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This is a list of sovereign states, giving an overview of states around the world with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty.

The list is divided into two parts. It is arranged alphabetically, and contains 203 entries, as of 2010:

  1. The internationally recognized sovereign states section lists all 193 widely recognised sovereign states, including all member states of the United Nations,[1] plus Vatican City.[2]
  2. The other states section lists ten states which have de facto sovereignty or independence, but are not widely recognised diplomatically by other states.

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the "criteria for inclusion" section below.

Contents:

Internationally recognized sovereign states

Name in English, and the official, national, and other important languages of the state [3] Information on status and recognition of sovereignty [4]

A


Abkhazia → Other states

Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
  • Persian: افغانستان – جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان
Afgānestān – Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afgānestān
  • Pashto: افغانستان – د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت
Afghānistān – Afghānistān Islāmī Jumhūrīyat
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Albania.svg Albania – Republic of Albania
  • Albanian: Shqipëria – Republika e Shqipërisë
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Algeria.svg Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  • Arabic: الجزائر – الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية
Al Jazā'ir – Al Jumhūrīyah al Jazā'irīyah ad Dīmuqrāţīyah ash Sha‘bīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Andorra.svg Andorra – Principality of Andorra
  • Catalan: Andorra – Principat d’Andorra
Widely recognized member of the UN. The role of monarch is exercised jointly by the two co-princes, the President of the French Republic and the Bishop of Urgell.[5]

Flag of Angola.svg Angola – Republic of Angola Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg Antigua and Barbuda Widely recognized member of the UN. Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[6] and has a division (dependency), Barbuda, with an autonomous status.[7]

Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina – Argentine Republic [8]
  • Spanish: Argentina – República Argentina
Widely recognized member of the UN. Argentina is a federation [9] of twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom.[10] Argentina claims Argentine Antarctica as part of its national territory, officially a department of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands. It overlaps with the claims of the UK and Chile.[11]

Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia – Republic of Armenia
  • Armenian: Հայաստան – Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն
Hayastan – Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Armenia is not recognised by one UN member: Pakistan.


Flag of Australia.svg Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
  • English: Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
Widely recognized member of the UN. Australia is a Commonwealth realm[6] and a federation [9] of 6 states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:

Flag of Austria.svg Austria – Republic of Austria
  • German: Österreich – Republik Österreich
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12] Austria is a federation [9] composed of 9 federated states (Bundesländer).

Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan – Azərbaycan Respublikası
Widely recognized member of the UN. Azerbaijan has one autonomous republic, Nakhchivan and the autonomous region of Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[7] In Nagorno-Karabakh, a de facto state has been established (see Other states).

B


Flag of the Bahamas.svg Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
  • English: The Bahamas – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[6]

Flag of Bahrain.svg Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain
  • Arabic: البحرين – مملكة البحرين
Al Baḩrayn – Mamlakat al Baḩrayn
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • Bengali: বাংলাদেশ – গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ
Bāṁlādesh – Gaṇaprajātantrī Bāṁlādesh
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Barbados.svg Barbados Widely recognized member of the UN. Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[6]

Flag of Belarus.svg Belarus – Republic of Belarus
  • Belarusian: Беларусь – Рэспубліка Беларусь
Bielarus' – Respublika Bielaruś
  • Russian: Беларусь / Белоруссия – Республика Беларусь
Belarus' / Belorussiya – Respublika Belarus'
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium
  • Dutch: België – Koninkrijk België
  • French: Belgique – Royaume de Belgique
  • German: Belgien – Königreich Belgien
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12] Belgium is a federation [9] divided into linguistic communities and regions.

Flag of Belize.svg Belize Widely recognized member of the UN. Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[6]

Flag of Benin.svg Benin – Republic of Benin [13]
  • French: Bénin – République du Bénin
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Bhutan.svg Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan
  • Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ – འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་
Druk Yul – Druk Gyalkhap
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Bolivia.svg Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia
  • Spanish: Bolivia – Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
  • Aymara: Wuliwya – Wuliwya Suyu
  • Guaraní: Volívia – Tetã Volívia
  • Quechua: Buliwya – Buliwya Mama Llaqta[14]
Widely recognized member of the UN. Bolivia is divided into 9 autonomous departments.

Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosna i Hercegovina
Widely recognized member of the UN. As a result of the Dayton Agreement, Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into two constituent units: Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska.[15]

Flag of Botswana.svg Botswana – Republic of Botswana
  • Tswana: Botswana – Lefatshe la Botswana
  • English: Botswana – Republic of Botswana
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil
  • Portuguese: Brasil – República Federativa do Brasil
Widely recognized member of the UN. Brazil is a federation [9] composed of 26 states and one federal district.

Flag of Brunei.svg Brunei – State of Brunei, Abode of Peace
  • Malay: Brunei – Negara Brunei Darussalam
  • Jawi: برني دارالسلام
Widely recognized member of the UN. Brunei claims sovereignty over part of the Spratly Islands.[16]

Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria
  • Bulgarian: България – Република България
Bǎlgarija – Republika Bǎlgarija
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

Flag of Burkina Faso.svg Burkina Faso [17] Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Myanmar.svg Burma – Republic of the Union of Myanmar [18][19]
  • Burmese: မန္မာ – ပည္ေထာင္စုမန္မာနုိင္ငံေတာ္
Myanma – Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw
Widely recognized member of the UN

Flag of Burundi.svg Burundi – Republic of Burundi
  • Kirundi: Uburundi – Republika y'Uburundi
  • French: Burundi – République du Burundi
Widely recognized member of the UN.

C


Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia
  • Khmer: កម្ពុជា – ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រ កម្ពុជា
Kâmpŭchéa – Preăhréachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchéa
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Cameroon.svg Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
  • French: Cameroun – République du Cameroun
  • English: Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Canada.svg Canada [20] Widely recognized member of the UN. Canada is a Commonwealth realm[6] and a federation [9] composed of 10 provinces and 3 territories.

