Is John Wallace RUTHERFORD of the Augusta Co., VA Records residing on Walker's Creek - the Ancestor of John RUTHERFORD m Elizabeth SLAVINS - of Rockbridge Co., VA & Bourbon Co., KY.,
John RUTHERFORD m Elizabeth SLAVINS - VA Children: Bourbon Co., Bath Co., Kentucky Records:
- 1. James RUTHERFORD
- 2. Granville RUTHERFORD b ca 1792 VA - War of 1812 Bourbon Co., KY
- 1. The Surname WALKER shows in the surrounding areas of the Land Deeds for the above 3 men in Kentucky.
- 2. Granville RUTHERFORD's Grandson m a "WALKER" in Missouri the 1800's.
|Date:||Thu, 8 Aug 2002 17:17:47 EDT|
|Text:||One of the best posts I have ever read from Gary on the Wigton-Walker list as
|Please excuse my passion for this subject, but this stuff really gets me
going. I'm a big fan of Prebyterian and regimental history as tools for discovering more about the Walkers and Rutherfords. The Rutherfords are famous for their strong ties with specific Border regiments, as well as, with the University of St. Andrews and the Presbyterian faith. Certainly Captain James Rutherford and his brother Rev. Samuel Rutherford shared a common faith, if not a shared method of expression. James' own sons were military men, as well as, men of the cloth. For the Covenanter, this duality often blended into a singular quest for survival in Scotland, Ireland and America.<
|The Reverend Samuel Rutherford and our ancestor Captain James Rutherford
grew up in the church of the Rev. David Calderwood. Rev. Calderwood was born in Dalkeith and was educated at Edinburgh University. In 1604 he became the minister of Nisbet-Crailing parish in Roxburghshire. Both Samuel and James were pastored by Calderwood and Samuel attended the Jedburgh Abbey grammar school. David Calderwood, like other Covenanters, was opposed to James VI's policies concerning episcopalian worship and was forced to flee Scotland for Holland. After undergoing both imprisonment and exile Calderwood wrote "The Altar of Damascus" in 1621 which was a direct attack upon the Church of England and its structure. In 1625, when Samuel Rutherford was 25 and and his brother James was 20, Calderwood returned to Nisbet-Crailing and began work on his "History of the Kirk in Scotland". The complete work contains the language of Rev. John Knox assimilated into Rev. Calderwood's own literary style.
|In this way, Samuel and James Rutherford were direct links in the legacy
from John Knox. Consider the fact that James left to serve in Holland and Samuel left for Calderwood's alma mater at Edinburgh to study theology. Calderwood would appear to have had some influence on their decisions. The Hunthill cadet of the Rutherford family was also strongly behind the academic cause of the University of St. Andrews. Rev. Samuel was not the first Rutherford to serve as rector of that institution.
|four men of Hunthill named Rev. John Rutherford:|
|1515-1577 - Rev. John Rutherford - professor of Humanity - St. Andrews|
|1540-1585 - Rev. John Rutherford - 3rd master [rector] of the university -
|1600-1656 - Rev. John Rutherford - MA - St. Andrews|
|in 1709 - Rev. John Rutherford is decribed as 'rector of St Andrews'|
|Samuel's life speaks for itself as a writer and theologian, but the fact he
was a life long teacher is often not considered. We of the Wigton-Walkers are also links in that chain and heirs to his legacy. A notable student of Rev. Samuel Rutherford's was the Rev. Robert Craighead. Craighead was born in Scotland in 1633. He attended the University of St. Andrews where he obtained his MA degree in 1653. At that time, the Reverend Samuel Rutherford was rector of the University of St. Andrews. These were the terrible times when the national Covenant was under attack and Rutherford's, "Lex Rex" was burned at the gate of the University. Trying times indeed, but saintly Rutherford offered the best of role models for young Craighead.
|Following his ordination, the Rev. Robert Craighead was first assigned as
the pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Newry and Donaghmore, Ireland. Craighead was picked to pastor a very important church. Newry's St. Patrick's Church is the oldest surviving church in Ireland built for and by protestants. He began his ministry in 1657/1658 and served there for over 30 years. He was later the minister at Londonderry when the gates were closed against the forces of James II. At about the same time, the Reverend George Walker was rector of the other Donaghmore parish [yes, there are two!] which is several miles from Londonderry in County Tyrone. Together they fought and survived the seige of Londonderry. The Rev. Robert Craighead made his way to Glasgow and later returned to Ireland. He died at Londonderry on Aug. 22, 1711.
