FANDOM


Revisions and sourced additions are welcome.
List of notable people from Puerto Rico
Flag of Puerto Rico
Coat of arms of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
Flag of Puerto Rico  Coat of arms of Puerto Rico
STS034-76-88
Puerto Rico

This is a list of notable people from Puerto Rico which includes people who were born in Puerto Rico (Borinquen) and people who are of full or partial Puerto Rican descent. It should be noted that the Government of Puerto Rico has been issuing "Certificates of Puerto Rican Citizenship" to anyone born in Puerto Rico or to anyone born outside of Puerto Rico with at least one parent who was born in Puerto Rico since 2007.[1][2] Also included in the list are some long-term continental American and other residents and/or immigrants of other ethnic heritages who have made Puerto Rico their home and consider themselves to be Puerto Ricans.

The list is divided into categories and, in some cases, sub-categories, which best describe the field for which the subject is most noted. Some categories such as "Actors, actresses, comedians and directors" are relative since a subject who is a comedian may also be an actor or director. In some cases a subject may be notable in more than one field, such as Luis A. Ferré, who is notable both as a former governor and as an industrialist. However, the custom is to place the subject's name under the category for which he/she is most noted.

Actors, actresses, comedians and directorsEdit

Auli'i Cravalho December 2016

Auli'i Cravalho

Henry Darrow

Henry Darrow

Joaquin Cannes 20002 cropped

Joaquin Phoenix

Benicio Del Toro - Guardians of the Galaxy premiere - July 2014 (cropped)

Benicio del Toro

Erik Estrada

Erik Estrada

Jose Ferrer in Caine Mutiny

José Ferrer

Juano hernandez in intruder in the dust

Juano Hernández

Jennifer Lopez 2, 2012

Jennifer Lopez

Rita Moreno5

Rita Moreno

Lymari Nadal

Lymari Nadal

Lin-Manuel Miranda WH

Lin-Manuel Miranda

Rosie Perez 2012

Rosie Perez

Marquita Rivera 3

Marquita Rivera

Jon Seda

Jon Seda

JimmySmits07TIFF

Jimmy Smits

Liz Torres 94

Liz Torres

David Zayas

David Zayas

A

B

</div>

C

</div>

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

</div>

Z

</div>

Adult film entertainersEdit

Hosts/presentersEdit

ArchitectsEdit

Andres Mignucci

Andrés Mignucci, architect

Authors, playwrights and poetsEdit

ATapia2

Alejandro Tapia y Rivera

Nelson Denis

Nelson Denis

Jose Rivera playwright

José Rivera, playwright

A

  • Jack Agüeros, author, playwright, poet and translator[46]
  • Quiara Alegría Hudes, author, playwright; wrote the book for the Broadway musical In the Heights; winner of 2012 Pulitzer Prize for Drama; her play, Elliot, a Soldier's Fugue, was a Pulitzer Prize finalist in 2007 and has been performed around the country and in Romania and Brazil[47]
  • Miguel Algarín, poet, writer, co-founder of the Nuyorican Poets Café[48]
  • Manuel A. Alonso, poet and author, considered by many to be the first Puerto Rican writer of notable importance[49]
  • Alba Ambert, novelist; in 1996 became the first Hispanic author to win the Carey McWilliams Award for Multicultural Literature, presented by the Multicultural Review, for her novel A Perfect Silence[50]
  • Francisco Arriví, writer, poet, and playwright ; known as "the father of the Puerto Rican theater"[51]
  • Rane Arroyo, poet, playwright and scholar[52]

B

C

D

E

F

  • Héctor Feliciano, author; his book The Lost Museum: The Nazi Conspiracy to Steal the World's Greatest Works of Art has shed light on an estimated 20,000 looted works; each one is owned by a museum or a collector somewhere[78]
  • Isabel Freire de Matos, writer, educator and advocate of Puerto Rican independence[79]
  • Rosario Ferré, writer[80]
  • Shaggy Flores, Nuyorican writer, poet; African diaspora scholar; founder of Voices for the Voiceless[81]
  • Félix Franco Oppenheimer, poet and writer; works include Contornos, Imagen y visión edénica de Puerto Rico, and Antología poética[82]

G

H

L

M

N

O

  • Judith Ortiz Cofer, poet, writer and essayist; in 1994, became the first Hispanic to win the O. Henry Prize for her story "The Latin Deli"; in 1996, she and illustrator Susan Guevara became the first recipients of the Pura Belpre Award for Hispanic children's literature[50][112]
  • Micol Ostow, author of Mind Your Manners, Dick and Jane and Emily Goldberg Learns to Salsa[113]

P

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Z

Beauty queens and fashion modelsEdit

Susie Castillo headshot 2

Susie Castillo, Miss USA

Zuleyka Rivera, Red Dress Collection 2007

Zuleyka Rivera, Miss Universe

Business people and industrialistsEdit

Jose Ramon Fernandez

José Ramon Fernández, "Marqués de La Esperanza"

Juan Serralles Colon

Juan Serrallés, industrialist, founder of Destilería Serralles, makers of Don Q rum

Eduardo Georgetti

Eduardo Georgetti, wealthy sugar baron

File:Victoria Hernández.jpg

CartoonistsEdit

File:John Rivas.jpg

Civil rights and/or political activistsEdit

Maria de las Mercedes Barbudo, Independence Leader from Ponce, Puerto Rico, circa 1815 (6607177617)

María de las Mercedes Barbudo

Aguila Blanca

José Maldonado Román

Helen Rodriguez-Trias

Helen Rodriguez-Trias, women's rights activist and recipient of the Presidential Citizen's Medal

Sylvia Mendez in the Green Room

Sylvia Mendez

Arturo Alfonso Schomburg

Arturo Alfonso Schomburg

Elias Beauchamp (1936)

Elías Beauchamp

Olga Viscal Garriga

Olga Viscal Garriga

  • Mariana Bracetti a.k.a. "Brazo de Oro" ("Golden Arm"), political activist; leader of the Lares's Revolutionary Council during the Grito de Lares; knit the first flag of the future Republic of Puerto Rico
  • Mathias Brugman, political activist; leader of the Grito de Lares; founded the first revolutionary committee in the City of Mayagüez; his revolutionary cell was code named "Capa Prieta" (Black Cape)
  • María Cadilla, women's rights activist; one of the first women in Puerto Rico to earn a doctoral degree
  • Luisa Capetillo, labor activist; one of Puerto Rico's most famous labor organizers; writer and an anarchist who fought for workers and women's rights
  • Alice Cardona, activist and community organizer[166]
  • Tito Kayak, political activist; gained notoriety when a group of Vieques natives and other Puerto Ricans began protesting and squatting on U.S. Navy bombing zones after the 1999 death of Puerto Rican civilian and Vieques native David Sanes, who was killed during a U.S. Navy bombing exercise[167][168][169][170][171][172][173]
  • Sylvia del Villard, Afro-Puerto Rican activist, founder of the Afro-Boricua El Coquí Theater; an outspoken activist who fought for the equal rights of the Black Puerto Rican artist; in 1981, she became the first and only director of the Office of Afro-Puerto Rican Affairs of the Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña (Puerto Rican Institute of Culture) (see also "Actresses")
  • Isabel González, civil rights activist; young Puerto Rican mother who paved the way for Puerto Ricans to be given United States citizenship[174]
  • Lillian López, librarian and labor activist; founder of the New York Public Library South Bronx Project; advocate for library and education services for Spanish-speaking communities[175]
  • Óscar López Rivera, pro-independence activist; the longest incarcerated FALN member[176]
  • José Maldonado Román, a.k.a. "Aguila Blanca" (White Eagle), revolutionary[177]
  • Eliana Martínez, AIDS activist; was in a notable Florida court case regarding the rights of HIV+ children in public schools[178]
  • Felícitas Méndez (née Gómez), activist; with her husband, in 1946, led a community battle which set an important legal precedent for ending de jure segregation in the United States (see Mendez v. Westminster);[179] credited with paving the way for integration and the American civil rights movement[180]
  • María de las Mercedes Barbudo, political activist; often called the first female Puerto Rican "Independentista"[181]
  • Ana María O'Neill, women's rights activist and educator; in 1929, became the first female professor in the field of commerce in the University of Puerto Rico, which she taught until 1951; urged women to participate in every aspect of civic life and to defend their right to vote[182]
  • Manuel Olivieri Sánchez, civil rights activist; court interpreter and a civil rights activist who led the legal battle which granted U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans living in Hawaii[183]
  • César A. Perales, civil rights lawyer; founder of the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund (now LatinoJustice PRLDEF); won precedent-setting lawsuits combating discrimination; New York Secretary of State[184]
  • Sylvia Rae Rivera, transgender activist; veteran of the 1969 Stonewall riots[185]
  • Anthony Romero, civil rights leader; executive director of the American Civil Liberties Union[186]
  • Helen Rodríguez Trías, physician and women's rights activist; first Latina president of the American Public Health Association; a founding member of the Women's Caucus of the American Public Health Association; recipient of the Presidential Citizen's Medal; credited with helping to expand the range of public health services for women and children in minority and low-income populations in the US, Central and South America, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East[187] (see also "Educators" and "Scientists")
  • Ana Roque, women's rights activist, educator and suffragist; one of the founders of the University of Puerto Rico[188]
  • Arturo Alfonso Schomburg, civil rights and pro-independence activist; pioneer in black history who helped raise awareness of the contributions by Afro-Latin Americans and Afro-Americans to society[189]
  • Pedro Julio Serrano, human rights activist; President of Puerto Rico Para Tod@s, which strives for inclusion of LGBT community and for social justice for all in Puerto Rico; Communication Manager at the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force[190]
  • Marcos Xiorro, house slave; in 1821, planned and conspired to lead a slave revolt against the sugar plantation owners and the Spanish Colonial government in Puerto Rico[191]

NationalistsEdit

Political activists who were members of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party:

  • Elías Beauchamp, political activist and nationalist; in 1936, assassinated Elisha Francis Riggs, the United States-appointed police chief of Puerto Rico; considered a hero by the members of the Puerto Rican Independence Movement[192]
  • Blanca Canales, political activist; nationalist leader who led the Jayuya Uprising in 1950 against US colonial rule of Puerto Rico
  • Rafael Cancel Miranda, political activist; member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party and advocate of Puerto Rican independence who attacked the United States House of Representatives in 1954
  • Óscar Collazo, political activist; one of two nationalists who attempted to assassinate President Harry S. Truman
  • Rosa Collazo a.k.a Rosa Cortéz Collazo, political activist and treasurer of the New York City branch of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party[193]
  • Raimundo Díaz Pacheco, political activist; Commander-in-Chief of the Cadets of the Republic (Cadetes de la República, also known as the Ejército Libertador de Puerto Rico, or The Liberation Army of Puerto Rico), a quasi-military organization and official youth organization within the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party[194]
  • Andrés Figueroa Cordero, political activist; member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party; one of four nationalists who attacked the United States House of Representatives in 1954[195]
  • Irvin Flores Ramírez, political activist; Nationalist leader and activist; one of four nationalists who attacked the United States House of Representatives in 1954[196]
  • Lolita Lebrón, political activist; Nationalist leader and activist; the leader of four nationalists who attacked the United States House of Representatives in 1954[196]
  • Tomás López de Victoria, political activist and Sub-Commander of the Cadets of the Republic; the captain in charge of the cadets who participated in the peaceful march which ended up as the Ponce Massacre, he led the Nationalists in the Arecibo revolt in the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party Revolt of 1950[197]
  • Isolina Rondón, political activist and Treasurer of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party; one of the few witnesses of the October 24, 1935 killing of four Nationalists by local police officers in Puerto Rico during a confrontation with the supporters of the Nationalist Party, known as the Río Piedras massacre[198]
  • Hiram Rosado, political activist and nationalist; in 1936 participated in the assassination of Elisha Francis Riggs, the United States-appointed police chief of Puerto Rico; he and his comrade Elías Beauchamp are considered heroes by the members of the Puerto Rican Independence Movement[192]
  • Isabel Rosado, political activist; imprisoned multiple times[199]
  • Vidal Santiago Díaz, political activist; barber of Pedro Albizu Campos and uncle of the novelist Esmeralda Santiago; made Puerto Rican media history when numerous police officers and National Guardsmen attacked him at his barbershop during the 1950 Nationalist Revolt; this was the first time in Puerto Rican history that such an attack was transmitted via radio to the public[200]
  • Griselio Torresola, political activist; Nationalist who died in an attempt to assassinate President Harry S. Truman in 1950
  • Carlos Vélez Rieckehoff, political activist, former President of the New York chapter of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party in the 1930s; in the 1990s was among the pro-independence activists who protested against the United States Navy's use of his birthplace, Vieques, as a bombing range[201]
  • Olga Viscal Garriga, political activist, member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party; in the late 1940s became a student leader at the University of Puerto Rico and spokesperson of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party's branch in Río Piedras[202]

ClergyEdit

Juan Alejo de Arizmendi2

Painting of Alejo de Arizmendi

Pre-20th century

20th century

21st century

Composers, singers, musicians and operaEdit

Chayannemn

Chayanne

José Feliciano

José Feliciano, singer and composer of "Feliz Navidad"

Marc Anthony 2009 White House

Marc Anthony, singer

Village People-Indian

Felipe Rose, Village People

Jim Jones at the 5th Annual Hip-Hop Summit Action Network&#039;s Action Awards

Jim Jones, rapper

Yolandita monge

Yolandita Monge, singer

Ricky Martin 2013

Ricky Martin, singer

Carli-Muñoz

Carli Muñoz, pianist

Melanie Martinez - House of Blues (April 4, 2016) (2)

Melanie Martinez, singer

BrunoMars24KMagicWorldTourLive

Bruno Mars

Elsa Miranda

Elsa Miranda, singer

Rubén Colón Tarrats

Rubén Colón Tarrats, orchestra conductor


A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

V

W

Y

Z

OperaEdit

File:Antoniopaolino2.jpg

Criminals and outlawsEdit

Antonio Correa Cotto (reward poster)

Antonio Correa Cotto

Pre-20th century

  • Roberto Cofresí, a.k.a. '"El Pirata Cofresí"' (Cofresí the Pirate), his exploits as a pirate are part of Puerto Rico's folklore

20th century

21st century

DiplomatsEdit

Hertell amb dom republic

Hans Hertell

20th century

21st century

EducatorsEdit

Rafael Cordero

Rafael Cordero

Retrato de EMdeHostos por Francisco Oller

Eugenio María de Hostos

File:Ramos, Angel M. (MC1971).jpg
Angelo Falcon

Drawing of Angelo Falcón

Governors of Puerto RicoEdit

Juan Ponce de Leon II

Juan Ponce de León II

Pre-20th century

20th century

21st century

First Ladies of Puerto RicoEdit

HistoriansEdit

Salvador Brau

Salvador Brau

Tony Santiago &quot;Tony The Marine&quot;-9853

Antonio Santiago Rodríguez

JournalistsEdit

GeraldoRiveraSept2010

Geraldo Rivera

Judges, law enforcement and firefightersEdit

Judges

Sonia Sotomayor in SCOTUS robe

Sonia Sotomayor, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court

Law enforcement

Nick Estavillo

Nick Estavillo

  • Nicholas Estavillo, NYPD Chief of Patrol (Ret.); in 2002, became first Puerto Rican and first Hispanic in the history of the NYPD to reach the three-star rank of Chief of Patrol[330]
  • Faith Evans, Hawaiian-Puerto Rican, first woman to be named U.S. Marshal
  • Alejandro González Malavé, controversial undercover police officer
  • Irma Lozada, New York City transit police; first female police officer to die in the line of duty in New York City[331]
  • José Meléndez-Pérez, INS officer who was named in 9/11 Commission Report; denied entry to terrorist in August 2001
  • Benito Romano, United States Attorney in New York; first Puerto Rican to hold the United States Attorney's post in New York on an interim basis[332]
  • Joe Sánchez, former New York City police officer and author whose books give an insight as to the corruption within the department[333]
  • Pedro Toledo, retired FBI senior agent and longest-serving state police superintendent

Firefighters

MilitaryEdit

Miguel Enriquez

Miguel Enríquez

Demetrio O&#039;Daly

Demetrio O'Daly

Antonio Valero Bernabe

Antonio Valero de Bernabé

Manuel Rojas drawing

Manuel Rojas

Augusto Rodriquez

Augusto Rodríguez

General Juan Ríus Rivera

Juan Ríus Rivera

José Semidei Rodríguez (1920)

José Semidei Rodríguez

AngelRiveroMendez

Ángel Rivero Méndez

EstevesWP

Luis R. Esteves

Teofilo Marxuach

Teófilo Marxuach

Major Fernando E. Rodriguez

Fernando E. Rodríguez Vargas

Mihiel Gilormini

Mihiel Gilormini

FRiefkolh4

Frederick Lois Riefkohl

JosephBAviles

Joseph B. Aviles, Sr.

File:CarmenLozanoDurnier.jpg
Virgil R. Miller

Virgil R. Miller

Pedro del Valle

Pedro del Valle

Agustin Ramos Calero

Agustin Ramos Calero

De Arellano with awards cropped

Marion Frederic Ramírez de Arellano

Carmen Conteras Bozak

Carmen Contreras-Bozak

Jose A. Muniz

José Antonio Muñiz

File:ModestoCartagena3.jpg
RoseFranco

Rose Franco

Fernando Luis Garcia, USMC

Fernando Luis García

File:Horacio Rivero Jr.jpg
File:Carlos Lozada.JPG
AngelMendez2

Angel Mendez

F86 1copy

Héctor Andrés Negroni

HectorSantiagoColon

Héctor Santiago-Colón

J Otero jpg

Jorge Otero Barreto

MOH Versace

Humbert Roque "Rocky" Versace

File:Euripides Rubio.jpg
Lizbeth Robles

Lizbeth Robles

File:FrancesM.Vega.JPG
Maritza Ryan

Maritza Sáenz Ryan

Marta Carcana (2)

Brigadier General Marta Carcana

File:Irene M. Zoppi, Brigadier General.JPG

16th century

17th century

  • Juan de Amézqueta, Captain, Puerto Rican Militia; defeated Captain Balduino Enrico (Boudewijn Hendricksz), who in 1625 was ordered by the Dutch to capture Puerto Rico[337]

18th century

  • Rafael Conti, Colonel, Spanish Army; in 1790, captured 11 enemy ships involved in smuggling stolen goods. In 1797, he helped defeat Sir Ralph Abercromby and defend Puerto Rico from a British invasion in his hometown, Aguadilla. In 1809, he organized a military expedition fight with the aim of returning Hispaniola, which now comprise the nations of the Dominican Republic and Haiti, back to Spanish rule.[338]
  • Antonio de los Reyes Correa, Captain, Spanish Army; Puerto Rican hero who defended the town Arecibo in 1702 from an invasion by defeating the British; was awarded La Medalla de Oro de la Real Efigie (The Gold Medal of the Royal Image), by King Philip V of Spain and given the title "Captain of Infantry"[339]
  • José and Francisco Díaz, Sergeants, Puerto Rican militia; cousins in the Toa Baja Militia who helped defeat Sir Ralph Abercromby and defend Puerto Rico from a British invasion in 1797[340]
  • Miguel Henríquez, Captain, Spanish Navy; in 1713, defeated the British in Vieques and was awarded the La Medalla de Oro de la Real Efigie (The Gold Medal of the Royal Effigy)[341]