Flag of Cape Verde.svg Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde
  • Portuguese: Cabo Verde – República de Cabo Verde
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of the Central African Republic.svg Central African Republic
  • French: République centrafricaine
  • Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Chad.svg Chad – Republic of Chad
  • French: Tchad – République du Tchad
  • Arabic: تشاد – جمهوريّة تشاد
Tshād – Jumhūrīyat Tshād
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Chile.svg Chile – Republic of Chile
  • Spanish: Chile – República de Chile
Widely recognized member of the UN. Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands are "special territories" of Chile in the Valparaíso Region. Chile claims part of Antarctica as a commune in Antártica Chilena Province, Magallanes and Antártica Chilena Region. Its claim overlaps with those of the UK and Argentina.[11]

Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China – People's Republic of China[21]
  • Chinese: 中国 – 中华人民共和国
Zhongguo – Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
Bügüde Nayiramdaqu Dumdadu Arad Ulus
  • Tibetan: རྒྱ་ནག – ཀྲུང་ཧྭ་མི་དམངས་སྤྱི་མཐུན་རྒྱལ་ཁབ།
Zhunghua Mimang Jitun Gyalkab
  • Kazakh: جۇڭگو – جۇڭحۋا حالىق رەسپۋبليكاسى
Juñgo – Juñxwa Xalıq Respwblïkası
  • Korean: 중국 – 중화인민공화국
Jungguk – Junghwa Inmin Gonghwaguk
  • Uyghur: جۇڭگو – جۇڭخۇا خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىت
Junggo – Jungxua Xelq Jumhuriyiti
Trung Quốc – Trung Hoa Nhân Dân Cộng Hòa Quốc
Widely recognized member of the UN. Commonly known as "China", the People's Republic of China (PRC) has five autonomous regions: Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet.[7] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

It also claims:

Aksai Chin, controlled by the PRC, is claimed by India as a part of Jammu and Kashmir.[27] The PRC is currently not recognised by 22 UN member states and the Holy See, which instead recognise the ROC.[28]


China, Republic of (Taiwan) → Other states

Flag of Colombia.svg Colombia – Republic of Colombia
  • Spanish: Colombia – República de Colombia
Widely recognized member of the UN. Colombia's department of the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina has been the subject of numerous territorial disputes with Nicaragua.

Flag of the Comoros.svg Comoros – Union of the Comoros
  • Comorian: Komori – Udzima wa Komori
  • French: Comores – Union des Comores
  • Arabic: جمهورية القمر المتحدة – جزر القمر
Juzur al Qamar – Jumhūrīyat al Qamar al Muttaḩidah
Widely recognized member of the UN. Comoros is a federation with 3 autonomous islands.[9] Comoros disputes French sovereignty over Mayotte, the Glorioso Islands, and Banc du Geyser.[10]

Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg Congo, Democratic Republic of the (Congo-Kinshasa) [29]
  • French: République démocratique du Congo
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg Congo, Republic of the (Congo-Brazzaville) Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Costa Rica.svg Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
  • Spanish: Costa Rica – República de Costa Rica
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Côte d'Ivoire.svg Côte d'Ivoire – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
  • French: Côte d'Ivoire – République de Côte d'Ivoire
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia – Republic of Croatia
  • Croatian: Hrvatska – Republika Hrvatska
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba – Republic of Cuba
  • Spanish: Cuba – República de Cuba
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus
  • Greek: Κύπρος – Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία
Kýpros – Kypriakí Dimokratía
  • Turkish: Kıbrıs – Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. Cyprus is recognised by the Holy See and all UN member states except Turkey.[30]

Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic [31]
  • Czech: Česko – Česká republika
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

D


Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark
  • Danish: Danmark – Kongeriget Danmark
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

The Kingdom of Denmark also includes two autonomous countries.[32]


Flag of Djibouti.svg Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti
  • French: Djibouti – République de Djibouti
  • Arabic: جيبوتي –جمهورية جيبوتي
Jībūtī – Jumhūrīyat Jībūtī
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Dominica.svg Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
  • English: Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic Widely recognized member of the UN.

E


Flag of East Timor.svg East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste [33]
  • Portuguese: Timor-Leste – República Democrática de Timor-Leste
  • Tetum: Timor Lorosa'e – Repúblika Demokrátika Timor Lorosa'e
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Ecuador.svg Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
  • Spanish: Ecuador – República del Ecuador
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt
    • Arabic: مصر –جمهوريّة مصرالعربيّة
Mişr – Jumhūrīyat Mişr al ‘Arabīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of El Salvador.svg El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador
  • Spanish: El Salvador – República de El Salvador
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea
  • Spanish: Guinea Ecuatorial – República de Guinea Ecuatorial
  • French: Guinée Équatoriale – République de Guinée équatoriale
  • Portuguese: Guiné Equatorial – República da Guiné Equatorial
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Eritrea.svg Eritrea – State of Eritrea
  • Tigrinya: ኤርትራ – ሃግሬ ኤርትራ
Iertra – Hagere Iertra
  • Arabic: إريتريا –دولة إرتريا
Irītrīyā – Dawlat Irītrīyā
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia – Republic of Estonia Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

Flag of Ethiopia.svg Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
  • Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ – የኢትዮጵያ ፈደራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ
Ityop'iya – Ityop'iya Fe̱de̱ralawi Dimokrasiyawi Ripe̱blik
Widely recognized member of the UN. Ethiopia is a federation [9] composed of 9 regions and 2 chartered cities.

F


Flag of Fiji.svg Fiji – Republic of the Fiji Islands
  • Fijian: Viti – Matanitu ko Viti
  • English: Fiji – Republic of the Fiji Islands
  • Hindustani: फ़िजी / فیجی – फ़िजी गणराज्य / فیجی رپبلک
Fijī – Fijī dvip samooh ganarajya [34]
Widely recognized member of the UN. Fiji has an autonomous region, Rotuma.[7][35]

Flag of Finland.svg Finland – Republic of Finland
  • Finnish: Suomi – Suomen tasavalta
  • Swedish: Finland – Republiken Finland
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]
  • Flag of Åland.svg Åland is a neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland.[7][36]

Flag of Macedonia.svg Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia – FYROM - Republic of Macedonia
  • Macedonian: Македонија – Република Македонија
Makedonija – Republika Makedonija
Widely recognized member of the UN. Because of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is provisionally referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".

