|— City —|
|City of Lancaster|
|Lancaster County Convention Center and Marriott Hotel, as well as the W. W. Griest Building and the Lancaster County Court House.|
|Nickname(s): The Red Rose City|
|Coordinates (Penn Square): Coordinates:|
|Named for||Lancaster, Lancashire, England|
|• Type||Strong mayor − council|
|• Mayor||Rick Gray (D)|
|• City Council|
|• City||7.4 sq mi (19 km2)|
|• Land||7.39 sq mi (19.1 km2)|
|• Water||0.01 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|• Metro||802 sq mi (2,080 km2)|
|Elevation||368 ft (112 m)|
|• Rank||8th in Pennsylvania|
|• Density||8,000/sq mi (3,100/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP Codes||17573, 17601−17608, 17611, 17622, 17699|
Lancaster (local //; Pennsylvania Dutch: Lengeschder) is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvania's Lancaster County and one of the older inland towns in the United States, (along with Springfield, Massachusetts; Petersburg, Virginia; Schenectady, New York, and several other early settlements). With a population of 59,322, it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvania's cities. The Lancaster metropolitan area population is 507,766, making it the 101st largest metropolitan area in the US and 2nd largest in the South Central Pennsylvania area.
The city's primary industries include healthcare, tourism, public administration, manufacturing, both professional and semi-professional services, and home of the Park City Center shopping mall, the largest indoor retail facility in the region. Lancaster is known for its innovative adoption of advanced technology and hosts more electronic public CCTV outdoor cameras per capita than any other US city, despite controversy among residents. Lancaster was home to James Buchanan, the nation's 15th president, and to congressman and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens.
Originally called Hickory Town, the city was renamed after the English town of Lancaster by native John Wright. Its symbol, the red rose, is from the House of Lancaster. Lancaster was part of the 1681 Penn's Woods Charter of William Penn, and was laid out by James Hamilton in 1734. It was incorporated as a borough in 1742 and incorporated as a city in 1818. During the American Revolution, it was briefly the capital of the colonies on September 27, 1777, when the Continental Congress fled Philadelphia, which had been captured by the British. After meeting one day, they moved still farther away, to York, Pennsylvania. On October 13, 2011, Lancaster's City Council officially recognized September 27 as Capital Day, a holiday recognizing Lancaster's time as capital of the nation. Lancaster was capital of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1812, after which the capital was moved to Harrisburg.
In 1851, the current Lancaster County Prison was built in the city, styled after Lancaster Castle in England. The prison remains in use, and was used for public hangings until 1912. It replaced a 1737 structure on a different site.
The first paved road in the United States was the former Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, which makes up part of the present-day U.S. Route 30. Opened in 1795, the Turnpike connected the cities of Lancaster and Philadelphia, and was designed by a Scottish engineer named John Loudon McAdam. Lancaster residents are known to use the word "macadam" in lieu of pavement or asphalt. This name is a reference to the paving process named for McAdam.
The city of Lancaster was home to several important figures in American history. Wheatland, the estate of James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the United States, is one of Lancaster's most popular attractions. Thaddeus Stevens, considered among the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, lived in Lancaster as an attorney. Stevens gained notoriety as a Radical Republican and for his abolitionism. The Fulton Opera House in the city was named for Lancaster native Robert Fulton, a renaissance man who created the first fully functional steamboat. All of these individuals have had local schools named after them.
After the American Revolution, the city of Lancaster became an iron-foundry center. Two of the most common products needed by pioneers to settle the Frontier were manufactured in Lancaster: the Conestoga wagon and the Pennsylvania long rifle. The Conestoga wagon was named after the Conestoga River, which runs through the city. The innovative gunsmith William Henry lived in Lancaster and was a U.S. congressman and leader during and after the American Revolution. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis visited Lancaster to be educated in survey methods by the well-known surveyor Andrew Ellicott. During his visit, Lewis learned to plot latitude and longitude as part of his overall training needed to lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
Lancaster is located at 40°02'23" North, 76°18'16" West (40.039860, −76.304366), and is 368 feet (112 m) above sea level.
The city is located about 34 miles (55 km) southeast of Harrisburg, 70 miles (110 km) west of Philadelphia, 55 miles (89 km) north-northeast of Baltimore and 87 miles (140 km) northeast of Washington, D.C.
