Kollam district

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Kollam district
—  district  —
Nude Mermaid 2.jpg
Mermaid statue, Kollam beach
Coordinates: 8°48′N 76°36′E / 8.8, 76.6Coordinates: 8°48′N 76°36′E / 8.8, 76.6
Country India
State Kerala
Headquarters Kollam
 • Collector P.G. Thomas IAS
 • Total 2,585,208
 • Density 1,038/km2 (2,690/sq mi)
 • Official Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-KL-02, KL-23, KL-24, KL-25, KL-61

Kollam district (formerly Quilon) is one of 14 districts of the state of Kerala, India. The district has a cross-section of Kerala's natural attributes; it is endowed with a long coastline, a major Arabian Sea seaport and an inland lake (Ashtamudi Lake). Kollam is the capital of Kerala's cashew industry. Plains, mountains, lakes, lagoons and backwaters, forests, farmland and rivers make up the topography of the district. The area had trading relationships with Phoenicia and Ancient Rome. About 30 percent of the district is covered by Ashtamudi Lake,[1] making it a gateway to the Kerala backwaters. The Thevalakara and Thekkumbagam panchyaths established the ancient korekini ("sea pointed inland") port of Tarsish in 1500 BC. Kollam is also known as The God's Own Capital.[2]


Kollam district is located on the southwest coast of India, bordering Arabian Sea in the west, the state of Tamil Nadu in the east, Kerala district of Alappuzha in the north, Pathanamthitta in the northeast and Thiruvananthapuram in the south. It covers 2,492 square kilometres (962 sq mi), is the seventh-largest district in Kerala and is densely populated. Sasthamkotta Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Kerala, is located in Kollam; this lake provides drinking water to the city of Kollam. Two major rivers (the Kallada and the Ithikkara) drain the district. Ashtamudi Lake and Paravur Kayal are two important lakes in the district. Ashtamudi Lake covers 30 percent of total area of the district. Kollam is located on Ashtamudi Lake. Neendakara, a major fishing port in southern Kerala, is also located on this scenic lake. Edava and Nadayara Lakes are also partly located in Kollam district.


Climate chart for Kollam
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: Govt. of Kerala

Kollam's temperature is almost steady throughout the year. The average temperature ranges from 25 to 32 degrees Celsius. Summer usually runs from March until May; the monsoon begins by June and ends by September. Kollam receives an annual average rainfall of around 2,700 millimetres (110 in).Kollam receives both Southwest and Northeast Monsoons. Winter is from November to February; the temperature is moderately cool, ranging from 18 to 25 degrees Celsius.[1]

Climate data for Kollam (Quilon)[1]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C 32 33 33 33 33 30 30 30 31 31 31 32 33
Average low °C 22 23 24 25 25 24 23 23 24 24 23 23 22
Precipitation mm 24.4 30.9 77.7 159.5 246.9 458.8 408.9 258.9 211.2 332.5 230.8 65.4 2,700.0
Average high °F 90 91 91 91 91 86 86 86 88 88 88 90 {{{year high F}}}
Average low °F 72 73 75 77 77 75 73 73 75 75 73 73 {{{year low F}}}
Precipitation inches 0.961 1.217 3.059 6.28 9.72 18.063 16.098 10.193 8.315 13.091 9.087 2.575 106.299
Source #1: [3]
Source #2: [4]


According to the 2011 census Kollam district has a population of 2,629,703,[5] roughly equal to the nation of Kuwait[6] or the US state of Nevada.[7] This gives it a ranking of 155th in India (out of a total of 640 districts).[5] The district has a population density of 1,056 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,740 /sq mi) .[5] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 1.72 percent.[5] Kollam has a sex ratio of 1113 females for every 1000 males,[5] and a literacy rate of 93.77 percent.[5]


