]:1 The GHMC area contains 24 State Legislative Assembly constituencies, which come under 5 constituencies of the Lok Sabha (the lower house of the Parliament of India).[40]

Utility servicesEdit

The HMWSSB regulates rainwater harvesting, water supply and sewerage services,[45] sourcing water from several dams located in the suburbs.[51] In 2005 the HMWSSB started operating a 150-kilometre-long (93 mi) water supply pipeline from Nagarjuna Sagar Dam to meet increasing demands.[51] The Andhra Pradesh Central Power Distribution Company manages electricity supply.[45] Firefighting services are provided by the Andhra Pradesh Fire Services department. As of March 2012, the city has 13 fire stations.[52] The state-owned Indian Postal Service has five head post offices and many sub-post offices in Hyderabad, and privately run courier services are also available.[30] In 1999, the state government launched eSeva, an electronic facility supporting several citizen services, including utility bill payment.[53]

Pollution controlEdit

Every day Hyderabad produces around 4,500 metric tonnes of solid waste, which is transported from collection units in Imlibun, Yousufguda and Lower Tank Bund to the dumpsite in Jawaharnagar.[54] The GHMC started the Integrated Solid Waste Management project in 2010 to manage waste disposal.[55] The Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (APPCB) is the regulatory and screening authority for pollution. Rapid urbanisation and increased economic activity encouraged migration to Hyderabad, which led to increased air pollution, industrial waste, noise pollution and water pollution.[56] The contribution of different sources to air pollution in 2006 was: 20–50% from vehicles, 40–70% from a combination of vehicle discharge and road dust, 10–30% from industrial discharges and 3–10% from the burning of household rubbish.[57] Deaths from atmospheric particulate matter are estimated at 1,700–3,000 each year.[58] The ground water in Hyderabad has a hardness of up to 1000 ppm, around three times higher than is desirable.[59] The region's ground water levels are shrinking, and dams are facing water shortage due to burgeoning population and the consequent increase in demand.[51][60] Inadequately treated effluents from industrial treatment plants are polluting the drinking water sources of the city.[61]

HealthcareEdit

A building with Islamic architecture

The Nizamia Unani Hospital provides medical care in both Unani and Allopathic medicine systems.

The Andhra Pradesh Vaidya Vidhana Parishad, a department of the state government, administers healthcare in Hyderabad.[62] In 2010–11 the city had 50 government hospitals,[63] 300 private and charity hospitals and 194 nursing homes; together these facilities provide approximately 12,000 hospital beds, less than half of the required 25,000.[64][65] For every 10,000 people in the city, there are 17.6 hospital beds,[66] 9 specialist doctors, 14 nurses and 6 physicians.[65] The city also has about 4,000 individual clinics[67] and 500 medical diagnostic centres.[64] Most residents prefer treatment at private facilities, and only 28% use government facilities, because of their distance, poor quality of care and long waiting times.[68]:60–61 As of 2012, many new hospitals of all sizes have opened or are being built.[67] Hyderabad also has outpatient and inpatient facilities that use Unani, homeopathic and Ayurvedic treatments.[69]

According to the 2005 National Family Health Survey, 24% of Hyderabad's households were covered by government health schemes or health insurance—the highest proportion among the cities surveyed.[68]:4 The city's total fertility rate is 1.8,[68]:47 Only 61% of children had been provided with all basic vaccines (BCG, measles and full courses of polio and DPT), fewer than in all other surveyed cities except Meerut.[68]:98 The infant mortality rate was 35 per 1,000 live births, and the mortality rate for children under five was 41 per 1,000 live births.[68]:97 According to the survey, about a third of women and a quarter of men were overweight or obese, about 49% of children below 5 years are anaemic, and up to 20% of children are underweight.[68]:44, 55–56 More than 2% of women and 3% of men suffer from diabetes in Hyderabad.[68]:57

