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Kaushambi district (Hindi: कौशाम्बी ज़िला, Urdu: کوشامبی ضلع) is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India, and Manjhanpur town is the district headquarters. Kaushambi district is a part of Allahabad Division.
In ancient India it was the capital of the Vatsa Mahajanapada, one of 16 such regions. The Puranas state that Vatsa was named after a Kaśī king. The Ramayana and the Mahabharata attribute the credit of founding its capital Kauśāmbī to a Chedi prince Kuśa or Kuśāmba. The Puranas state that after the washing away of Hastinapura by the Ganges, the Bhāratas king Nicakṣu, great-great grandson of Janamejaya, abandoned the city and settled in Kauśāmbī. This is supported by the Svapnavāsavadattā and the Pratijñā-Yaugandharāyaṇa attributed to Bhāsa. Both of them have described the king Udayana as a scion of the Bhāratas family (Bhārata-kula). The Puranas provide a list of Nicakṣu’s successors which ends with king Kṣemaka.
Gautama Buddha visited Kaushambi several times during the reign of Udayana on his effort to spread the dharma, the Noble Eightfold Path and the Four Noble Truths. Udayana was a Buddhist upāsaka. The Chinese translation of the Buddhist canonical text Ekottara Āgama states that the first image of Buddha, curved out of sandalwood was made under the instruction of Udayana.
According to the Puranas, the 4 successors of Udayana were Vahināra, DanḍapāṇI, Niramitra and Kṣemaka. Later, Vatsa was annexed by Avanti. Maniprabha, the great-grandson of Pradyota, ruled at Kauśāmbī as a prince of Avanti.
Ashoka gave importance to Kaushambi and placed a pillar of Ashoka in Kaushambi, which has inscriptions there in Pali. A Jaina derasar was also constructed in Kaushambi. Both the pillar and the temple still exist there and the ruins of Vatsa and its university are still being excavated by archaeologists.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Kaushambi one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 34 districts in Uttar Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
According to the 2011 census Kaushambi district has a population of 1,596,909 , roughly equal to the nation of Guinea-Bissau or the US state of Idaho. This gives it a ranking of 313th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 897 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,320 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 23.49 %. Kaushambi has a sex ratio of 905 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 63.69 %.
It is very easy to reach Kaushambi by road; it is approximately 45 km from Allahabad. This site is good for history lovers who have interest in ancient history. Many Kaushambi artifacts are in Allahabad Museum. It has a few excavated sites, including a Pillar of Ashoka with inscriptions in Pali; surrounding the pillar is a historic site of ruins of the Vatsa Mahajanapada and its university.
The soil is very fertile and it is world-famous for the Surkha mango. The Surkha region lies mainly in Allahabad.
- ^ Pargiter, F.E. (1972) Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi, pp.269-70
- ^ Raychaudhuri, Hemchandra (1972) Political History of Ancient India, University of Calcutta, Calcutta, p.117-8
- ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (September 8, 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. http://www.nird.org.in/brgf/doc/brgf_BackgroundNote.pdf. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. http://www.census2011.co.in/district.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html. Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Guinea-Bissau 1,596,677 July 2011 est."
- ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Idaho 1,567,582"
|Rae Bareli district||Pratapgarh district|
|Fatehpur district||Allahabad district|
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