19th century

20th century

  • Humberto Acosta-Rosario, Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army; a member of Company B, 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry (Mechanized); 25th Infantry Division, United States Army; currently the only Puerto Rican MIA whose body has never been recovered[353]
  • Ricardo Aponte, Brigadier General, U.S. Air Force; former Director of the Innovation and Experimentation Directorate, United States Southern Command; first Puerto Rican to hold this position[354]
  • Félix Arenas Gaspar, Captain, Spanish Army; posthumously awarded the Cruz Laureada de San Fernando (Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand – Spain's version of the Medal of Honor) for his actions in the Rif War[355]
  • Domingo Arroyo, Jr., Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps; first American serviceman to be killed in Operation Restore Hope during the Somalian Civil War[356]
  • Joseph (José) B. Aviles, Sr., CWO2, U.S. Coast Guard; on 28 September 1925, became the first Hispanic Chief Petty Officer in the United States Coast Guard; during World War II received a wartime promotion to Chief Warrant Officer, becoming the first Hispanic to reach that level as well[357]
  • Rafael Celestino Benítez, Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy; a highly decorated submarine commander who led the rescue effort of the crew members of the USS Cochino, which was involved in the first American undersea spy mission of the Cold War[358]
  • Carlos Betances Ramírez, Colonel, U.S. Army; first Puerto Rican to command a battalion in the Korean War; in 1952, he assumed the command of the 2nd Battalion, 65th Infantry Regiment[359]
  • José M. Cabanillas, Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy; in World War II he was Executive Officer of the USS Texas (BB-35) and participated in the invasions of Africa and Normandy (D-Day)[360]
  • Richard Carmona, Vice Admiral, Public Health Service Commissioned Corps; served as the 17th Surgeon General of the United States under President George W. Bush[361]
  • Modesto Cartagena, Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army; the most decorated Hispanic soldier in history; distinguished himself in combat during the Korean War as a member of Puerto Rico's 65th Infantry and is being considered for the Medal of Honor[362]
  • Carlos Fernando Chardón, Major General, Puerto Rico National Guard; Secretary of State of Puerto Rico 1969–73; Puerto Rico Adjutant General 1973–75[363]
  • Felix M. Conde-Falcon, Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army; received the Medal of Honor posthumously on March 18, 2014 for his courageous actions while serving as an acting Platoon Leader in Company D, 1st Battalion, 505th Infantry Regiment, 3d Brigade, 82d Airborne Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Ap Tan Hoa, Republic of Vietnam on April 4, 1969[364]
  • Carmen Contreras-Bozak, Tech4, U.S. Women's Army Corps; first Hispanic to serve in the U.S. Women's Army Corps; served as an interpreter and in numerous administrative positions during World War II[365]
  • Virgilio N. Cordero, Jr., Brigadier General, U.S. Army; a Battalion Commander of the 31st Infantry Regiment who documented his experiences as a prisoner of war and his participation in the infamous Bataan Death March of World War II.[366]
  • Juan César Cordero Dávila, Major General, U.S. Army; commanding officer of the 65th Infantry Regiment during the Korean War, thus becoming one of the highest ranking ethnic officers in the Army[367]
  • Encarnación Correa, Sergeant, U.S. Army; the person who fired the first warning shots in World War I on behalf of the United States against a ship flying the colors of the Central Powers, when on March 21, 1915, under the orders of then-Lieutenant Teófilo Marxuach, he manned a machine gun and opened fire on the Odenwald, an armed German supply ship trying to force its way out of the San Juan Bay[368]
  • Ruben A. Cubero, Brigadier General U.S. Air Force; of Puerto Rican descent; highly decorated member of the United States Air Force; in 1991 became the first Hispanic graduate of the United States Air Force Academy to be named Dean of the Faculty of the Academy[369]
  • Pedro del Valle, Lieutenant General, U.S. Marine Corps; first Hispanic three-star Marine general; his military career included service in World War I, Haiti and Nicaragua during the so-called Banana Wars of the 1920s, and in the seizure of Guadalcanal and later as Commanding General of the U.S. 1st Marine Division during World War II played an instrumental role in the defeat of the Japanese forces in Okinawa[370]
  • Carmelo Delgado Delgado, Lieutenant, Abraham Lincoln International Brigade; first Puerto Rican and one of the first U.S. citizens to fight and to die in the Spanish Civil War against General Francisco Franco and the Spanish Nationalists[371]
  • Alberto Díaz, Jr., Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy; first Hispanic to become the Director of the San Diego Naval Medical District[372]
  • Luis R. Esteves, Major General, U.S. Army; in 1915, became the first Puerto Rican and therefore the first Hispanic to graduate from the United States Military Academy; organized the Puerto Rican National Guard[373]
  • Salvador E. Felices, Major General, U.S. Air Force; first Puerto Rican general in the U.S. Air Force; in 1953, he flew in 19 combat missions over North Korea during the Korean War; in 1957, he participated in a historic project that was given to Fifteenth Air Force by the Strategic Air Command headquarters known as "Operation Power Flite", the first around the world non-stop flight by all-jet aircraft[374]
  • Michelle Fraley (née Hernández), Colonel, U.S. Army; became in 1984 the first Puerto Rican woman to graduate from West Point Military Academy; former chief of staff of the Army Network Enterprise Technology Command[375][376]
  • Rose Franco, CWO3, U.S. Marine Corps; first female Hispanic Chief Warrant Officer in the Marine Corps; in 1965 was named Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Navy, Paul Henry Nitze by the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson[377]
  • Edmund Ernest García, Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy; during World War II he was commander of the destroyer USS Sloat (DE-245) and saw action in the invasions of Africa, Sicily, and France[378]
  • Fernando Luis García, Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps; first Puerto Rican awarded the Medal of Honor; posthumously awarded the medal for his actions against enemy aggressor forces in the Korean War on 5 September 1952.[379]
  • Linda Garcia Cubero, Captain, U.S. Air Force; of Mexican-Puerto Rican heritage; in 1980 became the first female Hispanic graduate of any of the U.S. military academies when she graduated from the United States Air Force Academy[380]
  • Carmen García Rosado, Private First Class, U.S. Women's Army Corps; was among the first 200 Puerto Rican women to be recruited into the WAC's during World War II; author of LAS WACS-Participacion de la Mujer Boricua en la Segunda Guerra Mundial (The WACs – The participation of the Puerto Rican women in the Second World War), the first book which documents the experiences of the first 200 Puerto Rican women to participate in said conflict as members of the armed forces of the United States[381]
  • Mihiel Gilormini, Brigadier General, U.S. Air Force; World War II hero, recipient of 5 Distinguished Flying Crosses; together with Brig. General Alberto A. Nido and Lt. Col. Jose Antonio Muñiz, founded the Puerto Rico Air National Guard; previously flew for the Royal Canadian Air Force (1941) and the Royal Air Force (1941–1942)[382]
  • Manuel Goded Llopis, General, Spanish Army; a Puerto Rican in the Spanish Army; one of the first generales to join General Francisco Franco in the revolt against the Spanish Republican government (also known as Spanish loyalists) in the Spanish Civil War; previously distinguished himself in the Battle of Alhucemas of the Rif War[383]
  • César Luis González, First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Force; first Puerto Rican pilot in the United States Army Air Force; first Puerto Rican pilot to die in World War II.[384][385]
  • Diego E. Hernández, Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy; first Hispanic to be named Vice Commander, North American Aerospace Defense Command; flew two combat tours in Vietnam during the Vietnam War; in 1980, took command of the aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67)[386]
  • Haydee Javier Kimmich, Captain, U.S. Navy; highest ranking Hispanic female in the Navy; Chief of Orthopedics at the Navy Medical Center in Bethesda and she reorganized Reservist Department of the medical center during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm[387]
  • Orlando Llenza, Major General, U.S. Air Force; second Puerto Rican to reach the rank of Major General (two-star General) in the United States Air Force; Adjutant General of the Puerto Rico National Guard[388]
  • Carlos Lozada, Private First Class, U.S. Army; posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions on 20 November 1967, at Dak To in the Republic of Vietnam[389]
  • Carmen Lozano Dumler, 2nd Lieutenant, U.S. Women's Army Corps; one of the first Puerto Rican women Army officers; in 1944, she was sworn in as a 2nd Lieutenant and assigned to the 161st General Hospital in San Juan[387]
  • Antonio Maldonado, Brigadier General, U.S. Air Force; in 1965, became the youngest person to pilot a B-52 aircraft; his active participation in the Vietnam War included 183 air combat missions[390]
  • Joseph (José) R. Martínez, Private First Class, U.S. Army; destroyed a German Infantry unit and tank in Tuniz by providing heavy artillery fire, saving his platoon from being attacked in the process; received the Distinguished Service Cross from General George S. Patton, becoming the first Puerto Rican recipient of said military decoration[391]
  • Lester Martínez López, MPH, Major General, U.S. Army; first Hispanic to head the Army Medical and Research Command[392]
  • Gilberto José Marxuach, Colonel, U.S. Army[393]
  • Teófilo Marxuach, Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army; fired a hostile shot from a cannon located at the Santa Rosa battery of El Morro fort, in what is considered to be the first shot of World War I fired by the regular armed forces of the United States against any ship flying the colors of the Central Powers,[394] forcing the Odenwald to stop and to return to port where its supplies were confiscated[395]
  • George E. Mayer, Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy; first Hispanic Commander of the Naval Safety Center; led an international naval exercise known as Baltic Operations (BALTOPS) 2003 from his flagship, the USS Vella Gulf (CG-72); this was the first time in the 31-year history of BALTOPS that the exercise included combined ground troops from Russia, Poland, Denmark and the United States[396]
  • Angel Mendez, Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps; of Puerto Rican descent; was awarded the Navy Cross in Vietnam and is being considered for the Medal of Honor; saved the life of his lieutenant, Ronald D. Castille, who went on to become the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania[397]
  • Enrique Méndez, Jr., Major General, U.S. Army; first Puerto Rican to assume the positions of Army Deputy Surgeon General, Commander of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs[398]
  • Virgil R. Miller, Colonel, U.S. Army; Regimental Commander of the 442d Regimental Combat Team (RCT), a unit which was composed of "Nisei" (second generation Americans of Japanese descent), during World War II; led the 442nd in its rescue of the Lost Texas Battalion of the 36th Infantry Division, in the forests of the Vosges Mountains in northeastern France[399]
  • José Antonio Muñiz Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force; together with then-Colonels Alberto A. Nido and Mihiel Gilormini, founded the Puerto Rico Air National Guard; in 1963, the Air National Guard Base, at the San Juan International airport in Puerto Rico, was renamed "Muñiz Air National Guard Base" in his honor[400]
  • William A. Navas, Jr., Major General, U.S. Army; first Puerto Rican named Assistant Secretary of the Navy; a veteran of the Vietnam War; nominated in 2001 by President George W. Bush to serve as the Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs)[401]
  • Juan E. Negrón, Master Sergeant, U.S. Army; received the Medal of Honor posthumously on March 18, 2014, for courageous actions while serving as a member of Company L, 65th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Kalma-Eri, Korea, on April 28, 1951[364]
  • Héctor Andrés Negroni, Colonel, U.S. Air Force; first Puerto Rican graduate of the United States Air Force Academy; a veteran of the Vietnam War; was awarded the Aeronautical Merit Cross, Spai'ns highest Air Force peacetime award for his contributions to the successful implementation of the United States-Spain Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation[402]
  • Alberto A. Nido, Brigadier General, U.S. Air Force; a World War II war hero who together with Lt. Col. Jose Antonio Muñiz, co-founded the Puerto Rico Air National Guard and served as its commander for many years; served in the Royal Canadian Air Force, the British Royal Air Force and in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II[403]
  • Ramón Núñez-Juárez, Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps; listed as Missing in Action during the Korean War and posthumously awarded the Navy Cross, the second highest medal after the Medal of Honor, that can be awarded by the Department of the Navy; the only Puerto Rican member of the United States Marine Corps whose remains have never been recovered and who was listed as Missing in Action during the Korean War[404]
  • Jorge Otero Barreto, Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army; with 38 decorations, which includes 3 Silver Star Medals, 5 Bronze Star Medals with Valor, 4 Army Commendation medals, 5 Purple Heart Medals and 5 Air Medals, has been called the most decorated U.S. soldier of the Vietnam War[405]
  • Dolores Piñero, U.S. Army Medical Corps; despite the fact that she was not an active member of the military, she was the first Puerto Rican woman doctor to serve in the Army under contract during World War I; at first she was turned down, but after writing a letter to the Army Surgeon General in Washington, D.C. she was ordered her to report to Camp Las Casas in Santurce, Puerto Rico; on October 1918, she signed her contract with the Army.[406]
  • José M. Portela, Brigadier General U.S. Air Force; served in the position of Assistant Adjutant General for Air while also serving as commander of the Puerto Rico Air National Guard; in 1972, became the youngest C-141 Starlifter aircraft commander and captain at age 22; the only reservist ever to serve as director of mobility forces for Bosnia[407]
  • Marion Frederic Ramírez de Arellano, Captain, U.S. Navy; first Hispanic submarine commander; awarded two Silver Stars and a Bronze Star for his actions against the Japanese Imperial Navy during World War II[408][409]
  • Antonio J. Ramos, Brigadier General, U.S. Air Force; first Hispanic to serve as commander, Air Force Security Assistance Center, Air Force Materiel Command, and dual-hatted as Assistant to the Commander for International Affairs, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command[410]
  • Agustín Ramos Calero, Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army; with 22 military decorations, was the most decorated soldier in all of the United States during World War II[359]
  • Fernando L. Ribas-Dominicci, Major, U.S. Air Force; one of the pilots who participated in the Libyan air raid as member of the 48th Tactical Fighter Wing; his F-111F was shot down in action over the disputed Gulf of Sidra off the Libyan coast. Ribas-Dominicci and his weapons systems officer, Capt. Paul Lorence, were the only U.S. casualties of Operation El Dorado Canyon[411]
  • Frederick Lois Riefkohl, Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy; born Luis Federico Riefkohl Jaimieson; one of the first Puerto Ricans to graduate from the United States Naval Academy; in World War I became the first Puerto Rican to be awarded the Navy Cross[412]
  • Rudolph W. Riefkohl, Colonel, U.S. Army; played an instrumental role in helping the people of Poland overcome the 1919 typhus epidemic[413]
  • Demensio Rivera, Private, U.S. Army; received the Medal of Honor posthumously on March 18, 2014, for his courageous actions while serving as an automatic rifleman with 2d Platoon, Company G, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Changyong-ni, Korea on May 23, 1951[364]
  • Manuel Rivera, Jr., Captain, U.S. Marine Corps; of Puerto Rican descent; first U.S. serviceman to die in Operation Desert Shield[414]
  • Pedro N. Rivera, Brigadier General, U.S. Air Force; in 1994, became the first Hispanic to be named medical commander in the Air Force; responsible for the provision of health care to more than 50,000 patients[415]
  • Horacio Rivero, Admiral, U.S. Navy; in 1964, became the first Puerto Rican and second Hispanic Admiral (four-star) in the U.S. Navy; participated in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War; commander in 1962 of the American fleet sent by President John F. Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis to set up a quarantine (blockade) of the Soviet ships in an effort to stop the Cold War from escalating into World War III[416][417]
  • Pedro Rodríguez, Master Sergeant, U.S. Army; member of Puerto Rico's 65th Infantry; earned two Silver Stars within a seven-day period during the Korean War[418]
  • Antonio Rodríguez Balinas, Brigadier General, U.S. Army; first commander of the Office of the First U.S. Army Deputy Command; during the Korean War he fought with Puerto Rico's 65th Infantry Regiment and was awarded the Silver Star[419]
  • Maria Rodriguez Denton, Lieutenant, U.S. Navy; first woman from Puerto Rico who became an officer in the United States Navy as member of the WAVES; forwarded the news (through channels) to President Harry S. Truman that the war had ended[420]
  • Fernando E. Rodríguez Vargas, Major, U.S. Army; odontologist (dentist), scientist and a Major in the U.S. Army who in 1921 discovered the bacteria which causes dental caries[421][422]
  • Eurípides Rubio, Captain, U.S. Army; posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions at Tây Ninh Province in the Republic of Vietnam on 8 November 1966[423]
  • Jaime Sabater, Sr., Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps; commanded the 1st Battalion 9th Marines during the Bougainville amphibious operations in World War II[424]
  • José L. Santiago, Sergeant Major, U.S. Marine Corps; the 2nd Battalion 9th Marines' first Hispanic Sergeant Major and its first Sergeant Major since its reactivation on 13 July 2007[425]
  • Héctor Santiago-Colón, Specialist Four, U.S. Army; posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions at Quảng Trị Province, Vietnam as member of Company B of the 5th Battalion, 7th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division[426]
  • Antulio Segarra, Colonel, U.S. Army; in 1943, became the first Puerto Rican Regular Army officer to command a Regular Army Regiment when he assumed the command of Puerto Rico's 65th Infantry Regiment, which was conducting security missions in the jungles of Panama[427]
  • Frankie Segarra, Master Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps; first Puerto Rican to reach the grade of Master Gunnery Sergeant in the United States Marine Corps within his MOS[428]
  • Rafel Toro, Private, U.S. Marine Corps; posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for his "extraordinary heroism in battle"[429] while fighting in Nicaragua during the second Nicaragua campaign in 1927
  • Miguel A. Vera, Private, U.S. Army; will receive the Medal of Honor posthumously for his courageous actions while serving as an automatic rifleman with Company F, 38th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division in Chorwon, Korea, on September 21, 1952[364]
  • Humbert Roque Versace, Captain, U.S. Army; of Italian and Puerto Rican descent; posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions while a prisoner of war (POW) during the Vietnam War; first member of the U.S. Army to be awarded the Medal of Honor for actions performed in Southeast Asia while in captivity[430]
  • Raúl G. Villaronga, Colonel, U.S. Army; first Puerto Rican to be elected as Mayor of a Texas city (Killeen)[431]