DemographicsEdit

Hyderabad Population 
CensusPop.
19711,796,000
19812,546,00041.8%
19913,059,26220.2%
20013,637,48318.9%
20116,809,97087.2%
Sources:[70][71]

Hyderabad underwent sudden growth in the first decade of the 21st century. When the GHMC was created in 2007, the area occupied by the municipality increased from 175 km2 (68 sq mi) to 650 km2 (250 sq mi).[29] As a consequence, the population increased by over 87%, from 3,637,483 in the 2001 census to 6,809,970 in the 2011 census, making Hyderabad the fourth most populous city in India.[71][72] Migrants from elsewhere in India constitute 24% of the city population.[44]Template:RP The population density is 18,480 /km2 (47,900 /sq mi).[73] The Hyderabad Urban Agglomeration has a population of 7,749,334, making it the sixth most populous urban agglomeration in the country.[72]

There are 3,500,802 male and 3,309,168 female citizens—a sex ratio of 945 females per 1000 males,[74] higher than the national average of 926 per 1000.[75] Among children aged 0–6 years, 373,794 are boys and 352,022 are girls—a ratio of 942 per 1000.[74] Literacy stands at 82.96% (male 85.96%; female 79.79%), higher than the national average of 74.04%.[76]

Ethnic groups, language and religionEdit

Residents of Hyderabad are called Hyderabadi. The majority of them are Telugu people, followed by Urdu-speaking people; there are minority of Marathi, Kannada (including Nawayathi), Marwari, Bengali, Tamil, Malayali, Gujarati, Punjabi and Uttar Pradeshi communities. Among the communities of foreign origin, Yemeni Arabs form the majority, and African Arabs, Armenians, Abyssinians, Iranians, Pathans and Turkish people are also present. The foreign population declined after Hyderabad State became part of the Indian Union, as it lost the patronage of the Nizams.[77]

Religion in Hyderabad district—2001[78]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
55%
Islam
  
41%
Christianity
  
2%
Others†
  
1%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs, Buddhists, Parsis and Jains.

Telugu is the official language of Hyderabad and Urdu is its second language.[79] The Telugu dialect spoken in Hyderabad is called Telangana, and the Urdu spoken is called Dakhani.[80]:1869–70[81] English is also used, particularly among white-collar workers.[82] A significant minority speaks other languages, including Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Kannada and Tamil.[77]

Hindus form the majority of Hyderabad's population. Muslims are present throughout the city and predominate in and around the Old City. There are also Christian, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist and Parsi communities, and iconic temples, mosques and churches can be seen.[83] According to the 2001 census, Hyderabad district's religious make-up was: Hindus (55.41%), Muslims (41.17%), Christians (2.43%), Jains (0.43%), Sikhs (0.29%) and Buddhists (0.02%); 0.23% did not state any religion.[78]

SlumsEdit

According to a 2012 report submitted by GHMC to the World Bank, Hyderabad has 1,476 slums with a total population of 1.7 million, of whom 66% live in 985 slums in the "core" of the city (the part that formed Hyderabad before the April 2007 expansion) and the remaining 34% live in 491 in suburban tenements.[84] About 22% of the slum-dwelling households had migrated from different parts of India in the last decade of the 20th century, and 63% claimed to have lived in the slums for over 10 years.[44]:55 Overall literacy in the slums is 60–80% and female literacy is 52–73%. A third of the slums have basic service connections and 90% have water supply lines. There are 405 government schools, 267 government aided schools, 175 private schools and 528 community halls in the slum areas.[85]:70

According to a 2008 survey by the Centre for Good Governance, 87.6% of the slum-dwelling households are nuclear families, 18% are very poor, with an income of Template:INR convert per annum, 73% live below the poverty line (a standard poverty line recognised by the Andhra Pradesh Government is Template:INR convert per annum), 27% of the chief wage earners (CWE) are casual labour and 38% of the CWE are illiterate. About 3.72% of the slum children aged 5–14 do not go to school and 3.17% work as child labour, of whom 64% are boys and 36% are girls. The largest employers of child labour are street shops and construction sites. Among the working children, 35% are engaged in hazardous jobs.[44]:59

