|Status||Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county|
(North Lincolnshire and
North East Lincolnshire are in
Yorkshire and the Humber)
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
| Ranked 2nd|
6,959 km2 (2,687 sq mi)
5,921 km2 (2,286 sq mi)
- Total (2006 est.)
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
144 /km2 (370 /sq mi)
Lincolnshire County Council
|Members of Parliament||
Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. It borders Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, Rutland, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, South Yorkshire, the East Riding of Yorkshire. It also borders Northamptonshire for just 19 metres, England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln, where the county council has its headquarters.
The ceremonial county of Lincolnshire is composed of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire and the area covered by the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North-East Lincolnshire. The county is the second largest of the English counties and one that is predominantly agricultural in land-use.
For the purposes of a general geographical classification the county can be broken down into a number of sub-regions including: the Lincolnshire Fens, the Lincolnshire Wolds, and the industrial Humber Estuary and North Sea coast around Grimsby and Scunthorpe.
Lincolnshire derived from the merging of the territory of the ancient Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough Stamford. For some time the entire county was called 'Lindsey', and it is recorded as such in the Domesday Book. Later, Lindsey was applied only the northern core, around Lincoln, and emerged as one of the three Parts of Lincolnshire, along with the Parts of Holland in the south-east and the Parts of Kesteven in the south west, which each had separate Quarter Sessions to act as their county administrations.
In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lindsey, Holland and Kesteven each received their own separate one. These survived until 1974, when Holland, Kesteven, and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire, and the northern part, including Scunthorpe Municipal Borough and Grimsby County Borough, going to the newly formed non-metropolitan county of Humberside, along with most of the East Riding of Yorkshire.
A further local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside, and the land south of the Humber became the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police and are in the Yorkshire and the Humber region.
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Lincolnshire at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
|Year||Regional Gross Value Added||Agriculture||Industry||Services|
The county of Lincolnshire is a major agricultural producer, growing large amounts of wheat, barley, sugar beet, and oilseed rape. In South Lincolnshire, where the soil is particularly rich in nutrients, some of the most common crops include cabbage, cauliflowers, and onions.
Mechanisation around the turn of the 20th Century greatly diminished the number of workers required to manage the county's relatively large farms, and the proportion of workers in the agricultural sector dropped substantially during this period. Several major engineering companies developed in Lincoln and Grantham to support those changes, perhaps most famously Fosters of Lincoln, who built the first tank, and Richard Hornsby & Sons of Grantham.
Today, immigrant workers mainly from Portugal and from new member states of the European Union in Central and Eastern Europe comprise a large component of the seasonal agricultural workforce, particularly in the south of the county where more labour-intensive crops such as small vegetables and cut flowers are typically grown. This seasonal influx of migrant labour occasionally causes tension between the migrant workforce and local people, in a county which is still relatively unaccustomed to the large scale immigration experienced by other parts of the United Kingdom.
Services and Retail Edit
- Boston and Scunthorpe (equal)
- Horncastle and Mablethorpe (equal)
Lincolnshire is one of the few counties within the UK that still uses the Eleven plus to decide who may attend grammar school. Despite the bias towards selection, there are many comprehensive schools in Lincolnshire with excellent records.
Being on the economic periphery of England, Lincolnshire's transport links are less well developed than many other parts of the United Kingdom. The road network within the county is dominated by single carriageway trunk roads (A roads) and minor roads (B roads) rather than motorways or dual carriageways — the administrative county of Lincolnshire is one of the small number of UK counties without a motorway and up until a few years ago, it was said that there was only approximately thirty-five kilometres (twenty-two miles) of dual carriageway in the whole of Lincolnshire. The M180 motorway passes through North Lincolnshire, splitting into two dual-carriageway trunk roads to the Humber Bridge and Grimsby, and the A46 is now dual carriageway between Newark and Lincoln.
The low population density of the county means that the number of railway stations and train services is low considering the county's large physical size. A large number of the county's railway stations were permanently closed following the Beeching Report of 1963. Sleaford is now the only town in Lincolnshire with a railway station served by lines running both north/south and east/west.