21st century

  • Marta Carcana, Major General, U.S. Army; in 2015, became the first woman to be named Adjutant General of the Puerto Rican National Guard[432]
  • Iván Castro, Captain, U.S. Army; of Puerto Rican descent; one of three blind active-duty officers who serves in the US Army; the only blind officer serving in the United States Army Special Forces[433]
  • Ramón Colón-López, Chief Master Sergeant, U.S. Air Force; a pararescueman; on 13 June 2007, was the first and only Hispanic among the first six airmen to be awarded the Air Force Combat Action Medal; Commandant of the Pararescue and Combat Rescue Officer School[434]
  • Hilda Clayton, U.S. Army combat photographer killed in 2013 when a mortar exploded during an Afghan training exercise; she captured the explosion that killed her and four Afghan soldiers[435][221]
  • Olga E. Custodio, Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force; first female Hispanic U.S. military pilot; first Latina to complete U.S. Air Force military pilot training; after retiring, became the first Latina commercial airline captain[436]
  • Emilio Díaz Colón, Major General, U.S. Army; PRNG; first Superintendent of the Puerto Rican Police; served as the Adjutant General of the Puerto Rican National Guard[437][438]
  • Hila Levy, Captain, U.S. Air Force; in 2007, became the first Puerto Rican Rhodes scholar[439][440]
  • Rafael O'Ferrall, Brigadier General, U.S. Army; first Hispanic and person of Puerto Rican descent to become the Deputy Commanding General for the Joint Task Force at Guantanamo, Cuba while simultaneously serving as Assistant Adjutant General (Army) and Deputy Commanding General of the Joint Force Headquarters at San Juan, Puerto Rico[441]
  • María Inés Ortiz, Captain, U.S. Army; of Puerto Rican descent; first United States Army nurse to die in combat during Operation Iraqi Freedom and the first to die in combat since the Vietnam War[442]
  • Evelio Otero, Jr., Colonel. U.S. Air Force; led the establishment of the first ever U.S. Central Command Headquarters in Qatar; founded the Polish and Colombian Joint Special Operations Commands while assigned to United States Special Operations Command[443]
  • Hector E. Pagan, Brigadier General, U.S. Army; first Hispanic of Puerto Rican descent to become Deputy Commanding General of the U.S. Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School at Fort Bragg, North Carolina[444]
  • Lizbeth Robles, U.S. Army; in 2005, was the first female soldier born in Puerto Rico to die in combat as an active soldier during Operation Iraqi Freedom[445]
  • Maritza Sáenz Ryan, Colonel, U.S. Army; of Puerto Ricana and Spanish descent; head of the Department of Law at the United States Military Academy; first woman and first Hispanic (Puerto Rican and Spanish heritage) West Point graduate to serve as an academic department head; the most senior ranking Hispanic Judge Advocate[446][447]
  • Marc H. Sasseville, Brigadier General, U.S. Air Force; Puerto Rican mother; on 11 September 2001,[448] was acting operations group commander under the 113th Wing of the DC Air National Guard; one of four fighter pilots commissioned with finding and destroying United Flight 93 by any means necessary, including ramming the aircraft in midair[449][450]
  • Frances M. Vega, SPC, U.S. Army; on 2 November 2003, became the first female soldier of Puerto Rican descent to die in a combat zone during Operation Iraqi Freedom[451]
  • Irene M. Zoppi, Brigadier General, U.S. Army; first Puerto Rican woman to reach the rank of Brigadier General in the United States Army; Deputy Commanding General – Support under the 200th Military Police Command at Fort Meade, Maryland; Bronze Star Medal recipient[452][453]