The nearest towns and boroughs are Millersville (4.0 miles), Willow Street (4.8 miles), East Petersburg (5.3 miles), Lititz (7.9 miles), Landisville (8.6 miles), Mountville (8.8 miles), Rothsville (8.9 miles), and Leola (8.9 miles).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles (19 km2), of which, 7.4 square miles (19 km2) of it is land and 0.14% is water.
|Climate data for Lancaster, Pennsylvania (1981–2010 normals)|
|Average high °F (°C)||38.4|
|Average low °F (°C)||22.2|
|Precipitation inches (mm)||2.89|
|Snowfall inches (cm)||7.0|
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||9.7||8.4||9.9||11.2||12.7||10.5||10.4||9.2||9.1||9.2||10.3||10.1||120.8|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||2.8||2.2||.8||.1||0||0||0||0||0||0||.2||1.2||7.5|
|Source: NOAA |
As of the 2010 census, the city was 55.2% White, 16.3% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, and 5.8% were two or more races. 39.3% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry.
As of the census of 2000, there were 56,348 people, 20,933 households, and 12,162 families residing in the city. The population density was 7,616.5 people per square mile (2,940.0/km²). There were 23,024 housing units at an average density of 3,112.1 per square mile (1,201.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 61.55% White, 14.09% African American, 0.44% Native American, 2.46% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 17.44% from other races, and 3.94% from two or more races. 30.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
In 2000, 24.34% of Lancaster residents were of Puerto Rican ancestry. The city has the highest concentration of Puerto Ricans in Pennsylvania. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "Spanish Rose." Lancaster celebrates its Hispanic heritage once every year with the Puerto Rican Festival.
There were 20,933 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.4% were married couples living together, 19.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.9% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.23.
In the city the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 13.9% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 17.7% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,770, and the median income for a family was $34,623. Males had a median income of $27,833 versus $21,862 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,955. 21.2% of the population and 17.9% of families were below the poverty line. 29.2% of those under the age of 18 and 12.9% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Poverty in Lancaster is twice the state's average, and public school records list more than 900 children as homeless.
EconomyEditLancaster City has been in the process of recreating itself recently, and there has been a growth of specialty shops, boutiques, bars, clubs, and reinvestment in downtown institutions and locations. In 2005 the creation of "Gallery Row" solidified the status of Lancaster as an arts destination. The art community continues to thrive and expand.
There are also plans to convert an area of unused polluted industrial grounds (i.e., brownfields), which were once occupied by Armstrong World Industries, into playing fields for Franklin & Marshall College. This action is expected to take up most of the former industrial site. The Northwest Corridor will be developed with funds from Lancaster General Hospital. The hospital plans to create a mixed-use development which will add several city blocks to Lancaster’s grid.
Another brownfield site is Burle Business Park, the City's only commercial and industrial park. Devoted to adaptive re-use, this facility originally opened in 1942 as a U.S. Navy electronics research, development and manufacturing plant that was operated by RCA. The Navy facility was purchased after World War II by RCA. Burle Business Park was originally occupied by Burle Industries, the successor company to the RCA New Products Division following the 1986 acquisition of RCA by General Electric Company (GE). The GE acquisition of RCA resulted in the divestiture of this facility and the electronic business, but GE retained certain environmental liabilities that were subdivided into a separate parcel. Burle Industries is a major manufacturer of vacuum tube products, including photomultiplier tubes, power tubes, and imaging tubes. and is the largest U.S. manufacturer of photomultiplier tubes. Burle Industries has completed a voluntary clean-up under the Pennsylvania Land Recycling Program ("Act 2").
In addition to Lancaster's boutiques, vintage shops, and art galleries (Gallery Row), there is the Park City Center within the City of Lancaster, Lancaster County, the largest enclosed shopping center in South Central Pennsylvania. The mall includes an excess of 150 stores and is anchored by The Bon-Ton, Boscov's, JCPenney, Kohl's, and Sears. Park City opened in September 1971.