A daily through train service operated between Cleethorpes and London King’s Cross via Grimsby, Market Rasen and Lincoln until the late 1980s when it was discontinued following the electrification of the East Coast Main Line, which means that passengers now have to change trains at Newark when travelling to or from the Capital. However, the East Coast Main Line passes through the county and so it is possible to catch direct trains to the capital from Grantham.
The county's biggest bus company is Stagecoach in Lincolnshire, and other small companies also operate.
The United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust is one of the largest trusts in the country, employing almost 7,000 staff and with an annual budget of over £250 million.
Lincolnshire shares the problems of elsewhere in the country when it comes to finding an NHS dentist, with waiting lists of three months not uncommon.
Some of the larger hospitals in the county include:
- Grimsby's Diana Princess of Wales Hospital
- Boston Pilgrim Hospital
- Grantham and District Hospital
- Lincoln County Hospital
- Scunthorpe General Hospital
- Skegness and District General Hospital
- Louth County General Hospital
Since April 1994, Lincolnshire has had an Air Ambulance service  which was extended to also cover Nottinghamshire in 1997. The air ambulance is stationed at RAF Waddington near Lincoln and can reach emergencies in Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire within 19 minutes. From any accident in Lincolnshire an A&E hospital is only 10 minutes away by helicopter.
Lincolnshire is relatively unusual in the composition of its population, being one of the least ethnically diverse counties of the United Kingdom (98.5 percent of the population describe themselves as "white"). Over recent years inward migration by people from ethnic minority communities has increased (particularly to population centres such as Lincoln) but the absolute number of non-white Lincolnshire residents remains very low.
Recently, the county has also witnessed a growing trend towards an in-migration of retired persons from other parts of the United Kingdom, particularly those from the southern counties of England attracted by the generally lower property prices and the slower and more relaxed pace of life. Skegness was recently voted the most popular place in Britain to retire to, with Spalding and Mablethorpe also recommended, by a recent study . The relatively high proportion of elderly and retired people is reflected in many of the services, activities and events. Sleaford is considered one of the fastest growing towns in the East Midlands, with many professional people moving there in order to benefit from (relatively) low house prices, low crime rate and the selective education offered.
Those born in Lincolnshire are sometimes given the nickname of Yellowbellies (often spelt "Yeller Bellies", to reflect the pronunciation of the phrase by the typical Lincolnshire farmer). The origin of this term is hotly debated, but is most commonly believed to derive from the uniforms of the 10th Regiment of Foot (later the Lincolnshire Regiment) when they wore yellow lapels on their red coats. For this reason, the coat of arms of Lincolnshire County Council is supported by two officers of the regiment.
Towns and villages Edit
The non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire is characterised by the absence of any major urban area. The principal settlements and their populations are: Lincoln (87,600), Boston (35,000), Grantham (34,000), Spalding (22,000), Stamford (19,000), and The Deepings (15,000). Many of the towns in the county continue to hold a weekly market, a centuries-old tradition reinvigorated recently by the growth of farmers' markets. Most of the urbanised area of Lincolnshire is on the Humber estuary, in the unitary authorities. Scunthorpe (including Bottesford) in North Lincolnshire, has a population of 72,000, and the Cleethorpes/Great Grimsby conurbation in North East Lincolnshire has a population of over 120,000 (34,000 and 87,000 respectively).
For a full list of Lincolnshire towns and villages see the List of places in Lincolnshire page.
Lincolnshire is a rural area where the pace of life is generally slower than much of the United Kingdom. Sunday is still largely a day of rest, with generally only shops in Lincoln, larger market towns, and resorts and industrial towns of the North Sea coast remaining open. Some towns and villages in the county still observe half-day closing on Thursdays. Due to the large distance between towns within the county many villages have remained very much contained with most still having shops, pubs, local halls and local chapels and churches all of which host a variety of social activities for residents. Fishing (because of the extensive river and drainage system in the fens) and shooting are popular activities. Lincolnshire's unofficial county anthem is the Lincolnshire Poacher.