Physicians, scientists and inventorsEdit

Agustin stahl

Agustin Stahl

Fermín Tangüis

Fermín Tangüis

Joseph Acaba v2

Joseph Acaba

VADM Antonia Novello

Antonia Novello – Surgeon General of the United States

ADM Joxel Garcia

Joxel García – Assistant Secretary of Health for President George W. Bush

Gonzalez Sanabria

Olga D. González-Sanabria – member of the Ohio Women's Hall of Fame

  • Joseph M. Acaba, scientist, educator, first Puerto Rican astronaut
  • José Ramón Alcalá, anatomist; appointed assistant professor in 1972 in the Wayne School of Medicine; expert on cell makeup of the human eye lens; developed laboratory methods to study the histology of ocular tissue, which ultimately helped explain the development of cataracts, among other maladies of the eye[50][454]
  • Carlos Albizu Miranda, psychologist; first Hispanic educator to have a North American university renamed in his honor; one of the first Hispanics to earn a PhD in psychology in the U.S.[272]
  • Ricardo Alegría, anthropologist, archaeologist and educator; "father of modern Puerto Rican archaeology"
  • Jorge N. Amely Vélez, electrical engineer and inventor; holds various patents in the field of medical technology[455]
  • Bailey K. Ashford, author, physician, soldier, and parasitologist; Colonel in the U.S. Army, arrived in Puerto Rico during the Spanish–American War and made the island his home; organized and conducted a parasite treatment campaign which cured approximately 300,000 people (one-third of the Puerto Rico population) and reduced the death rate from this anemia by 90 percent[456][457]
  • Pedro Beauchamp, surgeon; first Puerto Rican specialist certified by the American Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Board; performed the first in vitro fertilization technique on the island in 1985[458]
  • Víctor Manuel Blanco, astronomer; in 1959, discovered a "Blanco 1", a galactic cluster;[459] second Director of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, which has the largest 4-m telescope in the Southern Hemisphere;[460] in 1995, the telescope was dedicated in his honor as the "Víctor M. Blanco Telescope", also known as the "Blanco 4m"[461]
  • Rafael L. Bras, former chair of Civil Engineering at MIT; leading expert on hydrometeorology and global warming[462]
  • Anthony M. Busquets, electronic engineer, aerospace technologist; involved in the development and application of multifunction control/display switch technology in 1983 and development and application of a microprocessor-based I/O system for simulator use in 1984[463]
  • Carlos E. Chardón, a.k.a. the "father of mycology in Puerto Rico"; first Puerto Rican mycologist; discovered the aphid "Aphis maidis", the vector of the mosaic of sugar cane, in 1922; author of the Chardón Plan; first Puerto Rican to hold the position of Chancellor of the University of Puerto Rico[464]
  • Nitza Margarita Cintron, scientist; Chief of NASA's (JSC) Space and Health Care Systems Office
  • Pablo Clemente-Colon, first Puerto Rican Chief Scientist of the National Ice Center (2005–present)
  • Antonia Coello Novello, physician; first Hispanic and first woman U.S. Surgeon General (1990–93)
  • Martín Corchado (born 1839), physician, medical researcher, and president of the Autonomist Party of Puerto Rico[465]
  • José F. Cordero, pediatrician; founding director of the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities at the CDC[466]
  • Milagros J. Cordero, pediatrician; founder and President of Team Therapy Services For Children
  • María Cordero Hardy, physiologist, educator and scientist; did important research on vitamin E[467]
  • Juan R. Correa-Pérez, scientist; first clinical andrologist and embryologist in Puerto Rico
  • Juan R. Cruz, NASA scientist, played an instrumental role in the design and development of the Mars Exploration Rover parachute[468]
  • Carlos Del Castillo, NASA scientist; Program Scientist for the Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program at NASA; recipient of the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers award, the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on scientists and engineers beginning their independent careers[469]
  • Manuel de la Pila Iglesias, multi-faceted physician; introduced the first EKG and X-ray machines into Puerto Rico; founded a medical clinic which today houses a respected medical center in Ponce[470]
  • Alfonso Eaton, mechanical engineer, aerospace technologist; first Puerto Rican to work for NASA[471]
  • Enectalí Figueroa-Feliciano, astronaut applicant and astrophysicist with NASA; pioneered the development of position-sensitive detectors
  • Orlando Figueroa, mechanical engineer at NASA; former Director for Mars Exploration and the Director for the Solar System Division in the Office of Space Science; now Director, Applied Engineering & Technology at the NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center; as Director of Engineering he manages the full scope of engineering activities at Goddard[472]
  • Adolfo Figueroa-Viñas, first Puerto Rican astrophysicist at NASA working in solar plasma physics; senior research scientist; involved in many NASA missions such as Wind, SOHO, Cluster and MMS projects[473]
  • José N. Gándara, lead physician attending to the wounded of the Ponce Massacre and later an expert witness at the trials of the "Nacionalistas" as well as before the Hays Commission; held numerous government positions, including Secretary of Health of Puerto Rico; co-founded the Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico[474][475]
  • Joxel García, first Puerto Rican Assistant Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Admiral in the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps[476]
  • Asdrubal García Ortiz, technology engineer; with fellow inventors Sunggyu Lee and John R. Wootton, was granted various patents, including for devices for detecting traffic anomalies and purifying water.[477][478]
  • Mario García Palmieri, cardiologist; first Hispanic to be designated a "Master" by the American College of Cardiology[479]
  • Sixto González, scientist; first Puerto Rican Director of the Arecibo Observatory, with the world's largest single dish radio telescope[480]
  • Rosa A. González, registered nurse; founded the Association of Registered Nurses of Puerto Rico; wrote various books related to her field in which she denounced the discrimination against women and nurses in Puerto Rico[481]
  • Isaac González Martínez, urologist; first Puerto Rican urologist; pioneer in the fight against cancer in the island[482]
  • Olga D. González-Sanabria, NASA engineer; highest ranking Hispanic at NASA Glenn Research Center; member of the Ohio Women's Hall of Fame[483]
  • Amri Hernández-Pellerano, NASA engineer; designs, builds and tests the electronics that regulate the solar array power at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center[484]
  • Gloria Hernandez, physical scientist, aerospace technologist; Science Manager for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment at NASA Langley Research Center; her supersonic aerodynamic research has resulted in economic advances in supersonic flight[485]
  • Lucas G. Hortas, aerospace engineer and technologist; author and or co-author of over 35 technical papers[486]
  • Ramón E. López, physicist; professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Texas at Arlington; Fellow of the American Physical Society; recipient of the 2002 Nicholson Medal for Humanitarian Service; co-authored a book on space weather, Storms from the Sun[487]
  • Fernando López Tuero, agricultural scientist and agronomist; discovered the bug (believed at first to be a germ) which was destroying Puerto Rico's sugar canes[488]
  • Carlos A. Liceaga, electronic engineer, aerospace technologist; leads the development of proposal guidelines, and the technical, management, and cost evaluation of the proposals For the Explorer Program[486]
  • Ariel Lugo, scientist and ecologist; Director of the International Institute of Tropical Forestry in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, based in Puerto Rico; founding member of the Society for Ecological Restoration; member-at-large of the Board of the Ecological Society of America[489]
  • Debbie Martínez, computer engineer, aerospace technologist; Flight Systems and Software Branch software manager for the Cockpit Motion Facility at NASA Langley Research Center[490]
  • Lissette Martinez, electronic engineer, rocket scientist; lead electrical engineer for the Space Experiment Module program at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility
  • Manuel Martínez Maldonado, nephrologist, educator; author of numerous scientific publications; discovered a natriuretic hormone[491]
  • Antonio Mignucci, marine biologist, oceanographer; founder of "Red Caribeña de Varamientos"
  • Carlos Ortiz Longo, mechanical engineer; Chief of Crew Health Care Systems and Exercise Countermeasures at NASA
  • William G. Pagán, software engineer, IBM Master Inventor, and patent attorney; listed as an inventor on 73 U.S. patents as of 2016,[492] and more than 120 published patent applications[493]
  • Joseph O. Prewitt Díaz, psychologist; specialized in psychosocial theory; recipient of the American Psychological Association's 2008 International Humanitarian Award[494]
  • Mercedes Reaves, research engineer and scientist; responsible for the design of a viable full-scale solar sail and the development and testing of a scale model solar sail at NASA Langley Research Center[495]
  • Ron Rivera, inventor and workshop organizer; invented life-saving water filters based on pottery[496]
  • Juan A. Rivero, scientist and educator; founded the Dr. Juan A. Rivero Zoo in Mayagüez, has discovered numerous animal species; author of several books[497]
  • Miriam Rodon-Naveira, NASA scientist; first Hispanic woman to hold the Deputy Directorship for the Environmental Sciences Division in the National Exposure Research Laboratory[463]
  • Miguel Rodríguez, mechanical engineer; Chief of the Integration Office of the Cape Canaveral Spaceport Management Office[498]
  • Pedro Rodriguez, inventor, mechanical engineer; director of a test laboratory at NASA; invented a portable, battery-operated lift seat for people suffering from knee arthritis[499]
  • Helen Rodriguez-Trias, physician and activist; first Latina president of the American Public Health Association; a founding member of the Women's Caucus of the American Public Health Association; recipient of the Presidential Citizen's Medal[187]
  • Fernando E. Rodríguez Vargas, dental scientist; discovered the bacteria which causes dental cavities[500]
  • Monserrate Roman, scientist, microbiologist; helped build the International Space Station[422][501]
  • Gualberto Ruaño, biotechnology pioneer and founder of Genomas, Inc.; pioneer in the field of personalized medicine; inventor of a system used worldwide for the management of viral diseases; President and founder of Genomas, a genetics-related company; director of genetics research at Hartford Hospital's Genetic Research Center[502]
  • José Francisco Salgado, Emmy-nominated astronomer, visual artist, and science communicator; astronomer at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago; member of the audiovisual ensemble Bailey-Salgado Project[503]
  • Ulises Armand Sanabria, of Puerto Rican and French descent; developed mechanical televisions and early terrestrial television broadcasts[504]
  • Eduardo Santiago Delpín, surgeon; wrote the first book in Spanish about organ transplants[505]
  • Yajaira Sierra Sastre, astronaut; part of a NASA project on astronaut nutrition and health; She will live for four months isolated in a planetary module at a base in Hawaii to simulate life at a future base on Mars[506][507]
  • Diego R. Solís, physician; performed the first simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant in Puerto Rico[508]
  • Félix Soto Toro, electrical engineer, astronaut applicant; developed the Advanced Payload Transfer Measurement System (ASPTMS), an electronic 3D measuring system
  • Agustín Stahl, scientist in the fields of botany, ethnology and zoology[509]
  • Ramón M. Suárez Calderon, scientist, cardiologist, educator and hematologist; his investigations led to the identification of the proper and effective treatment of a type of anemia known as Tropical Espru, the application of complex methods, such as electrocardiography and radioisotope, to be used in clinics and the identification and treatment of the disease which causes heart rheumatism[488]
  • Fermín Tangüis, scientist, agriculturist and entrepreneur; developed the Tanguis cotton in Peru and saved that nation's cotton industry[510]
  • Dr. Neil deGrasse Tyson, astrophysicist, television and radio host; Puerto Rican mother; director of the Hayden Planetarium in New York City; host of the PBS series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage[511]

PoliticiansEdit

Jose de Diego 2

José de Diego - the "father of the Puerto Rican Independence Movement"

Federico Degetau y González

Federico Degetau – writer, author, and resident commissioner

Albizu

Pedro Albizu Campos – President and principal leader of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party

Nydia Velázquez

Nydia Velázquez – Congresswoman from New York City

Luis gutierrez

Luis Gutiérrez – Congressman from Chicago

McClontock

Kenneth McClintock – Secretary of State of Puerto Rico

Jose Coll y Cuchi

José Coll y Cuchí – founder of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party

19th century

20th century

21st century

U.S. laws inspired by Puerto RicansEdit

  • Briana's Law - Briana Ojeda was an 11-year-old girl who died in the summer of 2010 when a police officer did not perform CPR on her after she suffered from an asthma attack. Briana's Law, which requires that every police officer and member of the State Police, including police officer trainees and state police cadets, receive CPR training prior to employment as well as during employment every two years, was named in her honor.[568]
  • Gonzales v. Williams - Isabel González was a Puerto Rican activist who helped pave the way for Puerto Ricans to be given United States citizenship. González challenged the Government of the United States in the groundbreaking case Gonzales v. Williams (192 U.S. 1 (1904)). Her Supreme Court case is the first time that the Court confronted the citizenship status of inhabitants of territories acquired by the United States. González actively pursued the cause of U.S. citizenship for all Puerto Ricans by writing letters published in The New York Times.[569]
  • Mendez v. Westminster - Felicitas Gomez Mendez was a pioneer of the American civil rights movement. In 1946, Mendez and her husband led an educational civil rights battle that changed California and set an important legal precedent for ending de jure segregation in the United States. Their landmark desegregation case, known as Mendez v. Westminster, paved the way for meaningful integration, public school reform, and the American civil rights movement.[570][180]

SportsEdit

Sandy Alomar, Jr

Santos "Sandy" AlomarCleveland Indians baseball player

Orlando Cepeda All Star Parade 2008

Orlando Cepeda – MLB first baseman, second Puerto Rican in Baseball Hall of Fame

J.J. Barea Mavs

José Juan Barea – professional basketball player with the Dallas Mavericks

Carlos Delgado

Carlos Delgado – MLB player, New York Mets

Reggie Jackson at Dodger Stadium 2010

Reggie JacksonMajor League Baseball right fielder

EdgarMartinez2009

Edgar Martínez – MLB player with the Seattle Mariners

Jorge P

Jorge PosadaNew York Yankees catcher

Ivan Rodriguez on January 31, 2010

Iván Rodríguez – MLB catcher for the Washington Nationals

Alfredo L. Escalera defensive Close-up pic

Alfredo L. EscaleraKansas City Royals outfielder; youngest player ever drafted

Monica Puig (27849192363) (cropped)