Built in 1889, the Lancaster Central Market is the oldest continuously operated farmers market in the United States, and many tourists come to purchase the handmade Amish goods that are not commonly found elsewhere. Central Market is also the center of the city's growing 'green' movement, allowing people to purchase organic and/or locally grown foods. Central Market is listed with the National Register of Historic Places, and its towers are of the Romanesque Revival style. The market underwent renovations beginning in July 2010, during which certain sections were closed off; though it remained in operation during this time.
Lancaster also has two outlet shopping centers, both of which are located in East Lampeter township on U.S. Route 30. Tanger Outlets is home to about 65 stores. Rockvale Outlets contains over 100 stores and restaurants as well as a Holiday Inn Express.
According to Lancaster's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Lancaster General Hospital||7,123|
|3||County of Lancaster||2,110|
|4||Armstrong World Industries||1,654|
|5||School District of Lancaster||1,643|
Lancaster operates under a Mayor / Council form of Government. The City has a full range of services including Public Safety, Health, Housing, Parks, Streets & Highways, Water operations and Sewer operations. Rick Gray is the 43rd mayor of Lancaster city. The City Council is composed of seven members: President Louise B. Williams, Patricia A. Coller, Joseph R. Morales, Nelson M. Polite, Sr., Tim J. Roschel, Todd E. Smith, and Jose E. Urdaneta.
|Lancaster Bureau of Fire and Rescue (LFD)|
|Fire chief||Tim Gregg|
|Facilities & Equipment|
|EMS Level||BLS First Responder|
The city of Lancaster is under 24-hour protection from the 72 professional firefighters of the City of Lancaster Bureau of Fire and Rescue. The Bureau of Fire and Rescue operates out of 3 Fire Stations, located throughout the city, as well as a storage facility. The Bureau also operates a fire apparatus fleet of 3 Engines, 1 Truck, and a Shift Commander, as well as numerous special, support, and reserve units. The Bureau responds to, on average, approximately 3,250 emergency calls annually. The current Fire Chief is Tim Gregg.
Fire Station Locations and ApparatusEdit
Below is a list of Fire Station Locations and Apparatus.
|Fire Station||Engine Company||Truck Company||Special/Reserve Unit||Chief||Address||Neighborhood|
|Fire Station # 1||Rescue Engine 1||Truck 2(Quint)||Engine 6(Reserve)||Deputy Chief||425 W. King St.||West End|
|Fire Station # 3||Rescue Engine 3||Truck 1(Quint)||Engine 5(Reserve)||Shift Commander||333 E. King St.||East End|
|Fire Station # 6||Engine 2(Foam Unit)||Command Van||843 Fremont St.||Cabbage Hill|
|Fire Station # 4(Storage Facility Only)||Maintenance Unit, Engine 4(Reserve)||Holland Ave. and Fountain Ave.||North End|
As of Spring, 2011, Currently, one Truck Co., Truck 1 quartered at Fire Station # 3 is closed indefinitely.
The city of Lancaster is protected by the City of Lancaster Bureau of Police. Founded in 1865, the Bureau of Police is located at 39 W. Chestnut St. in Downtown Lancaster, and consists of approximately 147 sworn officers and 46 civilian employees. The Bureau of Police operates out of twelve sectors, or districts, and operates in four Divisions, including Patrol, Criminal Investigative, Administrative Services, and Contracted Services. The Bureau also remains the largest law enforcement agency in Lancaster County. The current Chief of Police is Keith R. Sadler.
Registered Democrats hold a 13,000 voter registration advantage over registered Republicans, as of June 2009. U.S. presidential candidate Barack Obama easily won the city of Lancaster, receiving 76% of the vote during the 2008 presidential election.
The state's senior member of the United States Senate is Democrat Bob Casey, elected in 2006. The state's junior member of the United States Senate is Republican Pat Toomey, elected in 2010. The Governor of Pennsylvania is Republican Tom Corbett, elected in 2010. Additionally, the city of Lancaster is the headquarters of the Constitution Party.
Lancaster was home to Democrat James Buchanan, the fifteenth president of the United States. Buchanan arrived in Lancaster in 1809 to practice law. He took up residence near the courthouse on N. Duke Street. In 1848 he purchased Wheatland, a Federal style mansion in the suburbs. He was elected President in 1856.
