Izvorul Muntelui Dam
(Bicaz Dam)
Izvorul Muntelui Dam.jpg

Romania location map
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Location of Izvorul Muntelui Dam in Romania

Romania Neamt Location map
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Location of Izvorul Muntelui Dam in Neamţ County
Country Romania
Location Neamţ County
Headwaters Bistriţa River
Lakeside settlements Poiana Largului, Călugăreni, Bistricioara, Pârâul Mare, Neamţ, Pârâul Mare, Chiriţeni, Hangu, Grozăveşti, Buhalniţa, Rugineşti, Izvorul Alb, Rugineşti, Secu, Potoci
Settlements in proximity Bicaz
Uses of dam Hydroelectric Power, Irrigation, Flood Control
Coordinates 46°56′18″N 26°06′11″E / 46.93833, 26.10306Coordinates: 46°56′18″N 26°06′11″E / 46.93833, 26.10306
Chief design engineer (structure) Alexandru Nourescu
Prof. Alexandru Diacon
Chief design engineer (water management) Dimitrie Leonida
Construction Company TCH (now Hidroconstrucţia)
Chief construction engineer Adalbert Gilbert (1912-c1990)
Owner(s) Hidroelectrica SA
Dam and spillways
Type of dam Gravity dam
Height (foundation) 127 m
Length 435 m
Base width 119 m
Volume 1 625 000 m3
Crest elevation 520 m
Spillways 4
Type of spillway gated
Reservoir name Izvorul Muntelui
Drainage basin 4 035 km2
Average inflow discharge 42 m3
Capacity 1235 mil. m3
Active capacity 930 mil. m3
Inactive capacity 305 mil. m3
Surface area 3 260 ha
Normal elevation 508 m
Max. water depth 97 m
Reservoir length 35 km
Max. reservoir width 2 km
Power station
Owner(s) Hidroelectrica SA
Upstream water level 508.00 m
Downstream water level 364.50 m
Hydraulic head 143.50 m
Installed discharge 178 m3/s
Turbines 6 Francis
Installed capacity 210 MW
Annual generation 434 GWh

The Izvorul Muntelui Dam is a concrete gravity dam contructed on the Bistriţa River, in Neamţ County, Romania.

The dam is located in gorges located upstream of the confluence of the Bistriţa River with the Bicaz River. The foundation is mainly Tarcău sandstone, with intercalation of clay schists and conglomerates. The foundation rock was consolidated by 10-20 m deep grouting. An impervious veil by cement injections in 70-100 m drilling was created to prevent leakage under the foundation of the dam.

The dam has four 11.5 m wide spillways equipped with 7 m high sector gates. Four bottom discharges having diameters of 2,5 m equipped with gate valves have also been provided.

The storage reservoir Edit

The storage reservoir has a total capacity of 1235 mil. m3 out of which 930 mil. m3 active capacity and 305 mil. m3 inactive capacity. It has a surface of 3260 ha and a length of 35 km. The maximum width of the lake is 2 km and the maximum depth 97 m.

The reservoir required the relocation of 2291 farms and 18760 people from 20 villages. Most of the inhabitants (13196) opted for their relocation in new villages, built on the shores of the lake, while the rest preferred relocation to other settlements. [1]

The diversion tunnel Edit

From the storage reservoir the water is diverted by a 4655 m long headrace tunnel having an interior diameter of 7 m and a double reinforced concrete lining, under Mount Botoşanu. The surge tank is of differential type with multiple diaphragms. The upper chamber is above ground and has a diaphragm of 33.00 meters and a height of 17.00 m. The vertical underground shaft has a height of 70 m and a diameter of 23.00 m. At the end of the tunnel, at the entry into the pen stocks a valve room with two butterfly valves was built.

There are two penstocks with diameter of 4.20 - 3.80 m embedded in achhoring blocks.

The hydroelectric plant Edit

Construction of the dam and of the plant Edit

The dam was initially named "Vladimir Ilich Lenin Dam". This name was later abandoned and the present official name of the dam in Izvorul Muntelui Dam, though it is also known as Bicaz Dam.

Besides the laborers of the construction company, the construction of the dam and of the hydroelectric plant also used forced labor. Government Decree Nr.6 of January 14, 1950 created Units of forced labor, which were converted by Government Decree Nr. 1554 of August 22, 1952 into Labor Colonies. The people working in the forced labor camps were rich peasants (so called "chiaburi"), merchants sentenced for profiteering, former members of the Romanian right wing parties (known as "legionnaires") or of former non-communist political parties, relatives of "traitors of the motherland" (persons who had left Romania and settled abroad), peasants who opposed the process of colectivization of agriculture and other opponents of the regime.[2][1] The members of the Neamţ County Chapter of the Association of Former Political Detainees erected a cross near the dam in memory of the workers who lost their lives during detention [3].

Another form of forced labor were the military of the "Service of Labor" (Romanian: Serviciul Muncii which had been created by Government Decree Nr. 2 of January 14, 1950. This service enrolled young men who were of age of being conscripted in the mandatory military service but, for political reasons, were not deemed reliable and therefore considered unfit for military training. From 1950 to 1959 a unit of 1200 military enrolled in the Service of Labor were active in the construction of the dam and hydroelectric plant.[1]

Izvorul Muntelui - Plan

Plan of Izvorul Muntelui Dam

Izvorul Muntelui - sectiune

Cross section of Izvorul Muntelui Dam

External links Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ a b c Barajul de la Bicaz - realizări și suferință
  2. ^ Ion Bălan - Regimul concentraţionar din România 1945-1964, Fundaţia Academia Civică, Bucureşti 2000
  3. ^ Barajul Izvorul Muntelui

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