Red-and-white-striped lighthouse, behind a stand of palm trees

Lighthouse, Thangasseri, Kollam

The history of the district's administration can be traced back to 1835, when the Travancore state consisted of two revenue divisions with headquarters at Kollam and Kottayam. When Travancore and Cochin were combined into Travancore-Cochin, Kollam was one of the three revenue divisions. When the state of Kerala was formed in 1957, Chenkotta taluk was merged with the state of Madras. Later in 1957, the Cherthala, Ambalapuzha, Mavelikara, Karthikapalli, Chengannur and Thiruvalla taluks (formerly in Kollam district) were united to form the new district of Alappuzha. In 1983, Pathanamthitta taluk and nine villages of Kunnathur taluk were removed from Kollam district to form the new Pathanamthitta district.[8]

District administrationEdit

Kollam district has five administrative subdivisions (taluks): Pathanapuram, Kunnathur, Kottarakkara, Karunagappally and Kollam. The district collector, a key functionary of the government, heads the district administration. He or she plays a dual role: the agent of government and chief administrator of the district, reporting to the state government. Among other tasks, maintaning law and order is a priority for district collector. The district collector is also the head of the Land Revenue Department of the district. The district has one revenue division, with its headquarters at Quilon. For administrative purposes, Kollam district is divided into 5 taluks, 13 blocks, 69 Panchayats, 1 corporation, 3 municipalities and 104 villages. The Kollam Civil Station was built in 1956 to incorporate all government offices in one place.

Police administrationEdit

Police administration in Kollam is divided into two districts: urban and rural. The City Police is headed by a City Police Commissioner, an IPS (Indian Police Service) officer with the rank of SP; its headquarters is at Kollam. The rural police is headed by the Rural Superintendent of Police (SP), with its headquarters at Kottarakkara. Both heads report to the Inspector General of Police (IGP), Thiruvananthapuram Range (Kerala).

The Kollam City Police is divided into three subdivisions, each under an Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP): Karunagappally, Kollam and Chathannoor. Each subdivision is divided into circles, headed by the Circle Inspector of Police. Each circle is divided into a number of police stations, headed by a Sub-Inspector of Police. The Kollam Rural Police District is divided into two subdivisions, each under a Deputy Superintendent of Police (DySP): Kottarakkara and Punalur. There are a total of 29 police stations, in 13 circles. Kollam city traffic is controlled by the City Traffic Police, with a Traffic Police Station located near the Asramam Ground. Kerala's first coastal police station was established in Neendakara, Kollam.[9]

The first police museum in India (the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Museum) has a large collection of police artifacts and rare photographs. The museum has a room dedicated to officers killed in the line of duty.[9] The forensic section has a large collection of photographs. The museum is located at the Kollam East Police Station.


Kollam is administratively divided into five taluks they are Kollam, Kottarakkara, Pathanapuram, Punalur, Kunnathur, which are subdivided into 104 villages. The tahsildar is the revenue official in charge of each taluk.

Lok Sabha constituenciesEdit

Three Lok Sabha (lower house) constituencies constitute Kollam district. They include the Chavara, Kundara, Eravipuram, Kollam, Chathannoor, Chadayamangalam and Punalur assembly constituencies. While the Kunnathur, Kottarakkara and Pathanapuram constituencies are in the Mavelikkara Lok Sabha constituency, the Karunagapally assembly constituency is in the Alappuzha Lok Sabha constituency.


Kollam district elects 11 representatives (MLAs) to the Kerala Legislative Assembly. The district has a rich political history; the party receiving the majority of votes in Kollam has always gone on to form the government in Kerala. Kollam district has two ministers in the Kerala government. Kollam is a traditional stronghold for CPI(M) led left democratic front. Currently LDF has 9 seats and UDF has 2 seats in the assmbly from Kollam district. CPI(M) PB member MA Baby and central committee member P K Gurudasan are elected MLA from Kollam.


Hinduism, Islam and Christianity are the prominent religions in this district.

Hindu worshipEdit


Low brown buildings with pink roofs, around a dirt square

Mukathala Murari (Sri Krishna) Temple

The Mukhathala Murari (Sri Krishna Swamy) Temple[10] at Mukhathala is about 10 km from Kollam city.