The accent and dialect words of Lincolnshire are poorly known beyond the county, especially compared to more familiar accents, e.g. Scouse or Cockney. The effects of modern media, education, and in-migration to the county have substantially diluted the traditional accent, and many dialect words have been lost over recent years. However, the accent certainly exists, and a native 'Yeller Belly' will still easily pick out a Lincolnshire speaker, possibly even being able to distinguish where in the county the speaker is from. The northern residents of Lindsey tend towards the Yorkshire dialect, with the accent of the south-east of the county (Holland and the Fens) being more similar to that of East Anglia.
In common with most other Northern and Midlands dialects in England, "flat" a is preferred, i.e. [baθ] over [bɑθ], and also in words like water, pronounced watter (though such a pronunciation is rarely heard nowadays). Similarly, [ʌ] is usually replaced by [ʊ]. Features rather more confined to Lincolnshire include:
- Elaboration of standard English [eɪ] or [iː] into a complex triphthong approximating, and often transcribed -air- or -yair-. For example: "mate" [m(j)ɛːɚt]; "beast" [b(j)ɛːɚst]; "tates" (potatoes) [t(j)ɛːɚts].
- An equivalent elaboration of standard English [əʊ] - commonly [oː] in Northern England - into -ooa-. For example "boat" [bʊːɚt].
- Insertion of an extra schwa into the standard English diphthong [aʊ]. For example, the town of Louth is pronounced [lawəθ] by its inhabitants.
- Vocabulary: "duck" as a term of endearment or informal address, "mardy" meaning upset or angry, "while" as a substitute for standard English "until", and the inimitable salutation "now then!?" (hello), sometimes written nairn to reflect pronunciation, but often drawn out into a sing-song nyEEEAaairn-myeeeaaairt!!! in the mouth of the more rural and traditional speaker.
- In the north east of the county, around Grimsby and Immingham, the 'ur' sound is identical to that in Liverpool, so that bear, bare and burr all rhyme.
Lincolnshire has its own dialect 'champion', a farmer from the village of Minting called Farmer Wink (real name Robert Carlton), who has produced videos about rural life, narrated in his broad Lincolnshire accent, and who has a regular slot on BBC Radio Lincolnshire. A resident of Woodhall Spa, ironically one of the Lincolnshire settlements least aligned to the county's architectural style, has published a dictionary of words once prevalent in parts of the county. 
Lincolnshire has a number of interesting local dishes:
- Stuffed chine - this is salted neck-chine of a pig taken from between the shoulder blades of a pig, salted for up to ten months and stuffed with parsley stuffing (other ingredients are normally kept secret). Served cold, it's considered by many in the county to be an acquired taste
- haslet - a type of pork loaf, also flavoured with sage (pronounced HAYSS-let in Lincolnshire but HAZ-let in many other parts of the county)
- Lincolnshire pork sausages - most butchers in Lincolnshire have their own secret recipe for these and a competition is held each year to judge the best sausages in the county
- Traditional Lincolnshire sausages are made entirely from these ingredients - Minced Pork, stale bread crumb (rusk is used nowadays) pepper, sage and salt. Nothing else! The skins should be nothing other than natural casings which are made from the intestines of either sheep or pig.
- Pork pies - the same pork butchers will take a pride in their unique recipe for pork pies.
- Plum bread - as with plum pudding, plum refers to dried fruit in this context, namely currants, raisins and sultanas sometimes soaked in tea.
- Grantham Gingerbread- a hard white ginger biscuit no longer commercially available.
- Batemans ales - a beer brewed in Wainfleet and served in many pubs in the county and further afield
- Grimsby is renowned for its fishing industry and historically Grimsby Fish has carried a premium price. Sadly, since the decline of the fishing industry in the 1970s this is no longer the case, with the majority of fish sold at the town's fish market being brought overland from other ports. However Grimsby Fish is still a recognised product, one associated with a particular area that specialises in and is knowledgable of a particular trade (such as Sheffield steel or Nottingham lace).