Monica Puig – Olympic gold medalist

Juan Evangelista Venegas

Juan Evangelista Venegas – Olympic medalist

A

B

C

D

E

F

  • Gigi Fernández,tennis player, in 1992 became the first female athlete from her native Puerto Rico win an Olympic gold medal; first female athlete from Puerto Rico to turn professional;[582] first Puerto Rican woman inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame[583]
  • Lisa Fernandez, softball player, Olympic gold medalist (Puerto Rican mother)
  • Orlando Fernández a.k.a. "the Puerto Rican Aquaman"; swimmer; first Puerto Rican to swim across the Strait of Gibraltar[584]
  • Ed Figueroa, baseball pitcher, first Puerto Rican to win 20 games in Major League
  • Enrique Figueroa, sailing

G

H

J

  • Reggie Jackson, baseball player, member of Baseball Hall of Fame (Puerto Rican father)

K

L

M

N

O

  • Luis Olmo, first Puerto Rican to hit a home run in the World Series
  • Fres Oquendo, professional boxer
  • John Orozco, Olympic gymnast
  • Carlos Ortiz, boxer, former, Jr. welterweight and lightweight champion; member of Boxing Hall of Fame
  • José Ortiz, former basketball player, PDP candidate for elective office in 2008
  • Luis Ortiz, boxer, first Puerto Rican to win a silver Olympic medal

P

Q

  • Carlos Quintana, professional boxer, former World Boxing Organization's welterweight champion

R

S

T

V

W

TaínosEdit

Estatua de Agüeybaná II, El Bravo, en el Parque Monumento a Agüeybaná II, El Bravo, en Ponce, Puerto Rico (DSC02672C)

Agüeybaná II (The Brave)

