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Igor Svyatoslavich Rurik the Brave of Chernigov, Prince of Putivl, Prince of Novgorod-Seversk, Prince of Chernigov, was born 1151 to Svyatoslav Olgovich of Chernigov (c1108-1164) and Daughter of Novgorod and died 1202 of unspecified causes. He married Eufrosinia of Halych (c1155-c1202) before 1170 JL . Ancestors are from Russia, Ukraine, Sweden.


Igor Svyatoslavich (April 2, 1151-spring 1201 [3] - Prince of Novgorod-Seversky (1180-1198), Prince of Chernigov (1198-1201). He was the som of Svyatoslav Olgovich\ . Named Igor in honor of his uncle - the holy and blessed Grand Prince of Kiev Igor Olgovich (+ 1147) [4]. He is the main character of " The Lay of Igor's Host ".

Origin

Prince Svyatoslav Olgovich was married twice. The first time he married in 1108 on the daughter of the Polovtsian khan Aepa Girgenevich [5]. In baptism, she may have received the name of Anna [7]. The second time, Svyatoslav Olgovich married in 1136 in Novgorod , and his marriage caused a scandal. The archbishop of Novgorod Nifont refused to marry him, another priest concluded the marriage. VN Tatishchev, referring to the "Rostov chronicle" that was not preserved, pointed out that Svyatoslav's wife was the daughter of Novgorod's posadnik Petrila [8], and the reason for the conflict with the archbishop was the fact that the first bride's husband had recently died [9]. However, the "Rostov Chronicle" is most likely a source of the XVI-XVII centuries, when gaps in the annals were often added on the basis of conjectures and legends, so there is reason to not trust this source. Another explanation of the conflict is, that, at the time of the Svyatoslav's second marriage, his first wife could still be alive [6]..

A number of historians and publicists assumed that Igor's mother was a Romanian woman. However, judging by the date of marriage at the time of Igor's birth, she was about 50 years old, and she could not be his mother. In addition, there is no information that Svyatoslav, after his second marriage. returned to his first wife. Thus, it is most likeley that Igor's mother was Svyatoslav Olgovich's second wife of, who, perhaps, was called Catherine. She probably, it came from a Novgorod boyar family [6].

Biography

In 1169 Igor Svyatoslavich participated in the march of eleven Russian princes under the banners of Andrei Bogolyubsky against Mstislav Izyaslavich , the Grand Duke of Kiev.

In 1171 he went with the northern squads for the Vorskla River and won the famous victory over the Polovtsian khans Kobyak and Konchak , releasing the prisoners and taking away the booty.

After the death of Roman Rostislavich Smolensky in 1180 during the northern campaign of Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich, Igor together with Yaroslav Vsevolodovich guarded Chernigov, then he and the Polovtsi participated in a campaign against Davyd Rostislavich of Smolensk under Drutk , and after the return of their troops to the south, Ryurik Rostislavich succeeded in defeating the Polovtsy Kobyak and Konchak and Igor, as a result of which in Kiev and Kiev land the so-called. "Duumvirate" of Svyatoslav and Rurik.

Before the battle on Orel, Igor and Vladimir Glebovich Pereyaslavsky were sent by Svyatoslav and Rurik against the Polovtsians. Igor refused Vladimir the right to go ahead (the advanced detachments usually got a lot of booty), Vladimir unfurled regiments and robbed the Novgorod-Seversky principality, but Igor continued his campaign and defeated the Polovtsians on the river of Khiriya . After the Battle of Orel (in which the Chernigov-Severny princes did not participate), Igor, along with other northern princes, conducted a successful campaign on the Polovtsian nomadic tribes along the Merlu River .

The campaign against the Polovtsians in 1185

Main article: Igor Svyatoslavich Novgorod-Seversky's campaign against the Polovtsy

Vasnetsov V.M. picture "After the slaughter of Igor Svyatoslavich with the Polovtsians" In the spring of 1185 Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich went to his northeast possessions to gather soldiers to go to the Don to the Polovtsi for the whole summer , and Igor together with his brother Vsevolod , Prince Kursky and Trubchevsky , and nephew Svyatoslav Olgovich , Prince Rylsky , undertook a new campaign. Together with the squad of the Kovuyevs (dependent on the Chernigov princes, the nomadic population of the left bank of the Dnieper , akin to the right -banked black hoods , dependent on the princes of Kiev), they moved to the banks of the Donets .