Every year the Lincolnshire Agricultural Society which was founded in 1869 stages the Lincolnshire Agricultural Show. It is held on the Wednesday and Thursday of the last whole week of June at its Showground at Grange de Lings, a few miles north of Lincoln on the A15, which first held the show at this site in 1958. First held around the year 1884, it is one of the largest agricultural shows in the country, and is attended by around 100,000 people over its two days. The Showground is in regular use throughout the year for a wide range of other events and functions.
On the Monday before Easter, an unusual auction takes place in Bourne to let the grazing rights of the Whitebread Meadow|| . Bidding takes place while two boys race toward the Queen's Bridge in Eastgate, the end of which dash is equivalent to the falling of the gavel. The whole affair dates back to the 1742 will of William Clay.
Corby Glen sheep fair has been held every year since 1238.
The Haxey Hood village competition takes place every January, as it has for over 700 years.
Stamford Mid-Lent fair sees showmen converge on the town the week after Mothering Sunday, rides and sideshows filling Broad Street and Sheepmarket for a week. The following week sees them in Grantham.
Also there is a popular Belchford Downhill Challenge which is held every year where soapbox racers race down the hill at up to 50Kmph. The turnout have been up to 3,000.
In recent years Lincoln Christmas Market, a candlelit street market throughout the town, has been held at the start of December. Around the same time Christmas lights are turned on in Bourne, Sleaford, Skegness, and many other towns.
Spalding Flower Parade is held in late spring every year. Colourful floats decorated with tulip heads compete for a cup. The tradition was started in 1959, and draws coach tours from across Britain.
The unofficial anthem of the county is the traditional folk song, 'The Lincolnshire Poacher', which dates from around 1776. A version of the song was the theme to BBC Radio Lincolnshire for many years.
In August 2005, BBC Radio Lincolnshire and Lincolnshire Life magazine launched a vote for an official flag to represent the county. Six competing designs were voted upon by locals. The winning submission was unveiled in October 2005 - see here. Lincoln has its own flag - St George's flag with a Fleur-de-Lys.
The Lincoln Imp has symbolised Cathedral, City, and county for many years. In 2006 it was replaced as the 'brand' of Lincolnshire County Council by the stylised version seen on the header here which has lost even the unique pose of the carving.
The area is covered by all the major terrestrial and satellite networks. In particular the BBC has, since 2003, provided the area with a dedicated news service, BBC Yorkshire & Lincolnshire, with main studios in Hull and facilities in Grimsby and Lincoln. Prior to this the area was in the BBC Look North region, based in Leeds.
From 1959 to July 1974 ITV programmes were provided by Anglia Television (although some coverage could be received from the Manchester-based Granada and ABC Weekend). Based in Norwich the company had news offices in Grimsby and Lincoln. Following a transmitter change ITV services were provided by Yorkshire Television. This company kept open the offices in Grimsby and Lincoln, although these finally closed in the mid-1990s.
The area is covered by several local radio stations including:
- BBC Radio Lincolnshire Can be heard throughout historic Lincolnshire although its' broadcast remit is the present county of Lincolnshire
- BBC Radio Humberside The counties of northern Lincolnshire that were formerly known as South Humberside
- Boundary Sound Newark
- Compass FM Grimsby, Cleethorpes and Immingham
- Hereward FM Peterborough
- Lincs FM Historic Lincolnshire
- Priory FM Grantham
- Siren FM Lincoln
- Stump Radio Boston
- Tulip Radio Spalding and South Holland
Places of interest Edit
- Lincs to the past
- Lincolnshire County Council website
- The Fens or South Lincolnshire
- Official Lincolnshire Flag site
- Lincolnshire Pride magazine
- Lincolnshire Life magazine
- Extremehorizon a local resource for surfing in Lincolnshire
- Lincolnshire Show official website
- Lincolnshire only search private local search engine website.
- Corby Glen sheep fair
- Spalding flower parade
- Stamford Shakespeare Company
- Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust
- Heritage Trust of Lincolnshire
- The National Trust - Woolsthorpe Manor
- Lincolnshire Directory
- Sleaford Town Runners Very active Sleaford based Running Club.
- Sleaford Town Runners FORUM Chat Forum for Lincs Runners.
|This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Lincolnshire. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.|
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