Security camera controversyEdit
Not long after a police officer was wounded in a February 17, 2000 daytime shootout near the center of Lancaster's Penn Square, community residents, law enforcement, and elected officials sought viable solutions to rising crime in downtown. Addressing issues of public safety was a goal when the Lancaster County Crime Commission convened in August 2000. Public meetings and discussions were held over a two-year period. Among the seventeen recommendations in the Crime Commission's 2003 report was to explore the feasibility of a civilian-driven system of security cameras to support law enforcement and first responders.
Lancaster's citizens did not want to have a government- or police-operated system of cameras. The Lancaster Community Safety Coalition (LCSC) organized and was registered with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a nonprofit in 2004. Its goals included operating a video surveillance system, but it also developed to work on safety by design and community mobilization. Paid LCSC staff are background-checked by the FBI and trained to monitor the network of 164 closed-circuit TV cameras in the city of Lancaster. The community organization is also interested in stimulating economic development in downtown by creating a safe environment.
In 2009, the LCSC's expansion from a 70 to a 165-camera network attracted national attention, including a front page article in the Los Angeles Times: "Lancaster, Pa., keeps a close eye on itself". The article quoted city police chief Keith Sadler as saying, "Years ago, there's no way we could do this...It brings to mind Big Brother, George Orwell and 1984. It's just funny how Americans have softened on these issues."
Prior to the Los Angeles Times article, there had been little public opposition to the CCTV camera system. Data showed it had contributed to the prosecution or prevention of several crimes. But, in response to the national coverage, a small but vocal group of opponents developed, who wanted to turn off the cameras, "possibly for good." The MSNBC commentator Keith Olbermann highlighted the issue in his 'Worst Person in the World' segment, criticizing the citizens for "spying on each other." ABC's Nightline and CBS Evening News also covered the citizen-operated surveillance system.
- Blossom Hill (Site of the Haines Family Murders)
- Cabbage Hill/The Hill (Named for a favorite food of ethnic Germans in this area)
- Church Towne
- Downtown/Center City
- Downtown Investment District
- East End
- Eden Heights
- Eighth Ward
- Gallery Row/Arts District
- Grandview Heights
- Manor Township
- North Side
- Northeast Side
- Northwest Corridor
- Penn Square
- Seventh Ward
- Sixth Ward
- South Side
- Southeast Side
- Southwest Side
- West End
- Woodward Hill
- Willow Valley
The Red Rose Transit Authority (RRTA) provides local bus transit to Lancaster City as well as surrounding areas in Lancaster County. RRTA is headquartered outside the City of Lancaster.
Bieber Trailways (formerly Capitol Trailways) provides intercity bus transit from the Lancaster Train and Bus Station to King of Prussia, Philadelphia, and New York City to the east, and York and Harrisburg to the west.
Amtrak also serves the Lancaster Train and Bus Station, located on the northernmost edge of the city at 53 East McGovern Avenue. The Pennsylvanian, with service between Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, as well as the Keystone Service, which runs from Harrisburg to New York via Philadelphia, both serve Lancaster. The city is served by the Lancaster Airport, located six miles (10 km) north of downtown and just south of Lititz.
Many of Lancaster's landmarks are significant in local, state, and national history.
- Central Market (Lancaster) - built in 1889, it is the oldest continuously run farmers market in the United States.
- Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church - built in 1879, the church's congregation aided freedmen migrating to the North for opportunities after the American Civil War. Their congregation had earlier aided fugitive slaves fleeing the South before the war, using their former church as a station on the Underground Railroad.
- Cork Factory Hotel - built in 1865 as Conestoga Cork Works. Later the buildings making up what is known today as Urban Place were home to Armstrong Cork Factory and Kerr Glass Company. Rezoned in 2005, Urban Place has been adapted as 49 loft-style apartments, 115,000 square feet of retail and commercial space, the Cork Factory Hotel, and Cap & Cork Restaurant.
- Fulton Opera House - the oldest continually running theater in the United States, it is one of three theaters designated as National Historic Landmarks (the others are the Walnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia and the Goldenrod Showboat in St. Louis, Missouri).
- Hamilton Watch Complex - former factory and headquarters of the Hamilton Watch Company, which in 1957 sold the world's first battery-powered watch, the Hamilton Electric 500.