The Poruvazhy Peruviruthy Malanada (popularly known as Peruviruthy Malanada, or Malanada) is located at Edakkad Ward (Kara) in Poruvazhy Village, Kunnathoor Taluk. It is the northern border of Kollam district and includes Kadampnad in Pathanamthitta and the Alappuzha district. The temple is equidistant from Adoor (MC Road) on the northeast and Sasthamcottah on the southeast. It is also accessible from Kayamkulam and Karunagappally on NH 47 and Kottarakkara (via Puthoor or Enathu) on the MC road (approximately 25 km from each).

Oachira, located in the north of the district on National Highway 47, is known for its Oachira Parabrahma Temple.[11] Oachirakali is an annual event at the padanilam (paddy fields) in the month of Vrichikam. The Oachira Town Masjid (mosque) and the Oachira Temple are situated close to one another, a symbol of communal harmony. This temple is also a Sabarimala edathavalam.

low brown building, with red roof and tall golden pole

Kottarakkara Sree Mahaganapathi Kshethram

The Mahaganapathi (Ganesha) Temple at Kottarakara,[12] famous for its Unniappom, is one of the most venerated Ganesha temples in Kerala. The major vazhipadu (offerings) of the Kottarakkara temple are the Udayasthamaya pooja. The main deity of this temple is Shiva, but it is now a Ganesha temple.[12]EDAKKIDOM Thettikkunil Sree Maha Devi Temple,The major "vazhipadu,of the Edakkidom temple are theADAMOODAL,Kadumpayasam

Asramam Sreekrishna Swamy Temple,[13] on the shore of Ashtamudi Lake, is one of the best-known temples in Kollam. The main deity is Krishna as a boy, with butter in both palms. The arattu mahotsavam (festival) of this temple is known as kollam pooram.[14] The kollam pooram is held annually in Asramam maidan.[15][16]

Twin banners, held aloft against the sky

Kettu kala (an offering to God) from Kollam district

Ammachiveedu Temple[17] is located in the town area. It was established by an aristocratic family, Ammachi Veedu. The annual festival falls on Dhanu every year, but it is to be done after the Mandala Pooja.

Anandavalleswaram is another major temple in Kollam near the District jail. Here both Mahadeva(facing west) and Devi(facing east) are worshipped. In addition to them,Ganesh,Ayyappa,SreeKrishna and also Muruga are worshiped. We could find Hanuman Swamy also being worshiped there.

The Edavanadu Bhagavathi Temple is the major Durga temple in Kollam district. It is situated in the Mathilil Town area, Kollam.

The Anchal Agasthyakode Mahadeva Temple is another major Mahadeva temple in Kollam district. It is situated in Anchal Panchayath. Every year during Sivarathri, people from every caste and religious background come for the religious festivities (such as Jikku Krishnalayam).

The Thrikkadavoor Mahadeva Temple is the best-known Shiva Temple in the District. It is situated in the Thrikkadavoor Panchayath, on the banks of the Ashtamudi lake. The annual Srattu festival attracts thousands of people from around the world; the festival falls in the month of Kumbham (February). The eight artificial horses (which represent the eight areas (karas) around the temple) are a special attraction for tourists.

Kolloorvila Bharanikkavu Devi temple is located in Madannada, on National Highway 47. Its annual festival lasts 41 days, and is held on bharani nakshatra of meenam month (according to the Malayalam calendar, Kollavarsham).

The Veerabhadra Swamy Temple at Ashtamudi is the only temple in the southern part of the district with Veerabhadra as the presiding deity. The temple is woned by the Kuttiyazhikams in Karuva, a 250-year-old Ezhava family.

Umayanalloor Sri Balasubramania (Murugan) Swamy Temple[18] is situated on NH-47, about 8 km from Kollam. The temple is visited by thousands of devotees. Its Aana Vaal Pidutham[18] Mahotsavam (during the Malayalam month of Meenam (mid-March) attracts hundreds of worshipers from all over the state. Devotees run after an elephant and catch its tail, symbolising the childhood pranks between the deities Subramanyan (Murugan) and Ganesha. Thaipuyyam is also celebrated. Legend has it that the temple was built by the powerful female ruler Umayammarani of the Venad Kingdom about 500 years ago. Aryankavu, in the Western Ghats, is the easternmost point in the district on the National Highway. One of five ancient Ayyappa temples is situated here; two others are at Achankovil and Kulathupuzha in the district.