Flag of France.png France – French Republic
  • French: France – République française
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12] The French overseas regions/departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion) are full, integral parts of France. French sovereignty also includes the overseas territories of:

Clipperton Island is a possession of the government. French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser, Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island and Tromelin Island is disputed in part by Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros.[10]


G


Flag of Gabon.svg Gabon – Gabonese Republic
  • French: Gabon – République gabonaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of The Gambia.svg The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
  • English: The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia
  • Georgian: საქართველო
Sak’art’velo
Widely recognized member of the UN. Georgia has two divisions with autonomous statuses: Adjara and Abkhazia.[7] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states inside the de jure territory of Georgia have been formed.

Flag of Germany.svg Germany – Federal Republic of Germany
  • German: Deutschland – Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12] Germany is a federation [9] composed of 16 federated states (Länder).

Flag of Ghana.svg Ghana – Republic of Ghana
  • English: Ghana – Republic of Ghana
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Greece.svg Greece – Hellenic Republic
  • Greek: Ελλάδα – Ελληνική Δημοκρατία
Elláda – Ellinikí Dimokratía
  • Katharevousa: Ελλάς – Ελληνική Δημοκρατία
Ellás – Ellinikí Dimokratía
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12] Greece has sovereignty over Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state that is jointly governed by the multi-national "Holy Community" on the mountain and the Civil Governor appointed by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and spiritually comes under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Flag of Grenada.svg Grenada Widely recognized member of the UN. Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[6]

Flag of Guatemala.svg Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
  • Spanish: Guatemala – República de Guatemala
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Guinea.svg Guinea – Republic of Guinea
  • French: Guinée – République de Guinée
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau
  • Portuguese: Guiné-Bissau – República da Guiné-Bissau
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Guyana.svg Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
  • English: Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Widely recognized member of the UN. A substantial part of Guyana, from the west of the Essequibo River, is claimed by Venezuela.

H


Flag of Haiti.svg Haiti – Republic of Haiti Widely recognized member of the UN. Haiti claims the uninhabited United States possession of Navassa Island.[10]

Holy See → Vatican City

Flag of Honduras.svg Honduras – Republic of Honduras
  • Spanish: Honduras – República de Honduras
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary – Republic of Hungary
  • Hungarian: Magyarország – Magyar Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

I


Flag of Iceland.svg Iceland – Republic of Iceland
  • Icelandic: Ísland – Lýðveldið Ísland
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of India.svg India – Republic of India
  • Hindi: भारत – भारत गणराज्य
Bhārat – Bhāratīya Gaṇarājya
  • English: India – Republic of India
  • Assamese: ভাৰত – ভাৰত গণৰাজ্য
Bhārôt – Bhārôt Gôṇrājẏô
  • Bengali: ভারত – ভারতীয় প্রজাতন্ত্র
Bhārôt – Bhārôtīyô Prôjātôntrô
  • Bhojpuri: भारत – भारत गणराज्य
Bhārat – Bhārat Gaṇrādzya
  • Gujarati: ભારત – ભારતીય ગણરાજ્ય
Bhārat – Bhārat Gaṇrājya
  • Kannada: ಭಾರತ – ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ
Bhārata – Bhārata Gaṇarājya
Hindustān
  • Konkani: भारत – भारोत गोणराज
Bhārot – Bhārot Goṇrāj
  • Maithili: भारत – भारत गणराज्य
Bhārat – Bhārat Ganarājya
  • Malayalam: ഭാരതം – ഭാരത ഗണരാജ്യം
Bhārataṃ – Bhārata Gaṇarājyaṃ
  • Marathi: भारत – भारतीय प्रजासत्ताक
Bhārat – Bhāratīy Pradzāsattāk
  • Meitei: ভারত – ভারত গণরাজ্য
Bhārata – Bhārata Gaṇarājya
  • Nepali: भारत – भारत गणराज्य
Bhārat – Bhārat Gaṇrādzya
  • Oriya: ଭାରତ – ଭାରତ ଗଣରାଜ୍ଯ
Bhārôt – Bhārôt Gôṇrājẏô
  • Punjabi: ਭਾਰਤ – ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰ
Bhārat – Bhārat Gaṇtãtar
  • Sanskrit: भारतम् – भारत गणराज्यम्
Bhārat – Bhāratam Gaṇarājyam
  • Sindhi: भारत गणराज्य, هندستانڀارت – भारत, ڀارت
Bhāratu – Bhārat Ganarājya
  • Tamil: இந்தியா – இந்தியக் குடியரசு
Intiyā – Intiyak Kuṭiyaracu
  • Telugu: భారత్ – భారత గణతంత్ర రాజ్యము
Bhārata – Bhārata Gaṇataṃtra Rājyamu
  • Urdu: جمہوریہ بھارت – جمہوریہ بھارت
Bhārat – Jumhūrīyâ-e Bhārat [38]
Widely recognized member of the UN. India is a federation [9] composed of 28 states and 7 union territories. The Indian sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh is disputed by the People's Republic of China.[10] India claims sovereignty over the whole of Kashmir, but administers only part of it as the federal state of Jammu and Kashmir.[27]

Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia Widely recognized member of the UN. Indonesia has three provinces with official special autonomy status, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Papua, and West Papua.[7]

Flag of Iran.svg Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Persian: ایران – جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Īrān – Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq – Republic of Iraq
  • Arabic: العراق – جمهورية العراق
Al ʿIrāq – Jumhūrīyat al ʿIrāq
  • Kurdish: عێراق – كۆماری عێراق
ʿÎraq – Komara Îraqę [39]
Widely recognized member of the UN. Iraq's constitution labels the country as a federation [9][40] composed of 18 governorates. It also has the autonomous region Iraqi Kurdistan.[7]

Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland [41] Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

Flag of Israel.svg Israel – State of Israel
  • Hebrew: ישראל – מדינת ישראל
Yisra'el – Medinat Yisra'el
  • Arabic: اسرائيل – دولة اسرائيل
Isrā'īl – Dawlat Isrā'īl
Widely recognized member of the UN. Israel annexed East Jerusalem, and occupies the Golan Heights and parts of the West Bank. These areas are not internationally recognized as being part of Israel.[10] Israel no longer has a permanent military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement but is still arguably considered the occupying power under International law.[42][43][44][45][46] Israel is currently not recognised as a state by 20 members of the UN.[47]

Flag of Italy.svg Italy – Italian Republic
  • Italian: Italia – Repubblica Italiana
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12] Italy has 5 autonomous regions: Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[7]

Ivory Coast → Côte d'Ivoire

J


Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica Widely recognized member of the UN. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[6]

Flag of Japan.svg Japan
Nihon/Nippon – Nihon-koku/Nippon-koku [48]
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Jordan.svg Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
  • Arabic: الاردن – المملكة الأردنّيّة الهاشميّة
Al Urdun – Al Mamlakah al Urdunīyah al Hāshimīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN.

K


Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Kazakh: Қазақстан – Қазақстан Республикасы
Qazaqstan – Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy
  • Russian: Казахстан – Республика Казахстан
Kazahstan – Respublika Kazahstan
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Kenya.svg Kenya – Republic of Kenya
  • English: Kenya – Republic of Kenya
  • Swahili: Kenya – Jamhuri ya Kenya
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Kiribati.svg Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
  • Gilbertese: Kiribati – Ribaberiki Kiribati
  • English: Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of North Korea.svg Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea
  • Korean: 조선 – 조선민주주의인민공화국
Chosŏn – Chosŏn-minjujuŭi-inmin-konghwaguk
Widely recognised member of the UN.

North Korea is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[49][50]


Flag of South Korea.svg Korea, South – Republic of Korea
  • Korean: 한국 – 대한민국
Han’guk – Taehan Min’guk
Widely recognised member of the UN.

South Korea has one special autonomous province: Jeju-do.[7] South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[49]


Kosovo → Other states

Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait – State of Kuwait
  • Arabic: الكويت – دولة الكويت
Al Kuwayt – Dawlat al Kuwayt
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic
  • Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан – Кыргыз Республикасы
Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Respublikasy
  • Russian: Кыргызстан – Кыргызская Республика
Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyzskaya Respublika
Widely recognized member of the UN.

L


Flag of Laos.svg Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic
  • Lao: ລາວ – ສາທາລະນະລັດປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ
Lao – Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxôn Lao
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia – Republic of Latvia
  • Latvian: Latvija – Latvijas Republika
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon – Lebanese Republic
  • Arabic: لبنان –الجمهوريّة اللبنانيّة
Lubnān – Al Jumhūrīyah al Lubnānīyah
  • French: République libanaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Lesotho.svg Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
  • English: Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
  • Sotho: Lesotho – Mmuso wa Lesotho
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Liberia.svg Liberia – Republic of Liberia
  • English: Liberia – Republic of Liberia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Libya.svg Libya – Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
  • Arabic: ليبيا – الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الإشتراكية العظمى
Lībyā – Al Jamāhīrīyah al ‘Arabīyah al Lībīyah ash Sha‘bīyah al Ishtirākīyah al ‘Uz̧má
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein
  • German: Liechtenstein – Fürstentum Liechtenstein
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
  • Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg – Groussherzogdem Lëtzebuerg
  • French: Luxembourg – Grand-Duché du Luxembourg
  • German: Luxemburg – Großherzogtum Luxemburg
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

M


Flag of Madagascar.svg Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar
  • Malagasy: Madagasikara – Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
  • French: Madagascar – Republique de Madagascar
Widely recognized member of the UN. Madagascar claims the French possessions of the Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Banc du Geyser.[10]

Flag of Malawi.svg Malawi – Republic of Malawi
  • English: Malawi – Republic of Malawi
  • Chewa: Malaŵi – Dziko la Malaŵi
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia Widely recognized member of the UN. Malaysia is a federation [9] composed of 13 states and 3 federal territories. Malaysia claims part of the Spratly Islands.[16]

Flag of Maldives.svg Maldives – Republic of Maldives
  • Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ – ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ
Dhivehi Raajje – Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Mali.svg Mali – Republic of Mali
  • French: Mali – République du Mali
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Malta.svg Malta – Republic of Malta
  • Maltese: Malta – Repubblika ta' Malta
  • English: Malta – Republic of Malta
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

Flag of the Marshall Islands.svg Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
  • Marshallese: Aelōn̄ in M̧ajeļ – Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ[52]
  • English: Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Marshall Islands claim the United States territory of Wake Island.[10]

Flag of Mauritania.svg Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania
  • Arabic: موريتانيا – الجمهوريةالإسلامية الموريتانية
Mūrītāniyā – Al Jumhūrīyah al Islāmīyah al Mūrītānīyah
  • French: Mauritanie – République Islamique de la Mauritanie
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Mauritius.svg Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius Widely recognized member of the UN. Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[7] Mauritius claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French island of Tromelin.[10]

Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico – United Mexican States
  • Spanish: México – Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Widely recognized member of the UN. Mexico is a federation [9] composed of 31 states and 1 federal district.

Flag of the Federated States of Micronesia.svg Micronesia, Federated States of
  • English: Federated States of Micronesia
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation [9]composed of 4 states.