- J. P. McCaskey High School - built in 1938 during the Great Depression, it is designed in the Art Deco architectural style.
- Lancaster Arts Hotel - Built in 1881, this building was the Falk and Rosenbaum Tobacco Warehouse. In October 2006, the warehouse reopened after adaptation, as Lancaster's first boutique hotel for the arts. It has 63 guest rooms (including 12 suites), an organic restaurant - John J Jeffries, and an onsite Art Gallery. It is registered with the Historic Hotels of America.
- Rock Ford Plantation - built in 1794, this was the home of General Edward Hand, adjutant general to George Washington during the American Revolutionary War.
- W. W. Griest Building - listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places since June 25, 1999. It was built in 1925 in the Beaux-Arts style using granite, limestone, terra cotta, synthetics, and asphalt. The building is named after William Walton Griest, a former Pennsylvania representative. It is the second-tallest building in the city.
- Wheatland - the historic estate of James Buchanan, the 15th President of the United States.
Art and museumsEdit
The city of Lancaster has art, craft and historical museums. The Demuth Museum is located in the former home of the well-known painter Charles Demuth, who had a national reputation in the 20th century. Additional art museums include the Lancaster Museum of Art and the Philips Museum of Art on the campus of Franklin & Marshall College. Art students at the state-of-the-art Pennsylvania College of Art and Design present their works at the academy's gallery, which is open to the public. LancasterARTS, a non-profit organization founded in 2002, promotes contemporary arts and crafts.
Lancaster city has a thriving art community. Gallery Row on the 100 block of North Prince St. features a block of art galleries, and the city proper has over 40 galleries and artists studios. The Galleries host a "First Friday" each month,extending business hours to exhibit new artwork and new artists to the public.
The Lancaster County Quilts and Textile Museum, completed in 2007, celebrates the art of the hand-sewn quilts and other textile items produced by women of the region's Amish and Mennonite communities. The Lancaster Mennonite Historical Society Museum and the Heritage Center Museum display artifacts and interpret the region's unique history. Children can have a hands-on experience with educational learning at the Hands-on House, also known as Children's Museum of Lancaster. Nature and geology-minded visitors can view the more earthly exhibits of the Louise Arnold Tanger Arboretum and the North Museum of Natural History and Science.
Upon completion, the Lancaster County Convention Center will incorporate the Stevens and Smith Historic Site. This museum that will include the preserved home of US Senator Thaddeus Stevens and his companion Lydia Hamilton Smith. In addition to its exhibits, the underground portion of the site will feature a recently discovered Underground Railroad feature: a converted water cistern used in the antebellum years to hide fugitive slaves on their way to freedom.
|Lancaster Barnstormers||ALPB Baseball||Clipper Magazine Stadium||2005||1|
|Lancaster Inferno||WPSL Soccer||Hempfield High School||2007||0|
In 2005 the Lancaster Barnstormers started playing, filling a 44-year period with no professional baseball in town, since the Red Roses. The Barnstormers are named after the barnstorming baseball players who played exhibition games in the surrounding county. Their name also refers to the region's prominent buildings. The Barnstormers adopted the traditional colors of the Red Roses, a former minor league team: red, navy blue, and khaki. They have also entered the traditional regional rivalry, "War of the Roses," between Lancaster and the nearby city of York, which fields the York Revolution.
The city of Lancaster is the hometown of the Major League alumnus, Tom Herr. Herr played for the Philadelphia Phillies, the New York Mets, the San Francisco Giants, and finally with the St. Louis Cardinals. After his time in the Majors, he coached the Black Knights baseball team of Hempfield High School for several years. Herr joined the Lancaster Barnstormers for their inaugural season in 2005 as the manager. After a dismal first season, in 2006 he led the Barnstormers to their first-ever championship against the Bridgeport Bluefish.
Professional basketball briefly returned to Lancaster in 2009 with the Liberty. The team participated in the now-defunct Global Professional Basketball League 2.
The Lancaster Bicycle Club hosts an annual Covered Bridge Metric Century bicycle race. In 2010, more than 2,500 riders participated.
The city of Lancaster hosted the Tom Bamford Lancaster Classic, an international, professional bicycle racing event held each June since 1992. It was part of the 2006–2007 UCI America Tour and the 2007 USA Cycling Professional Tour.
