James I of Scotland (1394-1437)

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James I Stewart of Scotland, King of Scotland, was born 10 December 1394 in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland, United Kingdom to Robert III of Scotland (1337-1406) and Annabella Drummond (1350-1401) and died 21 February 1437 in Perth, Scotland, United Kingdom of unspecified causes. He married Joan Beaufort (c1406-1445) 1 February 1423 in London, England, United Kingdom. Notable ancestors include Hugh Capet (c940-996), Charlemagne (747-814), Alfred the Great (849-899), Robert I of Scotland (1274-1329), Rurik (c832-879), William I of England (1027-1087). Ancestors are from the United Kingdom, Scotland, France, Germany, Belgium, England, Russia, Ukraine, the Netherlands.

James I, King of Scotland reigned over Scotland from April 4, 1406 to February 21, 1437. He was Crowned on May 2 or 21, 1424. James I belongs to the Royal House Stewart

James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) was nominal King of Scots from April 4, 1406, and reigning King of Scots from May 1424 until February 21, 1437.

Born on December 10, 1394, the son of Robert III and Annabella Drummond, he had an eventful childhood. In 1402 his elder brother, David, starved to death in prison at Falkland in Fife. Before the death of his father in 1406 the authorities sent James to France for safety.

On the journey to France, the English captured the young prince and handed him over to Henry IV of England, who imprisoned him and demanded a ransom. Robert III allegedly died from grief over the capture of James. James's uncle, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, who became Regent on the death of Robert III, showed no haste in paying for his nephew's release. Albany secured the release of his own son Murdoch, captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill, but not so with James. So for the next 18 years James remained a prisoner/hostage in England. Henry IV had the young Scots King imprisoned and educated in Windsor Castle and in secure large country houses near London. After the death of James's uncle in 1420, the Scots finally paid the ransom of £40,000, and in 1424 James returned to Scotland to find a country in chaos. He took his bride with him – he had met and fallen in love with Joan Beaufort, a cousin of King Henry VI of England, while imprisoned. He married her in London in February 2, 1423. They would have eight children, including the future James II of Scotland, and Margaret of Scotland, wife of Louis XI of France. Scholars believe that during his captivity James wrote The Kingis Quair, an allegorical romance, one of the earliest major works of Scottish literature.

James was formally crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey, Perthshire, on May 2 or 21, 1424. He immediately took strong actions to regain authority and control. In one such action he had the Albany family, who had opposed his actions, executed. The execution of Murdoch, Duke of Albany, and two of Murdoch's sons took place on May 24, 1425 at Castle Hill, Stirling.

James proceeded to rule Scotland with a firm hand, and achieved numerous financial and legal reforms. For instance, for the purpose of trade with other nations, he made Scots coinage exchangeable for foreign currency only within Scottish borders. He also tried to remodel the Parliament of Scotland along English lines. However, in foreign policy, he renewed the Auld Alliance, a Scottish-French (and therefore anti-English) alliance, in 1428.

His actions throughout his reign, though effective, upset many people. During the later years of his reign, they helped to lead to his claim to the throne coming under question.

James I's grandfather, Robert II, had married twice and the awkward circumstances of the first marriage (the one with James's grandmother Elizabeth Mure) led some to dispute its validity. Conflict broke out between the descendants of the first marriage and the unquestionably legitimate descendants of the second marriage over who had the better right to the Scottish throne. Matters came to a head on February 21, 1437, when a group of Scots led by Sir Robert Graham assassinated James at the Friars Preachers Monastery in Perth. He attempted to escape his assailants through a sewer. However, three days previously, he had had the other end of the drain blocked up because of its connection to the tennis court outside, balls habitually got lost in it. (See also: Catherine Douglas.)

A wave of executions followed in March, 1437, of those who had participated in the plot. The authorities executed (among others) James's uncle, Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl, and Atholl's grandson, Robert Stewart, Master of Atholl — both of them descended from Robert II's second marriage).