CityscapeEdit

Hyderabad Financial district,India
A panorama of the city, highlighting the financial district

NeighbourhoodEdit

A street map of the central area of the city

Street map of the central area of the city

The historic city established by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah on the southern side of the Musi River forms the "Old City", while the "New City" encompasses the urbanised area on the northern banks. The two are connected by many bridges across the river, the oldest of which is Purana Pul (old bridge).[86] Hyderabad is twinned with neighbouring Secunderabad, from which it is separated by Hussain Sagar.

In the southern part of central Hyderabad are many historical and touristic sites, such as the Charminar, the Mecca Masjid, the Salar Jung Museum, the Nizam's museum, the Falaknuma Palace and the traditional retail corridor comprising Laad Bazaar, Pearls Market and Madina circle. North of the river are hospitals, colleges, major railway stations and business areas such as Begum Bazaar, Koti, Abids, Sultan Bazaar and Moazzam Jahi Market, along with administrative and recreational establishments such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Andhra Pradesh Secretariat, the Hyderabad Mint, the Andhra Pradesh Legislature, the Public Garden, the Nizam Club, the Ravindra Bharathi, the state museum, the Birla Temple and the Birla Planetarium.[87][88][89]

Towards the north of central Hyderabad lie Hussain Sagar, Tank Bund Road, Rani Gunj and the Secunderabad Railway Station.[87] The majority of the city's parks and recreation centres are here, such as Sanjeevaiah Park, Indira Park, Lumbini Park, NTR Gardens, the Buddha statue and Tankbund Park.[27] In the northwest part of the city there are upscale residential areas such as Banjara Hills, Jubilee Hills, Begumpet and Khairatabad. The northern end contains industrial areas such as Sanathnagar, Moosapet, Balanagar, Pathan Cheru and Chanda Nagar. The northeast end is dotted with residential colonies.[87][88][89] The "Cyberabad" area in the southwest and west parts of the city has grown rapidly since the 1990s. It is home to information technology and bio-pharmaceutical companies and to landmarks such as Hyderabad Airport, Osman Sagar, Himayath Sagar and KBR National Park. In the eastern part of the city lie many defence research centres and Ramoji Film City.

LandmarksEdit

 A wel architectural designed building

A memorial of Mah Laqa Bai in Hyderabad, is a Asif Jahi architecture.

Hyderabad’s architecture is primarily known for its heritage buildings constructed during Qutb shahi and Nizam rule, and showcasing the Indo-Islamic architecture with influence of Medieval, Mughal and European styles.[4][90] After the 1908 Musi River flood devastated the city, it was expanded, and civic monuments constructed, particularly during Mir Osman Ali Khan (the VIIth Nizam), also known as the maker of modern Hyderabad because of his patronage of architecture.[91][92] In 2012, the government of India declared Hyderabad the first "Best heritage city of India".[93]

The Qutb Shahi architecture of the 16th and early 17th centuries followed the classical Persian model of domes and colossal arches.[94] The oldest surviving Qutb Shahi structure in Hyderabad is the ruins of Golconda fort built in 16th century. The Charminar, Mecca Masjid, Charkaman and Qutb Shahi Tombs are the other existing structures of this period; among these the Charminar has become an icon of the city. Located in the centre of old Hyderabad, it is a square structure with each side 20 metres (66 ft) long and four grand arches each facing a road. At each corner stands an exquisitely designed 56 metres (184 ft) minaret. Granite and lime mortar are the principal materials used in the Qutb shahi structures. Most of the historical Bazaars that still exist were constructed on the street north of Charminar towards Golconda fort. The Charminar, the Qutb Shahi tombs and the Golconda fort are among the monuments of national importance in India; in 2010 the sites were proposed by Indian Government for the UNESCO World Heritage Site.[91][95][96]:11-18[97]