Professional golf is well represented by the Professional Golf Association's Jim Furyk. He placed 4th in the 1998 and 2003 Masters tournament, won the 2003 U.S. Open, placed 4th in the 1997, 1998, and 2006 British Open, and placed 6th in the 1997 PGA championship. Furyk also won the Vardon Trophy in 2006. He is an alumnus of Manheim Township High School, located in the immediate suburb of Manheim Township.
The Women's Premier Soccer League added the Lancaster Inferno in the 2008 season. The WPSL is a FIFA-recognized Division IV league, and is also included in the fourth tier of the American soccer pyramid. The Inferno is owned by the Pennsylvania Classics organization and play their home games at the Hempfield High School stadium in Landisville. The Inferno's colors are black and white.
In 2013, USA Field Hockey announced their intentions to move its national training center for the United States women's national field hockey team to Lancaster County. They have signed with Spooky Nook Sports through 2022 after searching for many years for a Northeastern site.
Amateur sports in LancasterEdit
Lancaster's suburban area hosts several amateur sports teams. Ice hockey is represented by the Central Penn Panthers, a member of the junior-level Atlantic Metropolitan Hockey League, and both the Lancaster Firebirds, and Regency Panthers youth amateur ice hockey organization of the USA Hockey's Atlantic District. American football is represented by the Lancaster Lightning, a member of the semi-professional North American Football League, that plays in nearby Kinzers. A close cousin of American football, rugby, is represented by the Roses Rugby Football Club of the Mid Atlantic Rugby Football Union, of which the Roses RFC are the 2005 champion. Roller derby is represented by the Dutchland Derby Rollers, an all-female roller derby team which plays to raise money for various charities, currently ranked #23 in the world by Derby News Network.
Historical Lancaster teamsEdit
All of Lancaster's defunct teams either were members of a professional baseball or basketball league. The most well-known of the city's former teams were the Lancaster Red Roses of the Eastern Professional Baseball League that played from 1906 to 1909, and from 1940 to their last season in 1961. The Red Roses were known as the Lancaster Maroons from 1896 to 1899 and the Lancaster Red Sox in 1932.
The most well-known of Lancaster's former basketball teams were the Lancaster Red Roses of the Continental Basketball Association from 1946 to 1949, and from 1953 to 1955. The Continental Basketball Association later hosted another Lancaster team called the Lightning from 1981–1985. The Lightning later moved to Rockford, Illinois, where they played until the 2007 season. The most recent basketball team to play in Lancaster was the Storm of the Eastern Basketball Alliance from 1997 to 2000. This team won the league championship in 1999.
- The first battery-powered watch, the Hamilton Electric 500, was released in 1957 by the Hamilton Watch Company.
- Peeps, an Easter confection shaped as marshmallow chicks covered with yellow sugar, were invented by the Rodda Candy Company of Lancaster in the 1920s. In 1953, Rodda was purchased by Sam Born, the Russian immigrant who invented ice cream "jimmies", and production was moved to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
Education in Lancaster is provided by many private and public institutions. The School District of Lancaster runs the city's public schools. The local high school campuses are McCaskey and McCaskey East. Established in 1836, it is the second oldest school district in Pennsylvania. Lancaster Catholic High School has a long history in the county; it was founded in 1926. It currently falls under the jurisdiction of the diocese of Harrisburg. With a P-12 enrollment of more than 500 students, Lancaster Country Day School is one of the region's largest independent nonsectarian schools. Founded in 1908 as the Shippen School for Girls, the school became coeducational and relocated from downtown Lancaster to its Hamilton Road address in 1949. La Academia Partnership Charter School, opened in 1998 serves grades 6-12. The school is the only public charter in Lancaster County and is open to any student residing in the county. Manheim Township School District is a four-year public high school located in Lancaster Pennsylvania. It is the only high school in the Manheim Township School District. It is supported by a 7th and 8th grade middle school, a 5th and 6th grade intermediate school, and five elementary schools. In 2008, Manheim Township High School was named one of the Top 505 High Schools in the nation by US World and News Report. It is also known for graduating professional golfer Jim Furyk.