Flag of Monaco.svg Monaco – Principality of Monaco
  • French: Monaco – Principauté de Monaco
  • Monegasque: Múnegu – Principatu de Múnegu
  • Italian: Monaco – Principato di Monaco
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia
Mongol uls
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Montenegro.svg Montenegro
Crna Gora
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Morocco.svg Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco
  • Arabic: المغرب – المملكة المغربية
Al Maghrib – Al Mamlakah al Maghribīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN. Morocco claims sovereignty over the Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputes the Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas.[10]

Flag of Mozambique.svg Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique
  • Portuguese: Moçambique – República de Moçambique
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Myanmar → Burma

N


Nagorno-Karabakh → Other states

Flag of Namibia.svg Namibia – Republic of Namibia
  • English: Namibia – Republic of Namibia
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Nauru.svg Nauru – Republic of Nauru
  • Nauruan: Naoero – Ripublik Naoero
  • English: Nauru – Republic of Nauru
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
  • Nepali: नेपाल – संघिय लोकतन्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल
Nepāl – Saṁghīya Loktāntrik Gaṇatantra Nepāl
Widely recognized member of the UN, Nepal is a federation [9] composed of 14 zones.

Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • Dutch: Nederland – Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
  • Papiamentu: Hulanda (or Ulanda) – Reino di Hulanda
  • English: Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • Frisian: Nederlân – Keninkryk fan de Nederlannen
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four constituent countries:

The Kingdom of the Netherlands was formerly composed of Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles and the Netherlands proper. However, following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, two of the islands became constituent countries similar to Aruba and enjoy considerable autonomy. Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten have their own parliaments and each are represented by a minister plenipotentiary in the Kingdom's Council of Ministers. The other three islands (Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius) became special municipalities of the Netherlands.

The designation Netherlands can refer to either one of the Kingdom's constituent countries or to the short name for the Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU,[12] but the countries and special municipalities in the Caribbean are not part of the EU.


Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand Widely recognized member of the UN. New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm[6] and has responsibilities for the two free associated states of:

Both of the above have established independent foreign relations with a number of states.[53][54][55]

New Zealand also has the dependent territories of:

The Tokelauan government has claimed sovereignty over Swains Island, part of American Samoa, a territory of the United States, at various times.[57] New Zealand does not recognize the Tokelauan claim.[58]


Flag of Nicaragua.svg Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua
  • Spanish: Nicaragua – República de Nicaragua
Widely recognized member of the UN. Nicaragua contains the 2 autonomous regions of Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[7]

Flag of Niger.svg Niger – Republic of Niger
  • French: Niger – République du Niger
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • English: Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Hausa: Nijeriya – Jamhuriyar Taraiyar Nijeriya
  • Igbo: Naigeria – Njíkötá Óchíchìiwù Naíjíríà
  • Yoruba: Naìjírìà – Àpapọ̀ Olómìnira ilẹ̀ Nàìjíríà
Widely recognized member of the UN. Nigeria is a federation [9] composed of 36 states and 1 federal territory.

Northern Cyprus → Other states

North Korea → Korea, Democratic People's Republic of

Flag of Norway.svg Norway – Kingdom of Norway
  • Bokmål: Norge – Kongeriket Norge
  • Nynorsk: Noreg – Kongeriket Noreg
Widely recognized member of the UN. Svalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Spitsbergen Treaty.

Bouvet Island is a dependent territory of Norway. Norway claims Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land as dependent territories of Norway, as part of the Norwegian Antarctic Territory.[11]


O


Flag of Oman.svg Oman – Sultanate of Oman
  • Arabic: عُمان – سلطنة عُمان
ʿUmān – Salţanat ʿUmān
Widely recognized member of the UN.

P


Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  • Urdu: پَاکِسْتَان – جَمْهُورْيَة إِسْلامِی پَاکِسْتَان
Pākistān – Jamhūryat Islāmī Pākistān
  • English: Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Widely recognized member of the UN. Pakistan is a federation [9] composed of provinces and territories. Pakistan claims sovereignty over Kashmir (except the parts it has ceded to the People's Republic of China by treaty), and exercises control over parts of it, which have not been incorporated into Pakistan proper. These portions are divided into two polities, each of which is administered separately and possesses a local government of its own:[27]

Flag of Palau.svg Palau – Republic of Palau
  • Palauan: Belau – Beluu er a Belau
  • English: Palau – Republic of Palau
Widely recognized member of the UN under Compact of Free Association with the United States.

The Palestinian National Authority → Other states

Flag of Panama.svg Panama – Republic of Panama
  • Spanish: Panamá – República de Panamá
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea Widely recognized member of the UN. Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm.[6] Papua New Guinea contains the autonomous region of Bougainville.[7]

Flag of Paraguay.svg Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
  • Guarani: Paraguay – Paraguay Retãn
  • Spanish: Paraguay – República del Paraguay
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Persia → Iran

Flag of Peru.svg Peru – Republic of Peru Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
  • Filipino and Tagalog: Pilipinas – Republika ng Pilipinas
  • English: Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
  • Spanish: Filipinas – República de Filipinas
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Philippines contains the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[7] The Philippines administers Scarborough Shoal and some of the Spratly Islands,[16] and claims sovereignty over the Macclesfield Bank and Sabah. Sabah is currently part of Malaysia.[10]

Flag of Poland.svg Poland – Republic of Poland
  • Polish: Polska – Rzeczpospolita Polska
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal – Portuguese Republic Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12] Portugal has two autonomous regions: Azores and Madeira.[7] Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga.[10]

Pridnestrovie → Other states, Transnistria

Q


Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar – State of Qatar
  • Arabic: قطر – دولة قطر
Qaţar – Dawlat Qaţar
Widely recognized member of the UN.

R


Flag of Moldova.svg Republic of Moldova – Republic of Moldova Widely recognized member of the UN. Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state (see Other states).

Flag of Romania.svg Romania Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

Flag of Russia.svg Russia – Russian Federation
  • Russian: Россия – Российская Федерация
Rossiya – Rossiyskaya Federaciya
Widely recognized member of the UN. Russia is officially a federation [9] composed of 83 federal subjects (oblasts, republics, autonomous okrugs, krays, and federal cities). Several of the federal subjects are republics acting as ethnic autonomies.[7]

Flag of Rwanda.svg Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
  • Kinyarwanda: Rwanda – Republika y'u Rwanda
  • French: Rwanda – République du Rwanda
  • English: Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
Widely recognized member of the UN.