On the banks of Kayala, the Russian army encountered the main forces of the Polovtsians. Sources indicate the participation in the clash of almost all known Polovtsian tribal groups in south-eastern Europe. After a 3-day battle, Igor was taken prisoner, like the rest of the princes. Many warriors perished.

From the captivity, Igor fled, leaving his son Vladimir there , who returned later, marrying Konchak's daughter.

This campaign of Igor Svyatoslavich on Polovtsy served as a canvas for the famous "The Lay of Igor's Host" .

Subsequent years

The Transfiguration Cathedral in Chernigov , where Igor Svyatoslavich is buried. In 1191, Igor and his brother Vsevolod conducted a successful campaign against the Polovtsi and made a second campaign after receiving reinforcements from Svyatoslav of Kiev and Yaroslav Chernigovsky, led by five princes, reached Oskol , but the Polovtsy were able to prepare for the battle in time, and Igor took his troops to Russia .

In 1198 Igor, after the death of Chernigov prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich , took the Chernigov throne.

According to AP Pyatnov, the exact date of the death of Prince Igor Svyatoslavich (December 29) is the result of a misunderstanding and unsuccessful compilation by V.N. Tatishchev of the information of the Radzivilovo Chronicle. The indication of the year 1202, as the year of his death, is due to the disregard of the use of the ultramartic style by the chronicler. The most real date of the death of the prince should be considered the first half of 1201 [1][2]. He was buried, like his uncle - Saint Igor , in the Transfiguration Cathedral of the city ​​of Chernigov .

Marriage and children

Wife: with approx. 1169 [10] Efrosinya Yaroslavna , daughter of the Galician prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich Osmomysl from a marriage with the Suzdal princess Olga Yuryevna . Children: [8]

Vladimir Igorevich (October 8, 1170 - after 1211), Prince Putivlsky in 1185-1198 and 1208-1210, Prince Novgorod-Seversky in 1198-1206, Prince of Galich in the years 1206-1208 and 1210-1211 Oleg Igorevich (1175-1205) Svyatoslav Igorevich (1176 - Sept. 1211), Prince Vladimir-Volynsky in 1205-1206, Prince Peremyshlsky in 1209 and 1210-1211 years Roman Igorevich (September 1211), Prince Zvenigorodsky in 1206-1208 and 1210-1211, Prince of Galich in the years 1208-1210 Rostislav Igorevich (?) (September 1211), Prince Terebovly in the years 1210-1211 daughter ; husband: from 1190, Davyd Olgovich , prince of Starodub The name of Igor's wife is not mentioned in the annals. In the "Genealogy" of Empress Catherine II [9] Igor's wife was named Efrosinya. According to AV Solovyov, the name of Efrosinya goes back to the " Lubets Synodic " [11][12] . RV Zotov, researcher of the "Lubets Synodic", believed that the name of Igor's wife was Efrosinya, although he doubted the identification of Prince Feodosy mentioned there with Igor Svyatoslavich [13]. Christian name was George Igor, Theodosius was probably the Christian name of Prince Vsevolod Svyatoslavich younger brother Igor [12] .

O. V. Tvorogov suggested that Yaroslavna was mistakenly attributed the monastic name of her mother, Olga Yuryevna [14]. But the name of Efrosinya was fixed in the literature for the princess [15] .

In some sources Efrosinya is indicated by Igor's second wife, the date of marriage is referred to in 1184. For the first time this date appeared in the "Genealogy" of Empress Catherine II. According to modern researchers, this date of marriage arose as a result of inaccurate reading of the " History of the Russian " VN Tatishchev . The historian AV Solovyov proved that Yaroslavna was the mother of all the children of Igor. Since the eldest son of Igor and Yaroslavna, Vladimir, was born in 1171, marriage could not be concluded in 1184 [11][14][12].

Igor Svyatoslavich in culture and art

I. Ya. Bilibin . Prince Igor. 1929

In the Old Russian literature

Main article: A word about Igor's regiment Written at the end of the XII century (dated 1185). The manuscript of The Lay survived only in one list of Count Musin-Pushkin .