Shri Mahadevar Temple, Padinjattinkara, Sree Bhootha Natha Temple, Kulashekharanallor Srikrishnaswami, the Devi temple at Kottarakara, Chennamath Temple and Vilappuram Bhagavathy Temple at Chathannoor are other well-known temples. Polachira (near Vilappuram Temple) and Anathavalam (elephants' shelter) at Chirakkara are also scenic locations.


Pattazhy Devi Temple

Thalavoor Sri Durga Devi Temple, Thazhava Pulimukham Devi Temple, Peroor Karunalloor Bhagavathy Temple, Pattazhy Devi Temple, Pallimon Mahadeva Temple, Vadayattukotta Sree Krishna Swamy Temple, Kundara Ilampalloor Devi Temple and Paravur Puttingal Devi Temple are other Hindu temples in the District.

Another important temple is the Kottamkulangara temple near Chavara,[19] where there is a tradition of males participating in Vilakkeduppu wearing women's dresses.

The Koonambaikulam (Malayalam: വലിയകൂനംബായ്കുളം) temple is also popular. Its deity is a goddess named Koonambaikulathu Amma. Other temples in Kollam include the Peroor Sree Meenakshi Temple at Punthalathazham and the Mangalathu Temple[20] at Punthalathazham.

Collection of low buildings, with a fence in front

Vadakkevila Koonambaikulam Temple

The Kadaikodu Mahadeva Temple is the main attraction in the village of Kadaikodu near Edakkidom.


The guru Mata Amritanandamayi has her spiritual abode on the shores of the Arabian Sea at Amritapuri,[21] in the Karunagappalli taluk of Kollam district. Parayakadavu, a coastal village near Karunagapally, is the birthplace of Mata Amritanandamayi and her headquarters. The Thirumullavarom Temple is another well-known temple in Kollam, situated near the Arabian Sea where thousands came annually for the Vavu Bali.

Christian worshipEdit

St. Peter's Church in Moothakara (built in 1610) was one of the first churches in Kollam.[22] In 1771 Joseph De Clements Joseph S.J., Bishop of Cochin (who was, however, not allowed to enter Cochin) settled in Moothakara. A chapel and residence was built in 1780 by Fr. Salvador Dennis. Bishop Joseph remained; he died in 1791, and was buried in the church. On the feast of St. Peter in Moothakara, the sea is symbolically opened with the keys of Peter by the parish priest. The church has become a center for pilgrims, with reported miracles. It is within walking distance of the Civil Station in Kollam. St. Casmir's Church in Mathilil, Kollam was the first church named for the saint in India. It is located about 1.5 km from the high school.

Tall, tan-colored Christian church with red, pointed roofs

St.Mary's Church, Kundara

St. Mary's Jacobite Syrian Cathedral is located in Kundara, about 200 meters from Arumurikkada Junction (NH 208) on the Arumurikkada-Kuzhimathikadu-Nallila Road.[23] The church, in Malankara, is an integral part of the Universal Syriac Orthodox Church with the Patriarch of Antioch, His Holiness Ignatius Zakka I Iwas as its supreme head.[24] The local head of the church in Malankara is the Catholicos of India, Aboon Mor Baselios Thomas I,[25] ordained by (and accountable to) the Patriarch of Antioch. The Feast of the Virgin Mary's birth is celebrated from September 1–8 annually. On the evening of September 7, a rasa (procession) is conducted from the church to Cheerankavu Junction (in the east), Mukkada Junction (in the west) and back to the church.