Among the oldest surviving examples of Nizam architecture in Hyderabad is the Chowmahalla Palace, which was the royal seat and the largest palace. It showcases a diverse array of architectural styles, from Baroque inside the Harem, to its Neoclassical style royal court. The other palaces built by the Nizams include Falaknuma Palace (inspired by Andrea Palladio villas), Purani Haveli, King Kothi, Bella Vista Palace and Chiran Palace, all of which were built at the peak of the Nizam rule in the 19th century. During Mir Osman Ali Khan's rule, the European styles along with Indo-Islamic became prominent, reflected in Falaknuma Palace and much of the civic monuments such as Hyderabad High Court, Osmania Hospital, Osmania University, Hyderabad and Kachiguda railway stations, State Central Library, City College, Andhra Pradesh Legislature, State Archaeology Museum and Jubilee Hall.[91][94][98][99] Parallel to Nizam's palaces the aristocratic Paigah family constructed hillock villas: Paigah Palace, Asman Garh Palace, Basheer Bagh Palace, Errum Manzil and Spanish Mosque.[96]:16-17[100][101]

EconomyEdit

Several men inside a traditional bangle shop in the market.

A jewellery and pearl shop in Laad Bazaar, near the Charminar

Of all the cities of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad is the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product (GDP), tax and other revenues.[102] Its $74 billion GDP makes it the fifth-largest contributor city to India's overall GDP.[103] Its per capita annual income in 2011 was Template:INR convert.[104] As of 2006, the largest employers in the city are the governments of Andhra Pradesh (113,098 employees) and of India (85,155).[105] According to a government survey in 2005, 77% of males and 19% of females in the city were employed.[106] The service industry remains dominant in the city, and 90% of the employed workforce is engaged in this sector.[107]

Hyderabad is known as the "City of Pearls" because of its role in the pearl trade. Until the 18th century the city was the only global trading centre for large diamonds.[15][108] Industrialisation began under the Nizams in the late 19th century, helped by railway expansion that connected the city with major ports.[109][110] From the 1950s to the 1970s, Indian enterprises were established in the city,[111] such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC), Bharat Electronics (BE), Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Centre for Cellular & Molecular Biology (CCMB), Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Andhra Bank (AB) and State Bank of Hyderabad (SBH).[88] The city is home to the Hyderabad Securities formerly known as Hyderabad Stock Exchange (HSE),[112] and houses the regional office of Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).[113] Thus Hyderabad evolved from a traditional manufacturing city to a cosmopolitan industrial service centre.[88] Since the 1990s, the growth of information technology (IT), IT-enabled services, insurance and financial institutions has expanded the service sector, and these primary economic activities have boosted the ancillary sectors of trade and commerce, transport, storage, communication, real estate and retail.[110]

Hyderabad's commercial markets are divided into four sectors: central business districts, sub-central business centres, neighbourhood business centres and local business centres.[114] Several central business districts are spread across the city.[115] Many traditional and historical bazaars are located in the city.[116][117] The Laad Bazaar and nearby markets have shops that sell pearls, diamonds and other traditional ware and cultural antiques.[116] According to a survey by Cushman & Wakefield, Hyderabad's retail industry and traditional markets were growing in 2007.[118]