|"John Walker ....... moved his family and settled near the town of Newry,
|The oldest sections of the Newry church were built by Sir Nicholas Bagenal
in 1578. In 1689 William of Orange was forcing James II's army to retreat for the sea. William of Orange's army was commanded by General Schomberg when James II set fire to the town and destroyed the Newry church. Newry's Saint Patrick's Church was not fully restored until 1866 but served the area despite the distruction. Before 1705 there was a considerable presbyterian community in the neighborhood. The people of Newry and Donaghmore worshipped together with a new minister, the Rev. George Lang. By this time, Rev. Robert Craighead was a minister at Londonderry where bishop George Walker was governor. George Walker is said to have died from a gun shot he received when coming to the assistance of General Schomberg at the Boyne passage. By the way, this General Schomberg is a Rutherford descendant from the Hundalee cadet - more about him at another time.
|In 1705 the Presbyterians in Newry and Donaghmore became separate
congregations by the decision of the General Synod of Ulster. Through the first two decades of the 18th century the General Synod dealt with the Newry and Donaghmore congregations several times, usually concerning disputes over unifying vs. separating these two churches. In 1796 the Rev. James Johnson was the minister of the Donaghmore congregation and served for 59 years. He died on October 21, 1765 at the aged of eighty-seven and was buried in the parish churchyard. Therefore, during the various periods when the Newry and Donaghmore churches were combined, the Rev. Robert Craighead was the Walker family pastor, followed possibly by Rev. Lang and Rev. Johnson.
|The Rev. Robert Craighead of Newry and Donaghmore was the father of
Reverend Thomas Craighead and the grandfather of Reverend Alexander Craighead who came to Octorara, Pequea, the Cumberland Valley, Borden's Manor and Mecklenberg, NC.
|Pastors like these were the strongmen who actually headed Scots-Irish
communities. The rules of tanistry had long determined the descent of authority within the Border graeme or family. The same was true for an extended family, such as, a church congregation. The rule of tanistry was simple. "Succession to an estate or dignity was conferred by election upon the eldest or worthiest among the surviving kinsmen". In this way, one man among that group was chosen to head the family. The rule of tanistry was an early form of Border democracy, but it didn't survive the civil wars, the reformation and the restoration of Charles II in its purely familial form. With the distruction of the Border social system, a new breed of headman emerged - the Presbyterian pastor.
|These pastors, like the Rev. Samuel Rutherford, were to have their
political and familial descendants in Scotland, Ireland and America. In fact, it is well documented that whole communities left Scotland for Ireland and later Ireland for America with specific pastors as their leaders. Whole church communities uprooted and named their new churches after the old with names like Derry, Donegal and Strabane. These pastors were the new "clan chiefs" and it was by these men that the Scots-Irish Presbyterians, i.e. the Walkers, Rutherfords, Houstons, Cowans and many others were led. Pastors like the Rev. Robert Craighead, Rev. Thomas Craighead, Rev. Alexander Craighead and Rev. John Thomson certainly were not Wigton-Walkers but they baptised the Wigton-Walker children, married their young adults and buried their elderly. When it came down to it, they also took their spot at the wall in battle. After all, there was 'an ultimate concern' behind the Wigton-Walker migration from Scotland to Ireland and on to America and the family pastor and the Presbyterian faith were central to the 'why' behind our diaspora.
|A short postscript is worth a look:|
|Rev. Alexander Craighead had an illustrious career beginning at
Conodoguinet, then Middle Octorara, then Augusta County and finally at Sugar Creek in Mecklenburg Co., North Carolina. Like his father Alexander was a controversial man and figured largely in the Presbyterian doctrinal dissensions of the day. This may have been a factor leading him to move to VA, which occured in 1749 sometime after publication of a pamphlet with advanced views over 'civil government and religious liberty'.
|By 1755 the Rev. Alexander Craighead had moved to Mecklenburg County, NC.