The apostle Thomas founded one of his "seven-and-a-half churches" near the kore-ke-ni- ("inland port") of Kollam. They were family (or community) churches, as neither the Bible was codified nor the cross acknowledged as the symbol of Christian faith in the first century AD. The church, founded by Thomas at the ancient inland Kollam port of Thondis (or Tyndis—Nelcynda to the Greeks) near Beckara (Thevalakara), was reorganized three times. The second reorganization of the Tyndis Christian Nambuthiri community (which was still within Vedic Vaishnavism) was in the 4th century, when a Persian cross brought from a Red Sea port was erected in accordance with the Council of Nicaea. The council was called by Constantine I (an unbaptized catechumen, or neophyte), who presided over the opening session and took part in discussions making the cross the symbol of Christian faith the world over. In 825 AD Mar S(abo)r ministered here, receiving the tarsi sh-a-palli sasanam (royal sanction for the introduction of Syrian liturgy) at Thevalakara, as the first church founded by him with Syrian liturgy; this laid the foundations for Christianity as a religion in Kerala outside Vedic Vaishnav

Muslim worshipEdit

sheikh-masjid-karunagapally' ochira-juma-ath-masjid' kottukadu-juma-masjid-chavara' Valiyapalli, Janakappuram, Juma-Atrh-Palli, Kollurvila, Jumma-Ath-Masjid, Thattamala, N-Muslim Jumma-Ath-Palli, Kalamala Palli (Karuva), Muthirapparambu Palli (Kalamala), Muthirapparambu and Siyavathummodu Palli (Kilikolloor) are the best-known mosques.


Kollam has a fairly-well-developed network of medical facilities.


Train on arch bridge, running next to a road through a forest

Thirteen-ring bridge, Punalur

Palaruvi Falls, Thenmala (forests and reservoir), the Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve, Ashtamudi (backwater) and beaches at Kollam, Thirumullavaram and Thangassery are scenic areas.

Ashramam Tourist Village is a well-known tourist destinations in Kollam city; the tourist village is located on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake. Ashramam is a hub of tourism activities in Kollam, and the District Tourism Promotion Council (DTPC) office is located within the village.

Entrance to low building with four white columns, triangular roof and blue sign

Kottarakkara Palace

The Ashramam maidan (Ashramam ground), adjacent to the tourist village, is the largest open space within a Kerala Municipal Corporation. It is used for events, sports, as a helipad, for Kollam Pooram and by driving schools. It covers over 60 acres (24 ha) in an oval.

The first community tourism program in the state is being established on the Munroethuruth islands. Backwater tourism is an activity enjoyed in Kollam; Ashtamudi Lake, Munroe Island, Alumkadavu and Paravur are the main backwater destinations. Accommodation is in resorts and on houseboats.

Large gray concrete dam, viewed from below

Thenmala Dam

Thenmala, located 66 kilometres (41 mi) east of Kollam, is the first ecotourism project in India and run by the Thenmala Ecotourism Promotion Society.[26][27][28]

Kollam was the seat of the Desinganad kings. Kottarakara is well known as the place where a new version of the classical dance form of Kathakali was conceived. It was also the capital of the Elayidath Swaroopam. Kundara is known for the 1812 proclamation against the British by Velu Thampi Dalawa.[29]

Rustic, gray suspension bridge over a river

Suspension bridge at Thenmala

Alappad village, located on the seashore, was impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Varkala Beach (also known as Papanasham) is 26 kilometres (16 mi) south of Kollam. The Duriyodana Temple is in Kunnathur Taluk. The Sakthikulangara Dharma Sastha Temple-Sree Ayyappa Swamy Temple is known for its Utsavam in the month of Makaram (between mid-January and mid-February).

Polachira, in Chirakkara Gramapanchayat, is a sightseeing destination. The Anathavalam is near here where one can see domestic elephants, touch and ride them. Mannathippara is at Polachira, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) south of Chathannoor. Sasthamcotta Lake, about 19 kilometres (12 mi) from Kollam, is the largest freshwater lake in Kerala and a domestic tourist destination.[30] Jetayu Para, a large boulder, is located in Chadayamangalam; it is name for a mythical character in the Ramayana. It is believed that Jatayu fell here, after his failed attempt to stop Ravana.[30][31]


Ornate, pink-and-white building with traditional Mughal architecture

TKM Engineering College, Kollam

According to the 2001 census, Kollam has an overall literacy rate of 91.18 percent; the male literacy rate is 94.43 percent and the female rate is 88.18 percent. These statistics are consistent with the state average, which is higher than the national average.[1] Kollam has a number privately- and state-owned educational institutions. St. Joseph's Convent School at Tuet receives no government aid and has the largest number of students in the world for a school of its type (over 12,000). The state-run school is the Government Model Higher Secondary School For Boys, the oldest school in Kollam. The district has a total of 128 educational institutions under the Department of Higher Education. the Meenakshi Vilasam Government Vocational Higher Secondary School (MVGVHSS) is o ne of the oldest schools in the district, with over 1,000 students.