(From Wikipedia)


Offspring of James I Stewart of Scotland and Joan Beaufort (c1406-1445)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Margaret Stewart (1424-1445) 25 December 1424 Perth, Perthshire, Scotland, United Kingdom 16 August 1445 Châlons-sur-Marne, France Louis XI de Valois (1423-1483)

Isabella Stewart (1426-1494) 1426 1493 François I de Bretagne (1414-1450)

Eleanor Stewart (1427-1480)
Mary Stewart (1428-1465)
Joan Stewart (c1428-1486)
Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (1430-1430)
James II of Scotland (1430-1460) 16 October 1430 Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom 3 August 1460 Roxburgh Castle, Scotland, United Kingdom Mary of Guelders (c1434-1463)

Annabelle Stewart (1432-1509) 1432 (Perthshire+ Scotland ) 27 June 1509 (Perthshire+ Scotland ) Louis, Count of Geneva
George Gordon (1428-1501)

Related family trees

Guy and Gia Davis Family Research Project


Namesakes of James I of Scotland (1394-1437)

  Birth place Death place Father Mother Joined with
James I of Scotland (1394-1437) Edinburgh Castle, Scotland, United Kingdom Perth, Scotland, United Kingdom Robert III of Scotland (1337-1406) Annabella Drummond (1350-1401) Joan Beaufort (c1406-1445)
James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland (-1309) Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland (1214-1283) Cecilia de Dunbar (-c1309)
James II of Scotland (1430-1460) Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom Roxburgh Castle, Scotland, United Kingdom James I of Scotland (1394-1437) Joan Beaufort (c1406-1445) Mary of Guelders (c1434-1463)
James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (c1531-1570) James V of Scotland (1512-1542) Margaret Erskine (bef1515-1572) Agnes Keith (c1540-1588)
James V of Scotland (1512-1542) Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgowshire, Scotland, United Kingdom Falkland Palace, Fife, Scotland, United Kingdom James IV of Scotland (1473-1513) Margaret Tudor (1489-1541) Mary of Guise (1515-1560)+Margaret Erskine (bef1515-1572)+Helen Stewart (c1518-1564)
James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (1500-1544) James IV of Scotland (1473-1513) Janet Kennedy (c1480-c1545) Elizabeth Campbell (-bef1549)
James IV of Scotland (1473-1513) Flodden, Northumberland, England, United Kingdom James III of Scotland (c1451-1488) Margaret Oldenburg (1456-1486) Marion Boyd (c1470-1559)+Margaret Drummond (1475-1501)+Janet Kennedy (c1480-c1545)+Margaret Tudor (1489-1541)+Agnes Stewart (c1488-1557)
James III of Scotland (c1451-1488) Scotland, United Kingdom Sauchieburn, Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom James II of Scotland (1430-1460) Mary of Guelders (c1434-1463) Margaret Oldenburg (1456-1486)
James Stewart (1831-1905) (Edinburgh+ Midlothian+ Scotland ) (Alice+ Eastern Cape+ South Africa ) James Stewart (?-?) Jane Dudgeon (?-?) Williamina Stephen (1848-1928)