S


Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Other states

Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
  • English: Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[6] and is a federation [9] of 14 parishes.

Flag of Saint Lucia.svg Saint Lucia Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[6]

Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • English: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Widely recognized member of the UN. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[6]

Flag of Samoa.svg Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
  • Samoan: Sāmoa – Malo Sa‘oloto Tuto'atasi o Sāmoa
  • English: Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of San Marino.svg San Marino – Republic of San Marino
  • Italian: San Marino – Repubblica di San Marino
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
  • Portuguese: São Tomé e Príncipe – República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe
Widely recognized member of the UN. São Tomé and Príncipe has an autonomous province, Príncipe.[7]

Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Arabic: السعودية – المملكة العربيّة السّعوديّة
As Su‘ūdīyah – Al Mamlakah al ‘Arabīyah as Su‘ūdīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Senegal.svg Senegal – Republic of Senegal
  • French: Sénégal – République du Sénégal
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Serbia.svg Serbia – Republic of Serbia
  • Serbian: Србија / Srbija – Република Србија / Republika Srbija
Widely recognized member of the UN. Serbia officially has two autonomous provinces: Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[7] Most of the latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo (see Other states).

Flag of Seychelles.svg Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
  • English: Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
  • French: Seychelles – République des Seychelles
  • Seselwa: Sesel – Repiblik Sesel
Widely recognized member of the UN. Seychelles claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French Glorioso Islands and Tromelin Island.[10]

Flag of Sierra Leone.svg Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
  • English: Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore – Republic of Singapore
  • English: Singapore – Republic of Singapore
  • Malay: Singapura – Republik Singapura
  • Chinese: 新加坡 – 新加坡共和国
Xinjiapo – Xinjiapo Gongheguo
  • Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் – சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு
Chiṅkappūr – Chiṅkappūr Kuṭiyarachu
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia – Slovak Republic
  • Slovak: Slovensko – Slovenská republika
  • Hungarian: Szlovákia – Szlovák Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia
  • Slovenian: Slovenija – Republika Slovenija
  • Italian: Slovenia – Repubblica slovena
  • Hungarian: Szlovénia – a Szlovén Köztársaság
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg Solomon Islands Widely recognized member of the UN. The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[6]

Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia – Republic of Somalia
  • Somali: Soomaaliya – Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya
  • Arabic: الصومال – جمهورية الصومال
Aş Şūmāl – Jumhūrīyat aş Şūmāl
Widely recognized member of the UN. Somalia is presently divided with its official government (TFG) controlling little of the country. Puntland has declared itself an autonomous region of Somalia (a claim which the TFG does not recognise),[60] while Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state (see Other states). Somalia disputes the Yemenite sovereignty over Socotra.[10]

Somaliland → Other states

Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa – Republic of South Africa
  • Afrikaans: Suid-Afrika – Republiek van Suid-Afrika
  • English: South Africa – Republic of South Africa
  • Northern Sotho: Afrika-Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika-Borwa
  • Sotho: Afrika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Afrika Borwa
  • Southern Ndebele: Sewula Afrika – iRiphabliki yeSewula Afrika
  • Swazi: Ningizimu Afrika – iRiphabhulikhi yeNingizimu Afrika
  • Tsonga: Afrika Dzonga – Riphabliki ra Afrika Dzonga
  • Tswana: Aforika Borwa – Rephaboliki ya Aforika Borwa
  • Venda: Afurika Tshipembe – Riphabuḽiki ya Afurika Tshipembe
  • Xhosa: uMzantsi Afrika – iRiphabliki yaseMzantsi Afrika
  • Zulu: Ningizimu Afrika – iRiphabliki yaseNingizimu Afrika
Widely recognized member of the UN.

South Korea → Korea, Republic of

South Ossetia → Other states

Flag of Spain.svg Spain – Kingdom of Spain Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12] Spain is divided into autonomous communities and cities. The sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas is disputed by Morocco. The sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga is disputed by Portugal. Spain disputes the British sovereignty over Gibraltar.[10]

Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
  • Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා – ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය
Shrī Laṁkā – Shrī Laṁkā Prajātāntrika Samājavādī Janarajaya
  • Tamil: இலங்கை – இலங்கை சனநாயக சோசலிசக் குடியரசு
Ilaṅkai – Ilaṅkai Jaṉanāyaka Choṣhalichak Kuṭiyarachu
Widely recognized member of the UN. Formerly known as Ceylon.

Flag of Sudan.svg Sudan – Republic of the Sudan
  • Arabic: السودان – جمهورية السودان
As Sūdān – Jumhūrīyat as Sūdān
  • English: Sudan – Republic of the Sudan
Widely recognized member of the UN. Sudan is a federation [9] composed of 25 states. Ten of those states form the autonomous region of Southern Sudan.[7]

Flag of Suriname.svg Suriname – Republic of Suriname
  • Dutch: Suriname – Republiek Suriname
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Swaziland.svg Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
  • English: Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
  • Swazi: eSwatini – Umbuso weSwatini
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden
  • Swedish: Sverige – Konungariket Sverige
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12]

Flag of Switzerland.svg Switzerland – Swiss Confederation
  • German: Schweiz – Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft
  • French: Suisse – Confédération suisse
  • Italian: Svizzera – Confederazione Svizzera
  • Romansh: Svizra – Confederaziun Svizra
  • Latin: Helvetia – Confoederatio Helvetica
Widely recognized member of the UN. Switzerland is a federation [9] composed of 26 cantons.