Distant view of modern, low white building with trees in front

SN Polytechnic College (SNPTC), Kottiyam, in 2008

S.N. Polytechnic is a nodal polytechnic in the district. SNPTC was founded in 1957 by the Sri Narayana Trusts, Kollam under the initiative of its secretary (R. Sankar, former chief minister of Kerala).

Two tan buildings (one larger than the other) separated by dirt road and line of trees

M V Govt. V H S S Peroor, Kollam, covering two acres

Kollam has one kendriya vidyalaya and three other CBSE schools. Schools in Kerala follow both the English and Malayalam methods of education. Kollam has ten professional engineering colleges and two medical colleges. It has 17 arts and science colleges, 11 teacher-training colleges and 7 nursing schools.


Fishing nets anchored to lakeside, surrounded by palm trees

Chinese nets on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake

Kollam district is moderately industrialized. Two government enterprises (the Indian Rare Earths Limited in Chavara and Parvathi Mills) are among the industries in Kollam. Kerala Ceramics Ltd. (Kundara),[32] Kerala Electrical and Allied Engineering Company (Kundara), Kerala Premo Pipe Factory (Chavara), Kerala Minerals and Metals Limited (Chavara), United Electrical Industries-Kollam and Kerala Agro-Fruit Products in Punalur are state-government-owned companies. Private-sector industries include Thomas Stephen & Co. (Kollam), Floorco (Pozhikkara, Paravur), Cooperative Spinning Mill (Chathannur) and Punalur Paper Mills (Punalur). Nearly 2,000 SSI enterprises have been registered in the district.

Kerala Minerals and Metals (KMML), a Government of Kerala undertaking located on the beaches of Shankaramangalam (Chavara), produces high-grade chemical compounds of titanium such as titanium dioxide pigment, hafnium ore, sillimanite and monazite. These chemicals are used in paints, welding electrodes, ceramics and foundries.[33]

Two women spinning coconut fiber on small green loom outside a home

Women at a small-scale coir (coconut fiber) spinning unit at Kollam

Indian Rare Earths Limited, a Government of India undertaking under the Department of Atomic Energy which incorporated on 18 August 1950, has four production plants: Minerals Divisions at Chavara and Manavalakurichi and an OSCOM and Rare Earths Division at Aluva. IREL is a pioneer in the mining and separation of heavy minerals (such as ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite) from sand.[34] IREL also conducts research and development in mining and minerals.

United Electrical Industries Ltd. (UNILEC) is a public-sector company under the government of Kerala. This ISO 9001:2000-certified company produces electromechanical meters for domestic and industrial use. This company, unique in Kerala, can produce one lakh meters per month.[35]


The Technopark_kollam (a business park) providing dedicated high speed lines with its own uninterrupted source of power supply is nearing completion on the banks of the Ashtamudi Lake, near Kundara. The park located in a 40-acre (16 ha) Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is unique in that it offers access through the backwaters of Kerala from Kollam or from Allepey for the adventurous. These idyllic surrounds are expected to generate around 10,000 jobs within its first three years of operation. An iconic building has been constructed on the lake, along with a boat terminal for commuter boats from other parts of Kollam city.