Visual artistsEdit

José Campeche

José Campeche

File:Francisco Oller.jpg

MiscellaneousEdit

Felix Rigau Carrera2

Félix Rigau Carrera

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

Template:Sidebar Puerto Rican people

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "Departamento de Estado expedira certificados de ciudadania puertorriqueña | terra". Archived from the original on 2007-06-25. https://archive.is/20070625160754/http://www.terra.com.pr/noticias/articulo/html/act823791.htm. 
  3. ^ "Miguel Arteta - Wesleyan University". http://www.wesleyan.edu/filmstudies/video-arteta.html. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  4. ^ Awilda Carbia obituary Script error, elnuevodia.com; accessed April 4, 2016.
  5. ^ 26th Annual Young Artist Awards – Nominations/Special Awards: Raquel Castro Script error, youngartistawards.org; accessed April 4, 2016.
  6. ^ "Latin American Herald Tribune - Puerto Rican TV Pioneer Paquito Cordero Dies". 1965-01-11. http://www.laht.com/article.asp?CategoryId=13003&ArticleId=338270. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  7. ^ Wang, Frances Kai-Hwa (7 October 2015). "The Next Disney Princess is Native Hawaiian AuliCravalho". NBC News (New York: NBCUniversal). http://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/next-disney-princess-native-hawaiian-aulii-cravalho-n440131. Retrieved 27 February 2017. 
  8. ^ "Sesame Street Announces New Latino Character 'Mando' played By Ismael Cruz Córdova", HuffingtonPost.com, May 10, 2013; accessed April 4, 2016.
  9. ^ "County Fare: On International Women's Day, a look at Berkshire-based women making their mark" (in en). The Berkshire Eagle. http://www.berkshireeagle.com/stories/county-fare-on-international-womens-day-a-look-at-berkshire-based-women-making-their-mark,500476. 
  10. ^ A Surprise at the Door, Joey Dedio Stars as 'Tio Papi', nytimes.com, September 6, 2013; accessed April 4, 2016.
  11. ^ New York's International Puerto Rican Heritage Film Festival set to kick off Nov. 13, nydailynews.com; accessed April 4, 2016.
  12. ^ "Melodie Diaz", Paper, September 11, 2009.
  13. ^ "Hot New Actress Has Fun With Dick and Jane". http://www.g-pop.net/dickjane.htm. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  14. ^ "Meagan Good profile". 1981-08-08. http://www.filmreference.com/film/26/Meagan-Good.html. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  15. ^ Tim Farrell. "From Priscilla Lopez, the lowdown on 'In the Heights'". http://www.nj.com/entertainment/arts/index.ssf/2008/02/from_priscilla_lopez_the_lowdo.html. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  16. ^ "Tony Martínez, 'Pepino' on 'Real McCoys', Dies at 82". latinamericanstudies.org. http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/cine/tony-martinez.htm. Retrieved September 2, 2011. 
  17. ^ La Fountain-Stokes, Lawrence. "Entre boleros, travestismos y migraciones translocales: Manuel Ramos Otero, Jorge Merced y El bolero fue mi ruina del Teatro Pregones del Bronx." Revista Iberoamericana 71.212 (July–September 2005): pp. 887–907.
  18. ^ Lin-Manuel Miranda Visits Puerto Rico, Compares Himself To A 'Weird Pokémon'
  19. ^ Rodríguez-Matos, Carlos. "Frances Negrón-Muntaner" In David William Foster, ed., Latin American Writers on Gay and Lesbian Themes (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1994): pp. 288-90; ISBN 0-313-28479-2
  20. ^ Arreola, Cristina. "Entertainment News". Latina. http://www.latina.com/entertainment/arts/video-karen-olivo-david-alvarez-take-top-honors-tony-awards. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  21. ^ "Lana Parrilla as The Evil Queen - Once Upon A Time". http://abc.go.com/shows/once-upon-a-time/cast/evil-queen. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  22. ^ "He's Still Here: The Biography of Joaquin Phoenix". Google Books. https://books.google.com/books?id=icv_AQAAQBAJ&pg=PT6&lpg=PT6&dq=jodean+bottom+joaquin&source=bl&ots=iaG7ddnHoj&sig=EkYSEly5JFwpcvPAXIaIQs9LOKU&hl=sv&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjOp7SIz8PUAhVBG5oKHfulDc04FBDoAQg5MAM#v=onepage&q=jodean%20bottom%20joaquin&f=false. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  23. ^ Like Cameron Diaz, Joaquin Phoenix is of Hispanic roots. Born in Puerto Rico
  24. ^ Is 'Glee' Star Naya Rivera Singing Love Songs to Costar Mark Salling? Script error from Latina, March 19, 2010.
  25. ^ Balfour, Brad (2008). "Zoe Saldaña finds creative shelter in making Haven". PopEntertainment. Archived from the original on July 10, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090710051143/http://www.popentertainment.com/saldana.htm. Retrieved July 7, 2009. 
  26. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20151222110848/http://www.elnuevodia.com/diario/noticia/musica/flash/fallece_la_actriz_boricua_olga_san_juan. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  27. ^ Puerto Rican cinema in New York; From the margin to the center
  28. ^ Smith, Patricia Juliana (2002). "Troche, Rose". glbtq.com. Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20070814122128/http://www.glbtq.com/arts/troche_r.html. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  29. ^ La Fountain-Stokes, Lawrence. Queer Ricans: Cultures and Sexualities in the Diaspora. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009. ISBN 0816640920
  30. ^ "Latino Image Makers in Hollywood: Performers, Filmmakers and Films Since the 1960s"; by Frank Javier Garcia Berumen; Page 275; Publisher: McFarland; ASIN: B00N21C9IU
  31. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 23, 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20071023062238/http://www.preb.com/devisita/marisel.htm. Retrieved October 1, 2007. 
  32. ^ Barnard, Christopher. "Her Name is Rio". Papermag. http://www.papermag.com/2010/06/her_name_is_rio.php. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  33. ^ "Gina Lynn Take a Bite Out of the Big Apple" (Press release). AdultFYI. May 8, 2006. Archived from the original on August 8, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110808174612/http://adultfyi.com/read.php?ID=16335. 
  34. ^ http://www.foodnetwork.com/profiles/talent/monti-carlo
  35. ^ Rivera Marrero, Mildred (10 December 2017). "Distinguen el Paseo Puerta de Tierra". El Nuevo Día (El Nuevo Dia). https://www.elnuevodia.com/noticias/locales/nota/distinguenelpaseopuertadetierra-2381060/. Retrieved 14 February 2018. "Arquitecto Segundo Cardona destaca la importancia de la obra y la necesidad de que gobierno y ciudadanos la cuiden" 
  36. ^ O'Connell, Sandra. "Winners of the 2017 Edition of the "UIA Friendly and Inclusive Spaces Awards"". http://www.uia-architectes.org/en/participer/concours/10736#.WoRkN6inFaQ. Retrieved 14 February 2018. 
  37. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 10, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120310170343/http://www.miramarpr.org/arqalgunosarq.htm. Retrieved 22 July 2012. 
  38. ^ "Toro Ferrer y Torregrosa 1945–1955". Periferia. http://www.periferia.org/architecture/tf1.html. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  39. ^ see Enrique Vivoni "Klumb: An Architecture of Social Concern, 2006.
  40. ^ "AIA Elevates 66 to Fellow; 5 to Honorary Fellow". AIArchitect. American Institute of Architects. 28 February 2005. Retrieved on 8 October 2007.
  41. ^ a b "Universidad de Puerto Rico-Recinto de Río Piedras". Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120414212329/http://estudios.universia.net/puerto-rico/institucion/universidad-puerto-rico-recinto-rio-piedras/ver/historia. 
  42. ^ Marvel, Thomas S. (1994). Antonin Nechodoma: Architect, 1877–1928: The Prairie School in the Caribbean. University Press of Florida.
  43. ^ Mariano G. Coronas Castro, Certifying Official, and Felix J. del Campo, State Historian and Jorge Ortiz, Architect. Puerto Rico Historic Preservation Office. (San Juan, Puerto Rico) 27 April 1987. In National Register of Historic Places Registration Form – Banco Credito y Ahorro Ponceño. United States Department of the Interior. National Park Service. (Washington, D.C.) Section 8, Page 3. Listing Reference Number 87001002. June 25, 1987.
  44. ^ Mariano G. Coronas Castro, Certifying Official; Felix Juan del Campo, State Historian; and Hector F. Santiago, State Architectural Historian, Puerto Rico Historic Preservation Office. (San Juan, Puerto Rico) August 1987. In National Register of Historic Places Inventory – Nomination Form. United States Department of the Interior. National Park Service. (Washington, D.C.) Page 3. Listing Reference Number 87001826: Residencia Subira/Residencia Frau. October 29, 1987.
  45. ^ Armando Morales Pares, State Architect, S.H.P.O., Abelardo Gonzalez Aviles, Architect, Centro de Investigaciones Folkloricas de Puerto Rico (Ponce, Puerto Rico), State Historic Preservation Officer, Certifying Officer. May 18, 1984. In National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form – Villaronga Residence. United States Department of the Interior. National Park Service. (Washington, D.C.) Page 3. Listing Reference Number 84003151. 24 August 1984.
  46. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 12, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090812021128/http://www.martinespada.net/Jack%20Agueros.htm. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  47. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 21, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090721091900/http://www.hedgebrook.org/news.php. Retrieved March 7, 2009. 
  48. ^ "Miguel Algarín". http://miguelalgarin.com. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  49. ^ "Puerto Rico's Culture: Famous Puerto Ricans: A-C". Archived from the original on March 29, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160329114815/http://www.topuertorico.org/culture/famousprA-C.shtml. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  50. ^ a b c d e Nicolas Kanellos, "Hispanic Firsts", Visible Ink Press; ISBN 0-7876-0519-0; p. 40
  51. ^ "Con su pluma y desde su gestión como titular del Programa de Fomento Teatral del Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña, Francisco Arriví impulsó el teatro del patio". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160303214407/http://biblioteca.uprh.edu/cultural/biografias/letra%20a/Francisco%20Arrivi.htm. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  52. ^ "Welcome ranearroyo.com". http://www.ranearroyo.com/press%20kit%20pg%202.htm. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  53. ^ "Pura Belpré: The Children's Ambassador". In Vicki Ruiz and Virginia Sánchez Korrol, Latina Legacies: Identity, Biography, and Community New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. 148-157
  54. ^ First page of the newspaper "Primera Hora" of Puerto Rico and subsequent pages 2 through 4. Edition of 20 January 2012. "Newspaper "Primera Hora"
  55. ^ "Language and Literature: Benítez, María Bibiana". 2014-09-15. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160303233048/http://www.enciclopediapr.org/ing/article.cfm?ref=08112102. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  56. ^ [2]
  57. ^ "Biografías - Tomás Blanco Géigel". Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110927073549/http://www.zonai.com/promociones/biografias/1201/blanco.asp. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  58. ^ D'Amore, Anna Maria (2009). Translating Contemporary Mexican Texts: Fidelity to Alterity. New York: Berkeley Insights in Linguistics and Semiotics. p. 104. ""In the stakes of literary acclaim and respectability is Giannina Braschi, considered by many to be Puerto Rico's premier poet."" 
  59. ^ Gonzalez, Madelena and Laplace-Claverie, Helene (2012). Minority Theater on the Global Stage: Challenging Paradigms from the Margins. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 104. Archived from the original on July 25, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140725074120/http://blogs.univ-avignon.fr/ictt/files/2010/04/minority-introduction.pdf. ""Puerto Rico's premier poet and novelist Giannina Braschi"" 
  60. ^ "PEN: Free Expression/Literature". November 2012. https://www.pen.org/giannina-braschi. "Giannina Braschi, one of the most revolutionary voices in Latin America today, wrote the postmodern poetry classic EMPIRE OF DREAMS" 
  61. ^ "Giannina Braschi". National Book Festival. Library of Congress. 2012. https://www.loc.gov/bookfest/author/giannina_braschi. "Braschi, one of the most revolutionary voices in Latin America today is the author of Empire of Dreams." 
  62. ^ "Giannina Braschi: Book Fest 12". National Book Festival Transcript and Webcast. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. September 2012. https://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=5804. "Giannina Braschi, a poet, essayist and novelist often described as cutting-edge, influential and even revolutionary" 
  63. ^ "Lengua y Literatura: Cadilla de Martínez, María". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160304120208/http://www.enciclopediapr.org/esp/article.cfm?ref=10042903. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  64. ^ "Zenobia Camprubí Aymar" (in es). http://www.ccgediciones.com/Sala_de_Estar/Biografias/ZenobiaCA.htm. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  65. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110927074144/http://www.zonai.com/promociones/biografias/1201/index.asp. Retrieved 4 February 2016. 
  66. ^ "Bios". Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110608065941/http://oak.cats.ohiou.edu/~rouzie/569A/benington/bios.htm. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  67. ^ "Manuel Corchado". http://isabelapr.org/manuel_corchado.htm. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  68. ^ "Puerto Rican Cultural Center". 2007-03-27. http://www.prcc-chgo.org. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  69. ^ Crohn Schmitt, Natalie (1990). "Complicates". Northwestern University Press. p. 85. ISBN 0-8101-0836-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=GRL-8cD6n5oC&pg=PA85&dq=nicholas+dante+puerto&ei=Y8tBSq-zF6GeygTqyJhO. 
  70. ^ "José Campeche". Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110927074034/http://www.zonai.com/promociones/biografias/0101/josecampeche.asp. Retrieved October 7, 2011. 
  71. ^ "J'S THEATER: Poem: Julia de Burgos's "To Julia de Burgos"". http://jstheater.blogspot.com/2005/04/poem-julia-de-burgoss-to-julia-de.html. Retrieved 5 April 2016. 
  72. ^ "Just another Hostos Social Network DEV site". http://www.hostos.cuny.edu/LIBRARY/Hostos%20Page/Chronology/CHRONOLOGY_by_Diaz_eng.htm. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  73. ^ "Just another Hostos Social Network DEV Sites site". http://www.hostos.cuny.edu/LIBRARY/Hostos%20Page/Biography/PDF/history_full.pdf. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  74. ^ El Diario/La Prensa – Caridad de la Luz Script error
  75. ^ "VISIBLE: Women Writers of Color: Jaquira Díaz". http://therumpus.net/2016/08/visible-women-writers-of-color-4-jaquira-diaz/. Retrieved June 3, 2017. 
  76. ^ Honan, William H. (July 26, 1999). "Abelardo Diaz Alfaro, 81 - Author of Puerto Rican Stories". https://www.nytimes.com/1999/07/26/books/abelardo-diaz-alfaro-81-author-of-puerto-rican-stories.html. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  77. ^ Estill, Adriana. "Sandra María Esteves", Latino and Latina Writers (vol. 2), ed. Alan West Duran, pp. 873–83. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004; ISBN 0-684-31295-6
  78. ^ "A Bulldog on the Heels of Lost Nazi Loot", The New York Times; November 4, 1997.
  79. ^ Esther Rivera Torres. "Isabel Freire de Matos profile". http://www.angelfire.com/ny/conexion/freire_de_matos_isabel.html. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  80. ^ "Rosario Ferré" (in es). http://www.ensayistas.org/filosofos/puertorico/ferre/introd.htm. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  81. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120205191705/http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/pdf/377/37718201.pdf. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  82. ^ "Municipalities: Ponce". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160303190352/http://www.enciclopediapr.org/ing/article.cfm?ref=09012901&page=4. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  83. ^ "Magali García Ramis." Script error WikiLearning, originally from Biografías y vidas, November 30, 1999; retrieved January 15, 2010. (Spanish)