Flag of Syria.svg Syria – Syrian Arab Republic
  • Arabic: سورية – الجمهوريّة العربيّة السّوريّة
Sūrīyah – Al Jumhūrīyah al ‘Arabīyah as Sūrīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN. The Golan Heights are annexed by Israel. Syria disputed the Turkish sovereignty over Hatay Province.[10]

T


Taiwan (Republic of China) → Other states

Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan
  • Tajik: Тоҷикистон – Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон
Tojikiston – Jumhurii Tojikiston
Widely recognized member of the UN. Tajikistan also has the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[7]

Flag of Tanzania.svg Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
  • Swahili: Tanzania – Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
  • English: Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
Widely recognized member of the UN. Tanzania is a federacy with an autonomous status for Zanzibar.[7]

Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand
  • Thai: ประเทศไทย – ราชอาณาจักรไทย
Prathet Thai – Ratcha Anachak Thai
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Timor-Leste → East Timor

Flag of Togo.svg Togo – Togolese Republic
  • French: Togo – République togolaise
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Tonga.svg Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
  • Tongan: Tonga – Pule'anga Tonga
  • English: Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Transnistria → Other states

Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
  • English: Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Widely recognized member of the UN. Trinidad and Tobago has an autonomous island: Tobago.[7]

Flag of Tunisia.svg Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia
  • Arabic: تونس – الجمهورية التونسية
Tūnis – Al Jumhūrīyah at Tūnisīyah
  • French: Tunisie – République tunisienne
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey – Republic of Turkey
  • Turkish: Türkiye – Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistan Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Tuvalu.svg Tuvalu Widely recognized member of the UN. Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[6]

U


Flag of Uganda.svg Uganda – Republic of Uganda
  • English: Uganda – Republic of Uganda
  • Swahili: Uganda – Jamhuri ya Uganda
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine
Ukraina
Ukraina
Widely recognized member of the UN. Ukraine has one autonomous republic: Crimea.[7]

Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates
  • Arabic: اَلإمَارَات – اَلإمَارَات اَلْعَرَبِيَّة اَلْمُتَّحِدَة
Al Imārāt – Al Imārāt al ‘Arabīyah al Muttaḩidah
Widely recognized member of the UN. The United Arab Emirates is a federation [9] composed of 7 emirates.

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • English: United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • Irish: Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann
  • Scots: Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Ireland
  • Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Breatainn Mòire agus Èireann a Tuath
  • Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon[62]
Widely recognized member of the UN and the EU.[12] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[6] consisting of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:


Flag of the United States.svg United States – United States of America
  • English: United States – United States of America
  • French: États-Unis – États-Unis d'Amérique
  • Hawaiian: ʻAmelika Hui – ‘Amelika Huipū‘ia[63]
  • Spanish: Estados Unidos – Estados Unidos de América
Widely recognized member of the UN. The United States is a federation [9] composed of 50 states, 1 federal district, and the incorporated territory of Palmyra Atoll. The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:

In addition, there are uninhabited possessions of the United States in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Navassa Island (disputed by Haiti), and Wake Island (disputed by the Marshall Islands). According to some sources, the United States also claims Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank as territories.[10]


Flag of Uruguay.svg Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay
  • Spanish: Uruguay – República Oriental del Uruguay
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan
  • Uzbek: Ўзбекистон – Ўзбекистон Республикаси
O'zbekiston – O‘zbekiston Respublikasi [64]
Widely recognized member of the UN. Uzbekistan has one autonomous republic: Karakalpakstan.[7]

V


Flag of Vanuatu.svg Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
  • Bislama: Vanuatu – Ripablik blong Vanuatu
  • English: Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
  • French: Vanuatu – République du Vanuatu
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of the Vatican City.svg Vatican City – State of the Vatican City
  • Latin: Civitas Vaticana – Status Civitatis Vaticanæ
  • Italian: Città del Vaticano – Stato della Città del Vaticano
  • French: Cité du Vatican – État de la Cité du Vatican[23]
Widely recognized sovereign state. Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 178 states. The Holy See is a permanent observer of the UN in the category of "Non-member State."[2] Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Rome and therefore ex officio sovereign of Vatican City. The Holy See also administers a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy and in many other countries (Apostolic Nunciatures).

Flag of Venezuela.svg Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
  • Spanish: Venezuela – República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Widely recognized member of the UN. Venezuela is a federation [9] composed of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.

Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  • Vietnamese: Việt Nam – Cộng Hòa Xã Hội Chủ Nghĩa Việt Nam
Widely recognized member of the UN. Vietnam claims sovereignty over the Paracel[26] and Spratly Islands.[16]

W


Western Sahara → Other states

X


Y


Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen – Republic of Yemen
  • Arabic: اليمن – الجمهوريّة اليمنية
Al Yaman – Al Jumhūrīyah al Yamanīyah
Widely recognized member of the UN. Sovereignty over Socotra is disputed by Somalia.[10]

Z


Flag of Zambia.svg Zambia – Republic of Zambia
  • English: Zambia – Republic of Zambia
  • Bemba: Zambia – Ichalo Ca Zambia
  • Kaonde: Zambia – Kyalo Kya Zambia
  • Lozi: Zambia – Naha Zambia Ye Ipusa
  • Chewa: Zambia – Dziko La Zambia
  • Tonga: Zambia – Cisi Ca Zambia[23]
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
  • English: Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
  • Ndebele: Zimbabwe – iRiphabliki ye Zimbabwe
Widely recognized member of the UN.

Other states

This annex lists states that claim sovereignty and have control over (part of or all of) their claimed territories, but due to disputes over their legitimacy, do not have normal diplomatic relations with the majority of sovereign states. None of the states in this annex list are UN member states.[65]

Name in English and the official languages of the state Information on status and recognition of sovereignty

Flag of Abkhazia.svg Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia
  • Abkhaz: Аҧсны – Аҧсны Аҳәынҭқарра
Apsny – Apsny Akheyntkarra
  • Russian: Aбхазия – Республика Абхазия
Abhaziya – Respublika Abhaziya
De facto independent state recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[66][67] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.

Flag of Kosovo.svg Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo
  • Albanian: Kosova – Republika e Kosovës
  • Serbian: Косово / Kosovo – Република Косово / Republika Kosovo
De facto independent state that is recognised by Template:Kosovorecognition UN member states and by Taiwan (Republic of China). Claimed in whole by the Republic of Serbia as part of its Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.