City panorama showing gardens, clean roads and modern office buildings

HITEC city, the hub of information technology companies

Hyderabad is known as "India's pharmaceutical capital" and as the "Genome Valley of India" because of its many pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.[119] It is a global centre of information technology, for which it is known as Cyberabad (Cyber City).[120][121] During 2008–09, Hyderabad's IT exports reached US$ 4.7 billion,[122] and 22% of the NASSCOM's total membership is from the city.[104] The development of HITEC City, a township with extensive technological infrastructure, prompted multinational companies to establish facilities in Hyderabad.[120] The city is home to more than 1300 IT and ITES firms, including global conglomerates such as Microsoft (operating its largest R&D campus outside the US), Google, IBM, Yahoo!, Dell, Facebook,[44]:3[123] and major Indian firms including Mahindra Satyam, Infosys, TCS, Genpact and Wipro.[44]:3 In 2009 the World Bank Group ranked the city as the second best Indian city for doing business.[124] The city and its suburbs contain the highest number of special economic zones of any Indian city.[104]

Like the rest of India, Hyderabad has a large informal economy that employs 30% of the labour force.[85]:71 According to a survey published in 2007, it had 40–50,000 street vendors, and their numbers were increasing.[125]:9 Among the street vendors, 84% are male and 16% female,[126]:12 and four fifths are "stationary vendors" operating from a fixed pitch, often with their own stall.[126]:15–16 Most are financed through personal savings; only 8% borrow from moneylenders.[126]:19 Vendor earnings vary from Template:INR convert to Template:INR convert per day.[125] Other unorganised economic sectors include dairy, poultry farming, brick manufacturing, casual labour and domestic help. Those involved in the informal economy constitute a major portion of urban poor.[85]:71

TransportEdit

 A congested road showing pedestrian traffic, auto-rickshaws and street vendors encroaching on the pavement

A congested road near Charminar showing pedestrians, auto-rickshaws and street vendors

Public modes of transport such as buses, auto rickshaws and light railways are the most commonly used in Hyderabad.[127] Half of the vehicles in 2001 were two-wheelers, 16% cars, 16% auto rickshaws, 9% bicycles and 3% buses.[128]:61 As of 2012, there are about 77,000 auto rickshaws and 3,800 APSRTC buses.[129] In some parts of the city cycle rickshaws are hired to travel smaller distances.[130] Three National Highways pass through the city: NH-7, NH-9 and NH-202. Five state highways, SH-1, SH-2, SH-4, SH-5 and SH-6, either begin at or pass through Hyderabad.[128]:58 As of 2010, maximum speed limits within the city are 50 km/h (31 mph) for two-wheelers and cars, 35 km/h (22 mph) for auto rickshaws and 40 km/h (25 mph) for light commercial vehicles and buses.[131]

Traffic congestion is widespread in the city,[132]:2–3 and roads occupy 9.5% of the total city area.[43]:79 In 2001 it was reported that 40% of accidents are due to poor facilities for pedestrians.[127][128]:63 Like many other Indian metropolitan cities, Hyderabad faces parking problems, particularly in the city centre. The Inner Ring Road, the Outer Ring Road and various interchanges, overpasses and underpasses have been developed to ease the congestion, including the Hyderabad Elevated Expressway which, as of 2008, is the longest flyover in India.[133]

Well-lit façade of a modern building

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, completed in 2008, was the second public–private partnership among Indian airports.

The bus service provided by the APSRTC was estimated to carry 13 million passengers a day in 2005.[134][135] The Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station in the city centre is the main bus station.[136] Setwin (Society for Employment Promotion & Training in Twin Cities) operates minibuses in the city.[137] The Secunderabad Railway Station is the headquarters of the South Central Railway zone of Indian Railways, and the largest station in Hyderabad. Other major railway stations in Hyderabad are Hyderabad Deccan Station, Kachiguda Railway Station and Begumpet Railway Station.[138] Hyderabad's light rail transportation system, known as the Multi-Modal Transport System, is used by over 150,000 passengers daily.[139] Hyderabad Metro, a rapid transit system, is under construction and is scheduled to operate three lines by 2014.[140] Rajiv Gandhi International Airport (RGAI) (IATA: HYDICAO: VOHS) was opened in 2008, replacing Begumpet Airport.[141] In 2011, Airports Council International, an autonomous body representing the world's airports, judged RGAI the world's best airport in the 5–15 million passenger category and the world's fifth best airport for Airport service quality.[142]

CultureEdit

Several male devotees performing prayers at a mosque.