Construction status is:

  • SEZ Notification issued
  • The site office is open
  • Work on the canal embankment has begun
  • Work has begun on the first phase of the IT building (100,000 square feet (9,300 m2))
  • Land development (compound wall, internal roads) is in progress
  • The work orderfor a 110 kV substation has been awarded to Siemens India Ltd
  • Work on the water supply and distribution system is in progress

Cashew industryEdit

Two bright-yellow cashew fruits on tree, with green nuts on bottom

Twin cashew nuts, ready for harvest from kottarakkara tree

The cashew industry is centralised in this district. Kollam is approved by the central government as a "centre of cashew industry". Most workers in this industry are women; among them, a majority comes from the poorer sections of the society. There are several cashew-processing units in the district. The Kerala State Cashew Development Corporation Ltd, a Government of Kerala undertaking, has its headquarters in Kollam and serves as a model agency for the cashew-processing industry. The corporation has 30 cashew factories and employs more than 20,000 workers. Another government organisation in this field is CAPEX, which is part of the cooperative sector and has 10 cashew factories.[36] Coir production, handloom industry, clay and wood-based industries contribute to the industrial health of the region.[29]

Forests and wildlifeEdit

According to Government of Kerala estimates 81,438 hectares (314.43 sq mi) of land is under forest cover, mainly in the eastern portion of the district (including the Thenmala, Punalur and a portion of the Achencoil forest divisions). The Thenmala Range, Aryankavu Range and Shendurney Sanctuary comprise the Thenmala division and the Achencoil, Kallar and Kanayar Ranges make up the Achencoil division. The Pathanapuram and Anchal Ranges constitute the Punalur division.

The Shenduruny wildlife sanctuary, 66 kilometres (41 mi) from Kollam, is situated on the southern part of the Western Ghats (8°50' and 8°55'N; 77°5'and 77°15'E) in the Pathanapuram taluk of the district.[37] The name "Shenduruny" is derived from the name of a tree species locally called "Shenkuruny" or "Chenkuruny" (Gluta travancorica), a tree mainly found in this area. An artificial lake of about 26 square kilometres (10 sq mi) has developed following construction of a dam across the Kallada River. Remnants of Stone Age culture from a large cave situated at the northwestern part of the Shenduruny River was excavated from this sanctuary.[37] These remains belong to the Mesolithic period.

This tropical rain forest has a wide variety of wildlife, and some endangered species are found here. Species found in the sanctuary include bonnet and lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri langur, gaur (or Indian bison), sambar deer, muntjac (or barking deer), Indian Spotted Chevrotain (or mouse deer), wild boar, Indian elephant and different species of squirrels, such as the Indian giant and Indian palm squirrels.[37]


Aerial view of dam, with a road on top

Check dam across the Kallada River

The district has a total cultivated area of 218,267 hectares (842.73 sq mi). Paddy, tapioca, coconut, rubber, pepper, banana, mango and cashews are the prominent crops. The average per-family holding of farmland is 0.21 hectares (2,100 m2). 70 percent of the district's labor force is engaged in agriculture or allied activities.

Agricultural production in Kollam district
ProductsArea under cultivation (ha)Production (in tonnes)
Rice 11,45724,204
Pepper 10,6333,235
Ginger 6121,648
Cashewnut 4,6633,043
Tapioca 24,065556,140
Coconut 71,310411 million


Upstream view of small road bridge over a river, with three supports

Kallada River

Two major rivers, the Kallada and Ithikkara, flow through Kollam. The Kallada Irrigation Project (KIP) uses water from the Kallada for irrigation. The project consists of a dam at Thenmala, from which water is diverted for irrigation.


The western portion of Kollam is bordered by the Arabian Sea. Kollam's coastline is 37.3 kilometres (23.2 mi), 6.3 percent of Kerala's total coastline. Neendakara and Sakthikulangara are important fishing villages. There are an estimated 26 villages whose livelihood depends entirely on fishing. Cheriazheekkal, Alappad, Pandarathuruthu, Puthenthura, Neendakara, Thangasseri, Eravipuram and Paravoor are among the prominent fishing villages.[38] One-third of Kerala's fish production (including 60 percent of its prawn catch) is contributed by Kollam, whose average fish production is estimated at 5,275 tonnes. Nearly 3,000 mechanized boats operate out of its fishing harbour.[38]

Animal husbandryEdit

Kollam district has one of the largest livestock populations in Kerala. Cattle are reared chiefly for dairy farming. According to the 2000 animal census, Kollam has an estimated population of 182,434 cows, 6162 buffalo, 131,714 goats and 1,034 pigs. In poultry, the district ranks third in Kerala.