  84. ^ "Biografías - Miguel A. Hernández Agosto". Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110927074050/http://www.zonai.com/promociones/biografias/0401/index.asp. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  85. ^ "González, José Luis." Ronald Fernández, Serafín Méndez Méndez, and Gail Cueto. Puerto Rico Past and Present: An Encyclopedia, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1998. pp. 154–55.
  86. ^ "Llewellyn Worldwide by Migene González-Wippler". http://www.llewellyn.com/bookstore/author.php?id=11044. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  87. ^ Aparicio, Frances R. "Victor Hernández Cruz" profile, Heath Anthology of American Literature, Fifth Edition. Paul Lauter, General Editor. Cengage Online Study Center; accessed January 10, 2010.
  88. ^ Morales-Díaz, Enrique. "Identity of the 'Diasporican' Homosexual in the Literary Periphery." In José L. Torres-Padilla and Carmen Haydée Rivera, eds. Writing Off the Hyphen: New Perspectives on the Literature of the Puerto Rican Diaspora. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008. pp. 295–312; ISBN 978-0-295-98824-5
  89. ^ "Enrique Laguerre profile – Fundación Nacional para la Cultura Popular". June 25, 2014. http://www.prpop.org/biografias/e_bios/enrique_laguerre.shtml. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  90. ^ Luis 1992, p. 1022
  91. ^ "Georgina Lázaro León". Archived from the original on March 7, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20080307030023/http://www.hitn.tv/noticia_es.php?id=605. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  92. ^ "Muna Lee: A Pan-American Life". http://www.uhmc.sunysb.edu/surgery/muna.html. Retrieved 5 April 2016. 
  93. ^ McCormack, Tina, Celeste Silva, Maren Whitman, and Matt Whitmer. "Aurora Levins Morales", Voices from the Gaps, University of Minnesota, 2005. http://voices.cla.umn.edu/
  94. ^ "The History of Tobacco Cultivation in Puerto Rico, 1899-1940". https://books.google.com/books?id=UF3MH2-HErsC&pg=PR4&lpg=PR4&dq=TERESITA+A.+LEVY+Puerto+Rican&source=bl&ots=aRqs9Lf2jY&sig=Jsn5rP2qVPYRg3CXLhpwNyGdw7Q&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UMF_VJuPLJKPyATFooCQBA&ved=0CDsQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=TERESITA%20A.%20LEVY%20Puerto%20Rican&f=false. Retrieved 5 April 2016. 
  95. ^ Levy, Teresita. "Tostones and Matzoh, A Puerto Rican-Jewish Journey". InterfaithFamily. http://www.interfaithfamily.com/relationships/marriage_and_relationships/Tostones_and_Matzoh_A_Puerto_Rican-Jewish_Journey.shtml. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  96. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110927074102/http://www.zonai.com/promociones/biografias/0501/index.asp. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  97. ^ Fundación Puertorriqueña de las Humanidades. "Llorens Llorens, Washington", Puerto Rico Encyclopedia; retrieved September 9, 2010.
  98. ^ "Ponce - Ciudad Señorial - Personajes Ilustres". Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140204015110/http://www.visitponce.com/culturaIlustres.aspx. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  99. ^ "Datos personales y biográficos - Luis López Nieves profile". Ciudad Seva. April 8, 2014. http://www.ciudadseva.com/datos/index.htm. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  100. ^ "Language and Literature: Brief History of Puerto Rican Literature". Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160113133453/http://www.enciclopediapr.org/ing/article.cfm?ref=06100601&page=5. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  101. ^ "Rene Marques' La muerte no entrara en Palacio: Analysis" (PDF). https://journals.ku.edu/index.php/latr/article/viewFile/63/38. Retrieved 5 April 2016. 
  102. ^ Rodríguez-Matos, Carlos Antonio. "Matos-Cintrón, Nemir." In Latin American Writers on Gay and Lesbian Themes, ed. David William Foster, pp. 216–17. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.
  103. ^ Daniel B. Zwickel. "Francisco Matos Paoli profile". http://www.peacehost.net/WhiteStar/Voices/eng-matos.html. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  104. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120205072531/http://www.icp.gobierno.pr/bge/bge_concha.htm. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  105. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 9, 2004. https://web.archive.org/web/20040409043649/http://agproxy.inter.edu/cai/salamuseo_mmb.htm. Retrieved March 17, 2012. 
  106. ^ "phati'tude Literary Magazine Announces Guest Editor". Sbwire.com. 2011-11-28. http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/arts/literature/sbwire-116151.htm. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  107. ^ "Archived copy". http://ariskelvyn.com/post/520614870/hijos-de-inmigrantes-en-republica-dominicana. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  108. ^ "Nicholasa Mohr Biography". 2010-11-02. http://www.bookrags.com/biography/nicholasa-mohr-dlb. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  109. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 7, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20080807171843/http://college.hmco.com/english/lauter/heath/4e/students/author_pages/contemporary/mohr_ni.html. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  110. ^ Anderson, Kelly. Rosario Morales (Interview). Voices of Feminism Oral History Project. Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts; accessed December 15, 2014.
  111. ^ Ronald Fernandez; Serafín Mendez Mendez; Gail Cueto. "Puerto Rico Past and Present: An Encyclopedia". p. 234. https://books.google.com/books?id=b65NtSSss3cC&pg=PA234&lpg=PA234&dq=mercedes+negron+munoz&source=web&ots=ZuXi3y4kUo&sig=2XKHwVClOxIt6kIcyPfsgBf5mUg. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  112. ^ "Georgia Writers Hall of Fame". http://www.libs.uga.edu/gawriters/cofer.html. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  113. ^ "Princeton Library". Archived from the original on February 26, 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100226235452/http://www.princeton.lib.nj.us/children/festival/2007AuthorsAttending.htm. Retrieved April 6, 2010. 
  114. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120425080044/http://bibliotecavirtualut.suagm.edu/elibros/LibroPR/LPR_Esp/Capitulo%20_XVIII_HOMBRE_DEL_PASADO.pdf. Retrieved July 10, 2011. 
  115. ^ "Luis Palés Matos: Poeta" (in Spanish). Estudiantes Al Dia. Zonai.com. March 2001. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110927074159/http://www.zonai.com/promociones/biografias/0301/matos.asp. 
  116. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110614051008/http://www.zonai.com/promociones/biografias/0601/pedreira.asp. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  117. ^ Pietri, Pedro (2004-03-03). "Pedro Pietri obituary at". http://www.monthlyreview.org/0604pietri.htm. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  118. ^ Bennets, Leslie (June 18, 1988). "Miguel Pinero, Whose Plays Dealt With Life in Prison, Is Dead at 41". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1988/06/18/obituaries/miguel-pinero-whose-plays-dealt-with-life-in-prison-is-dead-at-41.html. Retrieved October 26, 2008. 
  119. ^ Quiroga, José. "Ramos Otero, Manuel." Encyclopedia of Latin American and Caribbean Literature, 1900–2003, ed. Daniel Balderston and Mike Gonzalez, pp. 471–72. New York: Routledge, 2004; ISBN 0-415-30687-6.
  120. ^ "Rare Books & Special Collections, Hesburgh Libraries, University of Notre Dame". http://www.library.nd.edu/rarebooks/collections/rarebooks/hispanic/lit_caribbean.shtml. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  121. ^ Jose Rivera awards and nominations, IMDb.com; retrieved August 1, 2009.
  122. ^ Michael Robert Patterson. "Marie Teresa Rios Versace, Military Spouse & Author". http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/mtrversace.htm. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  123. ^ "JUSTIPRECIACIÓN DE LA OBRADE FRANCISCO ROJAS TOLLINCHI"; by Ada Hilda Martínez de Alicea; Dept. Estudios Hispánicos Pontificia Universidad Católica de PR.
  124. ^ "Luis Rafael Sánchez – Fundación Nacional para la Cultura Popular". 2014-06-27. http://www.prpop.org/biografias/l_bios/luis_rafael_sanchez.shtml. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  125. ^ "Masterpiece Theatre - American Collection - Almost a Woman - Essays + Interviews". 2016-03-14. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/masterpiece/americancollection/woman/ei_santiago.html. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  126. ^ "Mayra Santos-Febres - John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation". Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140103234451/http://www.gf.org/fellows/16676-mayra-santos-febres. Retrieved March 12, 2014. 
  127. ^ "Nation: Death at Cerro Maravilla". TIME. 1979-05-14. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,916768,00.html. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  128. ^ "Guide to the Clemente Soto Vélez and Amanda Vélez Papers 1924-1996 (Bulk 1960s-1994) 1999-03 Processed by Ismael García with the assistance of Izzy De Moya, Damary González, Thencasti Paulino, Mario H. Ramírez, March 2003". Archived from the original on February 27, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120227101005/http://www.centropr.org/faids/velezb.html. Retrieved March 17, 2012. 
  129. ^ "Biografías - Emilio S. Belaval Maldonado". Archived from the original on August 8, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110808152201/http://www.zonai.com/promociones/biografias/1101/tapia.asp. Retrieved March 17, 2012. 
  130. ^ "Piri Thomas' Life and Flows". Archived from the original on March 21, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160321022258/http://www.cheverote.com/bio.html. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  131. ^ Aloud: Voices from the Nuyorican Poets Café Holt; ISBN 0-8050-3257-6.
  132. ^ "Puerto Rico Profile: Judge Edwin Torres". Puerto Rico Herald. December 1, 2000. Archived from the original on January 6, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20080106172450/http://www.puertorico-herald.org/issues/vol4n48/ProfTorres-en.html. Retrieved November 2, 2007. 
  133. ^ Rivera, Carmen Haydée. "'Language is our only homeland': An Interview with Luz María Umpierre" Script error, CENTRO: Journal of the Center for Puerto Rican Studies 20.1 (Spring 2008): pp. 13–21.
  134. ^ Chew, Selfa. "Un punto de vista diferente: entrevista de Lourdes Vázquez".[3] Bilingual Review 28(3) (September–December 2004–2007):265-268.
  135. ^ Weber, Bruce (September 9, 2008). Edgardo Vega Yunqué, Novelist of the Puerto Rican Experience in New York, Dies at 72, The New York Times; accessed September 13, 2016.
  136. ^ "Memoir of a former abortion addict" from the Los Angeles Times, October 13, 2009.
  137. ^ Colgan, Richard (2009) Advice to the Young Physician: On the Art of Medicine. Springer Press. pg. 120
  138. ^ "La Charca, de Manuel Zeno Gandía: Pathfinder". http://ponce.inter.edu/cai/bv/Charca.htm. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  139. ^ "Puerto Rico's Stephanie Del Valle crowned Miss World 2016". GMA Network. 18 December 2016. http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/592931/lifestyle/puerto-rico-s-stephanie-del-valle-crowned-miss-world-2016. 
  140. ^ "Youth wins as Nebraskan takes Miss America crown - Yahoo! News". At the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110124055153/http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/us_miss_america. 
  141. ^ "Press Release Archives #019-97 Largest Hispanic Bank Remains in NYC". 1997-01-10. http://www.nyc.gov/html/om/html/97/sp019-97.html. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  142. ^ "COLSA Corporation". Archived from the original on May 4, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160504231159/http://www.colsa.com/about.html. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  143. ^ "manati.info". Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. https://archive.is/20120426010850/http://www.manati.info/biografias/marqu/marques_esperanza.htm. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  144. ^ "Profile: Jaime Fonalledas". Puerto Rico Herald. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160303212730/http://www.puertorico-herald.org/issues/vol4n38/ProfileFonalledas-en.html. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  145. ^ "Eduardo Giorgetti Y Su Mundo: La Aparente Paradoja De Un Millonario Genio Empresarial Y Su Noble Humanismo"; by Delma S. Arrigoitia; Publisher: Ediciones Puerto; ISBN 0-942347-52-8; ISBN 978-0-942347-52-4
  146. ^ Martínez 2016.
  147. ^ U. S. Census 1910, pp. 10A-10B.
  148. ^ Serrano 2015, pp. 49–55, 75–76.
  149. ^ United States Department of the Interior National Park Service
  150. ^ Ralph Mercado, Impresario, Dies at 67, The New York Times March 11, 2009.
  151. ^ "Media and Communication: Three Centuries of Communications: Media, Technology, and Narratives in Puerto Rico". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160303232740/http://www.enciclopediapr.org/ing/article.cfm?ref=08100103&page=6. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  152. ^ "THR's Latino Power 50". Latin Gossip. 2007-07-31. http://www.latingossip.com/eva-longoria/thrs-latino-power-50.html. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  153. ^ "Historia Beisbol de Puerto Rico | 1-800-BEISBOL | Béisbol, Puerto, Equipo, Campeonato, Jugadores". Archived from the original on February 19, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090219224908/http://www.1800beisbol.com/baseball/Deportes/Beisbol_Puerto_Rico/Historia_Beisbol_de_Puerto_Rico. Retrieved 13 January 2009. /
  154. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 19, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090319214617/http://www.cbonlinepr.com/puerto_rico/business_economy/40under40/forty_camalia_valdes.pdf. Retrieved January 17, 2009. 
  155. ^ "PUERTO RICO HERALD: Vassallo Expands Products, Wins Substantial Contracts". Archived from the original on January 12, 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20070112225902/http://www.puertorico-herald.org/issues/vol4n15/CBVassallo-en.shtml. Retrieved May 5, 2006. 
  156. ^ "Welcome to the Seattle Chapter Web Page". Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090114001459/http://seattle.nshmba.org/. Retrieved March 12, 2009. 
  157. ^ El Nuevo Dia, October 2000
  158. ^ "el diario / LA PRENSA OnLine". Archived from the original on January 3, 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20060103204303/http://www.eldiariony.com/noticias/especiales/detail.aspx?EspecialId=26&id=1101363. Retrieved December 27, 2005. 
  159. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 4, 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20060604204325/http://www.toptwothreefilms.com/films/aidc/bts/interviews/f20050401/index.html. Retrieved May 18, 2006. 
  160. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 6, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20080706150724/http://www.lib.msu.edu/comics/rri/trri/tunis.htm. Retrieved February 27, 2008. 
  161. ^ "Rags Morales - 'Ralph Morales'". Comic Book DB. http://comicbookdb.com/creator.php?ID=475. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  162. ^ "Contributors: George Pérez", The New Teen Titans Archives, Volume 1 (DC Comics, 1999).
  163. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20151222170151/http://www.hispaniconline.com/hh04/culture/building_character.html. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  164. ^ "Kenneth Rocafort (Person)". Comic Vine. 1977-01-29. http://www.comicvine.com/kenneth-rocafort/26-43123/. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  165. ^ "Haciendo Punto en Otro Son". http://haciendopunto.com. Retrieved 2016-04-05. 
  166. ^ Schultz, Jeffrey D (2000). Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: Hispanic Americans and Native Americans. p. 429. ISBN 1573561495. https://books.google.ca/books?id=sfmPmrL0N3kC&pg=PA429. 
  167. ^ Socialism and Liberation: Planted Flag Script error
  168. ^ "Metro San Juan: Planted Flag". http://www.metrosanjuan.com/features_14_02.php. 
  169. ^ Trinida