Devotees performing Ramadan prayers at Mecca Masjid

Hyderabad is noted for its mingling of North and South Indian linguistic and cultural traits and for the coexistence of Hindu and Muslim traditions there.[143][144]:viii Telugu and Urdu are the languages most commonly spoken.[145] Traditional Hyderabadi garb is Sherwani and KurtaPaijama for men and Khara Dupatta and Salwar kameez for women.[146][147][148] Muslim women commonly wear burqas and hijabs in public.[149] Most youth wear western clothing.[150] Festivals celebrated in Hyderabad include Ganesh Chaturthi, Diwali, Bonalu, Bathukamma, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.

LiteratureEdit

Hyderabad received royal patronage for arts, literature and architecture from Qutb Shahi rulers and Nizams; this attracted artists and men of letters from different parts of the world. The resulting multi-ethnic settlements popularised cultural events such as mushairas (poetic symposia).[151] The Qutb Shahi dynasty patronised the growth of Deccani Urdu literature; the Deccani Masnavi and Diwan (collection of poems) composed during this period are among the earliest available manuscripts in Urdu.[152] The reign of the Nizams saw many literary reforms and the introduction of Urdu as a language of court, administration and education.[153] In 1824, a collection of Urdu Ghazals (a specific poetic form) named Gulzar-e-Mahlaqa, penned by Mah Laqa Bai—the first female Urdu poet—was published in Hyderabad.[154] The Hyderabad Literary Festival, held since 2010, is an annual event that showcases the city's literary and cultural creativity.[155] Organisations engaged in research into and promotion of literature include the Sahitya Akademi, the Urdu Academy, the Telugu Academy, the National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, the Comparative Literature Association of India, and Andhra Saraswata Parishad. The State Central Library, established in 1891, is the largest public library in the state.[156] Other major libraries are the Sri Krishna Devaraya Andhra Bhasha Nilayam, the British Library and the Sundarayya Vignana Kendram.[157]

Music, performing arts and filmsEdit

South Indian music and dances such as the Kuchipudi and Kathakali styles originated in South India, and remains popular in the Deccan region. North Indian music and dance was introduced in the Deccan under the Mughals and later the Asif Jahi rulers.[158] It became a tradition among the nobility in the princely state of Hyderabad to keep courtesans and to learn singing, poetry and classical dance from them.[159] This gave rise to certain styles of court music, dance and poetry. Taramati in the 17th century[160] and Mah Laqa Bai in the 18th and 19th centuries were among the popular courtesans who popularised dance and poetry in the region.[159] Besides western and Indian popular music genres such as filmi music, the residents of Hyderabad play city-based marfa music, especially at weddings, festivals and other celebratory events.[161] The state government organises the Golconda Music and Dance Festival, the Taramati Music Festival and the Premavathi Dance Festival.[162] Though the city is not particularly noted for theatre and drama,[163] the state government promotes theatre with multiple programmes and festivals.[164][165] The Ravindra Bharati, Shilpakala Vedika and Lalithakala Thoranam are auditoria for theatre and performing arts in the city. Numaish is a popular annual exhibition of local and national consumer products.[166] The city is home to the Telugu film industry, popularly known as Tollywood.[167] As of 2012, Tollywood is second only to Bollywood in producing the most films in India.[168] Since 2005, films in local Hyderabadi dialect have gained in popularity.[169] The city hosts the annual International Children's Film Festival and the Hyderabad International Film Festival.[170] In 2005, Guinness World Records declared Ramoji Film City to be the world's largest film studio.[171]