View across a lake of buses, trees and an urban skyline

View of Kollam Kerala State Road Transport Corporation bus station from Ashtamudi Lake

Kollam is well-connected to all parts of the state by bus and train service.[39][40] It is also connected to neighboring states by frequent bus service operated by the Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) and Indian Railways.[39][40] Kollam has no airport; the nearest airport is Trivandrum International Airport, about 65 kilometres (40 mi) away.[41] The district has a good railway network, with 22 stations and about 132 kilometres (82 mi) of track.[42]

Railway stations in Kollam
Ochira Karunagapally Shastamkotta
Mandrothuruthu Perinadu Kollam
Eravipuram Paravoor Kilikolloor
Chanthanathoppu Perinadu Kundara
Kundara East Ezhukone Kottarakara
Kura Aavaniswaram Punaloor
Edaman Ottakkal Thenmala
Kazhuthurutty Edappalayam Aryankkavu[42]

The district is well-connected to other parts of Kerala and India by National Highways 47, 220 and 744. The state highway—Main Central Road (MC Road) and Punalur-Pathanamthitta-Muvattupuzha (Main Eastern Highway)—connects Kollam with other districts. Intrastate road transportation is served by the KSRTC , Tamilnadu State Transport and Karnataka State Transport Companies. Indian Railways also operates long distance and shuttle services between Kollam and the neighbouring districts of Thiruvananthapuram, Kottayam and Alappuzha. There is also a shuttle service between Kollam and Ernakulam.[39] KSRTC Interstate bus service operates from the Kollam Transport and Kottarakkara Transport bus stations.

Kollam is connected by inland waterway to Alappuzha. The waterways are popular attractions and scenic tourist destinations in the area. The Kerala State Water Transport Department (KSWTD) has an operating centre near the KSRTC bus stand. Tourists may hire motorised country boats and Houseboats with amenities (kettavulam in Malayalam)to cruise along the waterways.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d Covt of kerala website, kollam page
  2. ^
  3. ^ "Official Web Portal of Government of Kerala". Retrieved 8 March 2010. 
  4. ^ "MSN Weather". Retrieved 8 March 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  6. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Kuwait 2,595,62" 
  7. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Nevada 2,700,551" 
  8. ^ Administration page of
  9. ^ a b kollam police official website
  10. ^ "mukhathala murari temple". 
  11. ^ Oachira website
  12. ^ a b Official website of kottarakkara ganapathy temple
  13. ^ Official website of Asramam Sreekrishna swamy temple
  14. ^ Official website of Kollam pooram
  15. ^ News article on kollam pooram
  16. ^ News article on kollam pooram Hindu Daily
  17. ^ Extract on Ammachiveedu temble
  18. ^ a b The Hindu Daily news about Balasubrahmanya swamy temple
  19. ^ News article about Kottamkulangara temple chamaya vilakku
  20. ^
  21. ^ Amrithapuri website
  22. ^ St Peter's Church website Retrieved 2011-11-27.
  23. ^ St. Mary's website Retrieved 2011-11-27.
  24. ^ Syrian Orthodox Church website Retrieved 2011-11-27.
  25. ^ Syrian Orthodox Church website Retrieved 2011-11-27.
  26. ^ Thenmala Ecotourism website
  27. ^ Thenmala Ecotourism news Hindu Daily
  28. ^ Thenmala Ecotourism news Hindu Daily
  29. ^ a b
  30. ^ a b tourism page of kollam official website.
  31. ^ Jatayu para article from Hindu Daily t.
  32. ^
  33. ^ KMML official website
  34. ^ IREL official website
  35. ^ Official website of UNILEC
  36. ^
  37. ^ a b c kera prd site
  38. ^ a b Kerala matsyafed
  39. ^ a b c Southern Railway
  40. ^ a b KSRTC official website
  41. ^ Thiruvanthapuram International airport
  42. ^ a b kollam railway information

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