Sources and notes

‡ General

Facts about "James I of Scotland (1394-1437)"RDF feed
Age at death43 +
AncestryUnited Kingdom +, Scotland +, France +, Germany +, Belgium +, England +, Russia +, Ukraine + and Netherlands +
Birth blurb10 December 1394
Birth date10 December 1394 +
Birth date string10 December 1394
Birth day10 +
Birth latitude55.949 +
Birth localityEdinburgh Castle +
Birth longitude-3.201 +
Birth month12 +
Birth nationUnited Kingdom +
Birth nation-subdiv1Scotland +
Birth place Edinburgh Castle, Scotland, United Kingdom
Birth year1,394 +
Children-g1Margaret Stewart (1424-1445) +, Isabella Stewart (1426-1494) +, Eleanor Stewart (1427-1480) +, Mary Stewart (1428-1465) +, Joan Stewart (c1428-1486) +, Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (1430-1430) +, James II of Scotland (1430-1460) + and Annabelle Stewart (1432-1509) +
Children-list1Margaret Stewart (1424-1445) +Isabella Stewart (1426-1494) +Eleanor Stewart (1427-1480) +Mary Stewart (1428-1465) +Joan Stewart (c1428-1486) +Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (1430-1430) +James II of Scotland (1430-1460) +Annabelle Stewart (1432-1509)
Death blurb21 February 1437
Death date21 February 1437 +
Death date string21 February 1437
Death day21 +
Death latitude56.397 +
Death localityPerth, Scotland +
Death longitude-3.437 +
Death month2 +
Death nationUnited Kingdom +
Death nation-subdiv1Scotland +
Death place Perth, Scotland, United Kingdom
Death year1,437 +
Desc1Margaret Stewart (1424-1445) +, Isabella Stewart (1426-1494) +, Eleanor Stewart (1427-1480) +, Mary Stewart (1428-1465) +, Joan Stewart (c1428-1486) +, Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (1430-1430) +, James II of Scotland (1430-1460) + and Annabelle Stewart (1432-1509) +
Desc2Marguerite de Bretagne (1443-1469) +, Marie de Bretagne (1446-1511) +, Unnamed Stewart (1450-1450) +, James III of Scotland (c1451-1488) +, Mary Stewart, Princess of Scotland (1453-1488) +, Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany (c1454-1485) +, Margaret Stewart (c1455) +, David Stewart, Earl of Moray (c1456-1457) +, John Stewart, 1st Earl of Mar and Garioch (c1459-1479) +, Isabella Gordon (1460-1585) +, Adam Gordon (1465-1538) +, Janet Gordon (1462-?) +, Margaret Gordon (1463-?) +, Agnes Gordon (1464-?) +, Elizabeth Gordon (1465-1525) +, Alexander Gordon (1468-1523) + and William Gordon (?-1513) +
Desc3François de Rohan +, Jean de Rohan (1476-1505) +, Georges de Rohan (-1502) +, Jacques de Rohan (1478-1527) +, Claude de Rohan +, Anne de Rohan (1485-1529) +, Marie de Rohan +, James IV of Scotland (1473-1513) +, James Stewart, Duke of Ross (1476-1504) +, John Stewart, Earl of Mar (1479-1503) +, Elizabeth Hamilton (1473-) +, James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran (c1475-1529) +, Robert Hamilton, Seigneur d'Aubigny (c1479) +, Robert Keith (1483-1513) +, Elizabeth Keith (1483-) +, William Keith (1485-1513) +, Alexander Keith (1490-1515) +, Janet Keith (1494-1547) + and Agnes Keith (1500-) +
Familysearch afn8J5D-SN +
FatherRobert III of Scotland (c1340-1406) +
Given nameJames +
Ifmarried-g1true +
ImageKing James I of Scotland +
Joined withJoan Beaufort (c1406-1445) +
Joined with-g1Joan Beaufort (c1406-1445) +
MotherAnnabella Drummond (1350-1401) +
Notable ancestorsHugh Capet (c940-996) +, Charlemagne (747-814) +, Alfred the Great (849-899) +, Robert I of Scotland (1274-1329) +, Rurik (c832-879) + and William I of England (1027-1087) +
Page language
SexM +
Short nameJames I Stewart of Scotland +
Sourceswikipedia:en:James I of Scotland
Spouse latitude
Spouse longitude
SurnameStewart +
TitlesKing of Scotland +
VIAF44324943 +
Wedding1 date1 February 1423 +
Wedding1 day1 +
Wedding1 localityLondon +
Wedding1 month2 +
Wedding1 nationUnited Kingdom +
Wedding1 nation-subdiv1England +
Wedding1 place London, England, United Kingdom
Wedding1 year1,423 +
WikipediaJames I of Scotland +

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