He served as pastor of both the Rocky River church and the Sugar Creek church from the time each was organized until his death in 1766. Over twenty of the members of the convention who pronounced the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence were connected with the Presbyterian churches he had pastored. Craighead taught that the rights of the people were as divine as the rights of Kings, for their fathers, and for themselves. This comes directly from Rutherford's "Lex Rex"! Thomas Jefferson was also a student of "Lex Rex". Rev. Craighead died before the convention at Charlotte on May 20, 1775. However, its clear that he had a profound impact on the Mecklenberg Declaration which predated the national Declaration of Independence. The Mecklenberg wording is often used verbatim in the document of July 4th, 1776.
|til later ..... Gary|
|Subject:||Re: [RUTHERFORD] Thomas Rutherford|
|Date:||Sun, 1 May 2005 10:49:58 -0700|
|Source:||Rootsweb Rutherford Archives|
|Yes, these two Rutherford groups; Paxtang, PA and the Wigton-Wakers are
|Rutherford parishes near Cookstown – County Tyrone - Parishes of
|Cookstown - County Tyrone|
|Craigs - County Tyrone [Oritor]|
|Derryloran alias Kirktown - County Tyrone [Grange]|
|Drumearn - County Tyrone [Lissan Lower]|
|Feegarran - County Tyrone [Oritor]|
|Glebe (Derryloran) - County Tyrone [Grange]|
|Gortalowry - County Tyrone [Grange]|
|Gortin - County Tyrone [Oritor]|
|Gortreagh - County Tyrone [Lissan Lower]|
|Killycurragh - County Tyrone [Oritor]|
|Tullycall - County Tyrone [Lissan Lower]|
|The Scots-Irish Rutherfords descend from four brothers who were
banished from Scotland to Ireland about 1689 for their Presbyterian beliefs. They are the sons of Capt James Rutherford and nephews of Rev Samuel Rutherford of Anwoth and St Andrews, Scotland. At least two of them were in the army in support of William of Orange in 1690. And two of them were Presbyterian ministers.
|Any Scottish family in Ireland which is interested in their lineage
must first come to grips with ‘who brought them’. Scottish settlers to Ireland were almost always part of organized settlements that were orchestrated by the “undertakers”. The undertakers were those noblemen and high ranking commoners who had been given commissions by the British Crown to settle and build plantations in Ireland. The word ‘plantation’ was first used to describe these settlements in Ireland. The settlers came from the same areas as the undertakers and were often distant relatives and/or tenants in Scotland, England, Wales and Cornwall.
|The Rutherfords of Tyrone, Down and Monaghan counties all descend from
one common ancestor; Captain James Rutherford of the Scottish Brigade in Holland. The undertaker for the Rutherfords in County Tyrone was a distant cousin, Andrew Stewart, 3rd Lord Ochiltree. Andrew Stewart’s sister Martha was married to Sir Nicolas Rutherford of Hundalee. His sister Margaret Stewart was married to John Stewart of Traquair, a Rutherfurd descendant. Andrew Stewart’s sister Anne was married to Sir Andrew Kerr, also a Rutherford descendant.
|The four sons of Captain James Rutherford:|
|1 - Rev John Rutherford settled in co Down in Newry [Wigton-Walkers of
|2 - Rev Samuel Rutherford settled in co Monaghan [Rutherfords of
Trenton, New Jersey and Cub Creek, VA]
|3 - Robert Rutherford settled at Oritor, co Tyrone - his son Robert Jr.
also lived at Oritor. [Rutherfords of Paxtang, PA] Robert Jr’s son Thomas Rutherford, b 1707 emigrated circa 1729 to Pennsylvania, settling at Paxtang, PA.
|4 - unknown “Captain” Rutherford settled at Derryloran, Cookstown, co
Tyrone [ancestor of various Irish Rutherford groups still in Northern Ireland]
|The two brother which lived closest to each other are #3 and #4 -
"Captain" and Robert. Derryloran and Oritor are walking distance from each other.
|The Walker connections are possible at Paxtang and Blunston Tract just
across the Susquehanna, but I've never seen that proven?
|til later ..... Gary|