In literature

V.Porotnikov. The novel "Igor Svyatoslavich". Publisher: AST, Astrel, 2001. ISBN 5-17-010530-4 , ISBN 5-271-02951-4

In music

Main article: Prince Igor (opera) Igor Svyatoslavich is the main character of the opera "Prince Igor" by A. P. Borodin . The script plan and the libretto of the opera were written by the composer on the monument of the literature of Ancient Rus "The Lay of Igor's Campaign" with the participation of VV Stasov . The central image of the hero is captured in the famous baritone aria "Oh, give, give me freedom!".

In the fine arts

IS Glazunov . Painting "Prince Igor". KA Vasiliev . Painting "Prince Igor" (1969).

In cinematography

Main article: Prince Igor (film) The film opera "Prince Igor". A musical drama based on the opera of the same name by Aleksandr Borodin, 1969. In the main role - B. Khmelnitsky .

See also Igorevichi

Notes

  1. ^ a b Пятнов А. П. (2003). "К вопросу о дате смерти князя Игоря Святославича Черниговского" (4 (14)): 60-61. 
  2. ^ a b Алексеев С. В.. Игорь Святославич. pp. 324. 
  3. ^ In many sources, the date of death is indicated on December 29, 1202. This date goes back to VN Tatishchev, who tried to reconstruct it on the basis of a report from the Radzivilovo Chronicle . But according to APPyatnov's research Tatishchev incorrectly interpreted the information of the annals, in which the last sheets were confused, and Igor died in the first half of 1201 [1][2]. Also dating at the beginning of 1201 is confirmed by the study of Berezhkov NG, according to which the style of the chronology of Article 6710 of the Laurentian Chronicle is ultramartic.
  4. ^ Бережков М. Н. Блаженный Игорь Ольгович, князь Новгородсеверский и великий князь Киевский. / М.Н. Бережков – М.: Книга по Требованию, 2012. – С. 31. ISBN 978-5-458-14984-6
  5. ^ Template:Книга:Алексеев С. В.: Игорь Святославич
  6. ^ a b c Template:Книга:Алексеев С. В.: Игорь Святославич
  7. ^ S. Alekseev suggested that the Princes of Chernigov princes Svyatoslav-Nicholas and Sviatoslav-Gabriel mentioned in the Lubetsk Synodic are Svyatoslav Olgovich (the first time with a baptismal name, the second with a monastic name). According to Alekseev, an error may have occurred because of an error copyist or composer Synodikon who could misinterpret the commemoration of Prince with two different princesses [6]
  8. ^ a b Template:Книга:Войтович Л.: Княжеские династии Восточной Европы
  9. ^ Татищев В.Н.. История Российская. 3. pp. 142. 
  10. ^ Алексеев С. В.. Игорь Святославич. 
  11. ^ a b Template:Статья
  12. ^ a b c Template:Книга:Алексеев С. В.: Игорь Святославич
  13. ^ Template:Книга:Зотов Р. В.: О черниговских князьях по Любецкому синодику
  14. ^ a b Template:Статья
  15. ^ Template:Статья

References



Children


Offspring of Igor Svyatoslavich of Chernigov and Eufrosinia of Halych (c1155-c1202)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Vladimir of Halych (1171-aft1212) 1171 1212 Svoboda Konchakovna

Oleg (1175-1205)
Svyatoslav III of Volodymyr-Volynskyi (1176-1211) 1176 September 1211 Iaroslava Rurikovna (c1174-c1221)

Roman II of Halych (c1178-1211)
Rostislav
Daughter

Siblings


Offspring of Svyatoslav Olgovich of Chernigov and Daughter of Aepa Khan
Name Birth Death Joined with
Daughter
Oleg Svyatoslavich of Novgorod-Seversky (c1137-1180) 1137 18 January 1880 Yelena Yuryevna (c1140-1165)
Agafia Rostislavna
daughter of Andrei Vladimirovich of Volhynia

Offspring of Svyatoslav Olgovich of Chernigov and Woman of Novgorod
Name Birth Death Joined with
Daughter
Maria Svyatoslavna (1149-?)
Igor Svyatoslavich of Chernigov (1151-1202) 1151 1202 Eufrosinia of Halych (c1155-c1202)

Vsevolod Svyatoslavich of Kursk (1155?-1196)


Footnotes (including sources)

Contributors

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