Art and handicraftEdit

A decorated metal vase on display

An 18th century bidriware-Cup with lid, displayed at the V&A Museum

The Golconda and Hyderabad styles are branches of Deccani painting.[172] Developed during the 16th century, the Golconda style is a native style blending foreign techniques, bearing some similarity to the Vijayanagara paintings of neighbouring Mysore. A significant use of luminous gold and white colours is generally found in the Golconda style.[173] The Hyderabad style originated in the early 17th century under the Nizams. Highly influenced by Mughal painting, this style makes use of bright colours and mostly depicts regional landscape, culture, costumes and jewellery.[172]

A metalware handicraft known as Bidri ware was popularised in the region in the 18th century. Bidri ware is a Geographical Indication (GI) tagged craft of India.[91][174] Kalamkari, a hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile, is popular in the city.[175] Hyderabad's museums include the Salar Jung Museum (housing "one of the largest one-man-collections in the world"[176]), the AP State Archaeology Museum, the Nizam Museum, the City Museum and the Birla Science Museum, which contains a planetarium.[177]

CuisineEdit

Three utensils containing spicy Indian food

Hyderabadi Biryani (on left), and other dishes

Hyderabadi cuisine became prominent with the Nizams.[178] It comprises a broad repertoire of rice, wheat and meat dishes and the skilled use of various spices.[179] Hyderabadi biryani and Hyderabadi haleem, with their blend of Mughlai and Arab cuisines,[180] have become iconic dishes of India.[181] Hyderabadi cuisine is highly influenced by Mughlai and to some extent by French,[178] Arabic, Turkish, Iranian and native Telugu and Marathwada cuisines.[148][180] Other popular native dishes include nihari, chakna, baghara baingan and the desserts qubani ka meetha, double ka meetha and kaddu ki kheer (a sweet porridge made with sweet gourd).[148][182]

MediaEdit

One of the earliest newspapers to be published in Hyderabad was The Deccan Times, which was established in the 1780s.[183] The major Telugu dailies published in Hyderabad are Eenadu, Sakshi and Andhra Jyothy, the major English papers are The Times of India, The Hindu and The Deccan Chronicle,[184] and the major Urdu papers include The Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily and Etemaad. Many coffee table magazines, professional magazines and research journals are regularly published there.[185] The Secunderabad Cantonment Board established the first radio station in Hyderabad State around 1919. Deccan Radio was the first radio station in the city to broadcast to the public. It went on air on 3 February 1935.[186] In 2000, radio stations were permitted to broadcast in FM;[187] the available channels included All India Radio, Radio Mirchi, Radio City and Big FM.[188]

Television broadcasting in Hyderabad began in 1974 with the launch of Doordarshan, the Government of India's public service broadcaster,[189] which transmits two free-to-air terrestrial television channels and one satellite channel. Private satellite channels started in July 1992 with the launch of Star TV.[190] Satellite TV channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services or internet-based television.[187][191] Hyderabad's first dial-up Internet access became available in the early 1990s and was limited to software development companies.[192] The first public internet access service began in 1995, and in 1998 the first private sector Internet service provider (ISP) started operating.[193]

EducationEdit

A large pink granite building

Osmania University College of Arts

Schools in Hyderabad are affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education, the Secondary School Certificate[194] or the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, and they may be run by government or by private entities such as local governing bodies, individuals, missionaries or other agencies. Around two-thirds of pupils go to private schools.[195] Languages of instruction include English, Hindi, Urdu[196] and Telugu. Schools follow the "10+2+3" plan. After completing secondary education, students have to enroll in schools or junior colleges with a higher secondary facility. Admission to professional graduation colleges in Hyderbad is through Engineering Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test (EAM-CET). Most colleges are affiliated with either Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University or Osmania University.[197]

There are 13 universities in Hyderabad: two private universities, two deemed universities, six state universities and three central universities. The central universities are the University of Hyderabad,[198] Maulana Azad National Urdu University and the English and Foreign Languages University.[199] Osmania University, established in 1918, was the first university in Hyderabad. As of 2012, it is India's second most popular destination for international students.[200] The Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Open University, established in 1982, is the first distance-learning open university in India.[201]