Lancaster area hosts several colleges and universities including: Consolidated School of Business, Franklin & Marshall College, Lancaster General College of Nursing & Health Sciences, Lancaster Theological Seminary, Lancaster Bible College, Pennsylvania College of Art and Design, Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology, Millersville University of Pennsylvania, Central Pennsylvania College,and the Harrisburg Area Community College.
- Intelligencer Journal, the county's predominant newspaper
- La Voz Hispana, the city's Spanish-language edition
- Sunday News, the county's weekly edition
- Fig Magazine, Lancaster City's Downtown Guide
- Fine Living Lancaster, A regional lifestyle magazine
See also: List of newspapers in Pennsylvania in the 18th-century: Lancaster
|WGAL||8 / 58||NBC||Lancaster||Hearst Corporation|
|WGAL – DT||HD 8.2||TH!S Movie Network||Lancaster||Hearst Corporation|
|TeleCentro TV||Comcast 949||Public access||Lancaster||Spanish American Civic Association|
The businesses that are based in the vicinity of Lancaster include: Armstrong World Industries, Auntie Anne's, Fulton Bank, Fulton Financial Corporation, Herley Industries, Isaac's Restaurant & Deli, Kunzler & Company, Inc., Lancaster Brewing Company, Lancaster Laboratories, MapQuest, Opening Day Partners, Y&S Candies division of The Hershey Company, and the Lancaster Caramel Company (the original parent company of the Hershey Company). Notable nonprofit organizations include Hope International and Water Street Ministries.
- ^ "History of the City of Lancaster". City of Lancaster. http://www.co.lancaster.pa.us/lancastercity/cwp/browse.asp?a=3&bc=0&c=42722. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- ^ "The Most Populous Counties and the Most Populous Cities and Townships in 2010 in Pennsylvania" (xls). US Census Bureau. http://2010.census.gov/news/xls/cb11cn74_pa_2010redistr.xls. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "GCT-T1-R. Population Estimates (geographies ranked by estimate)". Pennsylvania – Place and County Subdivision. US Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?-ds_name=PEP_2009_EST&-mt_name=PEP_2009_EST_GCTT1R_ST9S&-geo_id=04000US42. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
- ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (CSV). 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 23, 2010. http://www.census.gov/popest/metro/files/2009/CBSA-EST2009-alldata.csv. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
- ^ History of Lancaster
- ^ "Lancaster County History". PHMC. http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/BAH/dam/counties/browse.asp?catid=36. Retrieved August 1, 2006.
- ^ City of Lancaster, PA
- ^ Lancaster County Prison overview
- ^ Pennsylvanian use of the term, "macadam"
- ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica's page on Lancaster, PA
- ^ Lewis and Clark Expo timeline
- ^ 
- ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/xmacis.php?wfo=ctp. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- ^ "Census of Population and Housing". U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- ^ "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Resident Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/data/cities/totals/2012/SUB-EST2012.html. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- ^ USAToday.com
- ^ "Puerto Rican Festival". Lancaster Online. http://local.lancasteronline.com/4/25832. Retrieved September 18, 2006.
- ^ a b c Lancaster, Pa., keeps a close eye on itself
- ^ PADEP, appendices of Act 2 annual reports
- ^ Schuyler, David. A City Transformed: Redevelopment, Race, and Suburbanization in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. http://books.google.com/books?id=f891HxR6y9MC&printsec=frontcover&dq=lancaster+pa+park+city+mall+david+schuyler&source=bl&ots=9dfAU3FSJf&sig=yHax60fFprgCJNJGmpk8jTglWtE&hl=en&ei=C5nQTL2xCoKClAeWvZGMBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%22park%20city%22&f=false. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- ^ "History of Central Market". LancasterPA.net. Archived from the original on February 11, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060211180054/http://www.lancasterpa.net/photo_tour/historic_buildings/central_market.htm. Retrieved May 30, 2006.