The Indian School of Business, Hyderabad, Campus

Indian School of Business campus

Notable business and management schools in Hyderabad are the Indian School of Business[202] and the Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India.[203] Institutes of national importance include the Institute of Public Enterprise, the Administrative Staff College of India, and the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy. Hyderabad has five major medical schools—Osmania Medical College, Gandhi Medical College, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Deccan College of Medical Sciences and Shadan Institute Of Medical Sciences[204]—and many affiliated teaching hospitals. The Government Nizamia Tibbi College, is a college of unani medicine.[205]

Hyderabad is also a major centre for biomedical, biotechnology and pharmaceutical study and research;[206] the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research is located here.[207] The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics and the Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University are notable agricultural engineering institutes. Many of India's leading technical and engineering schools are in Hyderabad, including the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (IIITH), the Birla Institute of Technology & Science, and the Indian Institute Of Technology (IITH). Schools of fashion design in the city include Raffles Millennium International, NIFT Hyderabad and Wigan and Leigh College.

SportsEdit

three helicopters flying in formation, making smoke trails in the sky

Indian Air Force HAL Dhruv helicopters at the 2007 Military World Games

Cricket and association football[208] are the most popular sports in Hyderabad. The city has hosted national and international sports events such as the 2002 National Games of India, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 2004 AP Tourism Hyderabad Open women's tennis tournament, the 2007 Military World Games, the 2009 World Badminton Championships and the 2009 IBSF World Snooker Championship. The Swarnandhra Pradesh Sports Complex is a venue for field hockey, and the G.M.C. Balayogi Stadium in Gachibowli serves as a venue for athletics and football.[209]

The Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium and the Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium host cricket matches;[210] the latter serves as the home ground of Hyderabad Cricket Association. Hyderabad has been the venue of many international cricket matches, including matches in the 1987 and the 1996 Cricket World Cups. The Hyderabad cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy—a first-class cricket tournament among India's states and cities. Hyderabad is home to the Indian Premier League franchise Sunrisers Hyderabad formerly known as Deccan Chargers which won the 2009 Indian Premier League held in South Africa.[211]

During the British rule, Secunderabad was a well-known sporting center, and had many parade and polo grounds, race course and other sporting facilities.[212]:18 The city houses many elite clubs formed by the Nizams and the British, such as the Secunderabad Club, the Nizam Club and the Hyderabad Race Club, which is known for its horse racing,[213] especially the annual Deccan derby.[214] The Andhra Pradesh Motor Sports Club organises popular events such as the Deccan 1/4 Mile Drag,[215] TSD Rallies and 4x4 off-road rallying.[216] The Hyderabad Golf Club has an eighteen-hole golf course.[217] Notable international sportspeople from Hyderabad include: cricketers Ghulam Ahmed, M. L. Jaisimha, Mohammed Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman, Venkatapathy Raju, Shivlal Yadav, Arshad Ayub and Noel David; football players Syed Abdul Rahim, Syed Nayeemuddin and Shabbir Ali;[218] tennis player Sania Mirza; badminton players S. M. Arif, Pullela Gopichand, Saina Nehwal, Jwala Gutta and Chetan Anand; hockey players Syed Mohammad Hadi and Mukesh Kumar; and bodybuilder Mir Mohtesham Ali Khan.

Sister CitiesEdit

City Geographical location Nation Reference
Brisbane Queensland Flag of Australia.svg Australia [219]
Ipswich Queensland Flag of Australia.svg Australia [219]
Dubai Dubai Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates [220]
Miyoshi Hiroshima Flag of Japan.svg Japan [221]
Riverside California Flag of the United States.svg United States [222]
Indianapolis Indiana Flag of the United States.svg United States [223]
San Diego California Flag of the United States.svg United States [224]

See alsoEdit

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