- ^ "Behind The Scenes At Central Market". WGAL-TV News Broadcast (Video). 5 November 2010. http://www.wgal.com/video/25643609/detail.html?taf=lan. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
- ^ Fodor's Philadelphia and the Pennsylvania Dutch Country. Fodor's. 2007. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-4000-1822-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=oE4dRZVxHtMC&lpg=PA234&dq=lancaster%20outlets&pg=PA234#v=onepage&q=lancaster%20outlets&f=false. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- ^ City of Lancaster CAFR
- ^ Lancaster City Assets & Resources. Lancaster City Living. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
- ^ http://www.iaff319.org/index.cfm?Section=10&PageNum=78
- ^ http://www.iaff319.org/
- ^ 
- ^ A Brief History of the Lancaster Bureau of Police | Lancaster City Bureau of Police. Lancasterpolice.com (2013-06-22). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
- ^ Harris, Bernard (2009-06-26). "It's official: Smithgall running for mayor again". Lancaster New Era. http://articles.lancasteronline.com/local/4/239278. Retrieved 2009-10-31.
- ^ "Smithgall 'probably' running for mayor again". Lancaster New Era. 2009-05-21. http://articles.lancasteronline.com/local/4/237871. Retrieved 2009-10-31.
- ^ Donovan, Sandra (2005). James Buchanan. Lerner Publications. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8225-1399-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=1zmOnLFwbaQC&lpg=PA21&dq=%22James%20Buchanan%22%20Lancaster&pg=PA21#v=onepage&q=%22James%20Buchanan%22%20Lancaster&f=false.
- ^ a b c "Lancaster's candid cameras: Who funds them and what the controversial videos show",
- ^ a b "Keeping watch on the city's cameras", Lancaster Online
- ^ "Results of CCTV", Lancaster Online, 2009
- ^ Cabbage Hill. Lancaster City Living. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
- ^ 
- ^ http://www.amtrak.com/servlet/ContentServer?c=am2Station&pagename=am%2Fam2Station%2FStation_Page&cid=1229726268117 amtrak.com
- ^ "Jan. 3, 1957: Debut of the Electric Watch, a Space Age Marvel". Wired. January 3, 2008. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/01/dayintech_0103.
- ^ LancasterARTS cultivating an environment where arts can flourish in Lancaster, PA. Lancasterarts.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
- ^ "Lancaster City". cityoflancasterpa.com. http://www.cityoflancasterpa.com/lancastercity/cwp/browse.asp?a=3&bc=0&c=42722. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
- ^ Lancaster Bicycle Club - Bike Club - Lancaster County, PA. Lancasterbikeclub.org (2010-08-15). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
- ^ Lancaster Country Club to host the U.S. Women's Open
- ^ USA Field Hockey moving base to Lancaster. Spooky Nook Sports (2013-01-22). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
- ^ Lancaster Firebirds
- ^ Regency Panthers Youth Ice Hockey Club
- ^ Dutchland Rollers
- ^ Derby News Network
- ^ Lancaster: Education and Research
- Lottie M. Bausman, A Bibliography of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1745-1912. Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies, 1917.
- Frank Ried Diffenderffer, The Early Settlement and Population of Lancaster County and City. Lancaster, PA: The New Era, 1905.
- H.M.J. Klein, Lancaster's Golden Century, 1821-1921: A Chronicle of Men and Women Who Planned and Toiled to Build a City Strong and Beautiful. Lancaster, PA: Hager and Brother, 1921.
- Dave Pidgeon, "Battle Over City Project Moves to Courtroom," Intelligencer Journal, July 13, 2006.
- William Riddle, One Hundred And Fifty Years of School History in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Lancaster, PA: William Riddle, 1905.
- Israel Daniel Rupp, History of Lancaster and York Counties. n.c.: n.p., 1845.
- The Lancaster Farmer: A Monthly Newspaper. Vol. 1 (1869) | Vol. 2 (1870) | Vol. 3 (1871) | Vol. 4 (1872) | Vol. 5 (1873) | Vol. 6 (1874) | Vol. 7 (1875) | Vol. 8 (1876) | Vol. 9 (1877) | Vol. 10 (1878) | Vol. 11 (1879) | Vol. 12 (1880) | Vol. 13 (1881) | Vol. 14 (1882) | Vol. 15 (1883) | Vol. 16 (1885)
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lancaster,PA.|
- City of Lancaster, Pennsylvania
- Downtown Lancaster
- Pennsylvania Dutch Convention and Visitors Bureau
- Lancaster, Pennsylvania at the Open Directory Project
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