Flag of Nagorno-Karabakh.svg Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
  • Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ – Լեռնային Ղարաբաղի Հանրապետություն
Leṙnalin Ġarabaġ – Leṙnayin Ġarabaġi Hanrapetut‘yun
De facto independent state that is recognised only by Transnistria. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Azerbaijan.[68]

Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
  • Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs – Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti
De facto independent state that is recognised only by Turkey. It was accepted as an observer state of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference under the name of the Turkish Cypriot State since 1979. In addition, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic regards TRNC as sovereign but Azerbaijan (the sovereign state that Nakhichevan belongs to) has not followed suit. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[69]

Palestinian territories Palestine
Filastīn
Palestine, categorized under "other entities",[2] has observer status at United Nations General Assembly and maintains a permanent observer mission at the UN Headquarters. The unilaterally declared State of Palestine received diplomatic recognition from around 100 countries (exact number unknown due to the equivocal nature of many declarations of acknowledgment[70][71][72]). The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, nor effective control on the territory which it proclaimed (unless considering the partially autonomous Palestinian Authority as a realization of the 1988 proclamation). In foreign relations, the State of Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization. The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited jurisdiction over parts of the West Bank, while the Gaza Strip is controlled by Hamas.

Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
  • Arabic: الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية
Al-Jumhūrīya al-`Arabīya as-Sahrāwīya ad-Dīmuqrātīya
  • Spanish: República Árabe Saharaui Democrática
De facto independent state recognized by 81 other states. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of the Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.

Flag of Somaliland.svg Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland
  • Somali: Soomaaliland – Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland
  • Arabic: ارض الصومال – جمهورية ارض الصومال
Ard as-Sūmāl – Jumhūrīyat Ard as-Sūmāl
De facto independent state not diplomatically recognized by any other state, claimed in whole by the Somali Republic.[73]

Flag of South Ossetia.svg South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia
  • Ossetian: Хуссар Ирыстон – Республикæ Хуссар Ирыстон
Khussar Iryston – Respublikæ Khussar Iryston
  • Russian: Южная Осетия – Республика Южная Осетия
Yuzhnaya Osetiya – Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya
De facto independent state recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela, Abkhazia and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[66]

Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taiwan – Republic of China[21]
Zhōnghuá Mínguó [74]
A state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and part of the Spratly Islands,[16] and has not renounced claims over the territory of the PRC and Mongolia.[75] The Republic of China is currently recognised by Template:ROCrecognition including the Holy See. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[25] The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, International Olympic Committee and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly Chinese Taipei.

Flag of Transnistria.svg Transnistria – Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (Pridnestrovie, Trans-Dniester)
  • Russian: Приднестровье – Приднестровская Молдавская Республика
Pridnestrovye – Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika
  • Ukrainian: Придністров'я – Придністровська Молдавська Республіка
Pridnistrov'ya – Pridnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika
  • Romanian: Транснистрия – Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ
Transnistria – Republica Moldovenească Nistreană
De facto independent state, not recognized by any UN-member, but by Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by the Republic of Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.[76]

Criteria for inclusion

This list derives its definition of a state from Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention of 1933. According to the Convention, a state should possess the following qualifications:

  • (a) a permanent population
  • (b) a defined territory
  • (c) government
  • (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states.

In respect of the last qualification, the role of recognition by other states can often be crucial since it implies acceptance into the international community.[77] The list includes all states which are often regarded as satisfying these criteria and claim to be sovereign and independent. However, in many cases, whether an entity satisfies the Montevideo Convention criteria is disputed. It is also important to note that there is a divergence of opinion in international law on whether the Montevideo Convention criteria alone are sufficient qualities of statehood. Links to different theories on this question are provided below.

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 203 entities:[65]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "United Nations Member States". United Nations. 3 July 2006. http://www.un.org/en/members/index.shtml. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. 29 February 2008. http://www.un.org/en/members/nonmembers.shtml. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  3. ^ The names of the items in the list are given in English, as well as in the official, national, major minority, and historically important languages of the state. Where applicable, names in other languages are included in their original script, along with a transliteration in Roman characters. Except where mentioned, the source for the names in their official languages is the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN, retrieved 16 July 2010), which uses romanisation systems approved by the United Nations. The sources for flags are the main articles on these states. When other sources are used, these sources are mentioned. For a gallery of flags, see Gallery of sovereign-state flags.
  4. ^ Information is included on
  5. ^ Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell, who himself is appointed by the Holy See.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p The Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states, see Sovereignty of the Realms.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
  8. ^ Argentina is also named Argentine Nation for purposes of legislation.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u More information on territorial disputes can be found at the List of territorial disputes and the main articles.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g The continent of Antarctica, including its outlying islands south of 60°S, are held in abeyance under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty System. Under this treaty, territorial claims in this region are neither recognised nor disputed. Claimant countries are Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom, with all those save Argentina and Chile mutually recognizing each others claims.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranationalism. The EU currently has 27 member states.
  13. ^ Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
  14. ^ Source for the Aymara, Guaraní, and Quechua is the Consulate General of Brazil in Santa Cruz de la Sierra. "Datos de Bolivia". Government of Brazil. http://www.consbras.org.bo/bolivia/bolivia.html. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  15. ^ For more information about the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, see Dayton Agreement and the text of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  16. ^ a b c d e f The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Except Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  17. ^ Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
  18. ^ Burma's official short form name as used by the United Nations is "Myanmar". The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010.
  19. ^ "Myanmar gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. 21 October 2010. http://ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCATRE69K2HM20101021. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  20. ^ The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  21. ^ a b The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
  22. ^ Rendered in unicode as ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
  23. ^ a b c d Source for names in regional and minority languages is the Federal Foreign Office of Germany (see references)
  24. ^ Names in additional regional and minority languages are taken from Geonames. "China". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coucn.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  25. ^ a b In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories currently under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognize the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  26. ^ a b The Chinese sovereignty over the Paracel Islands is disputed by Vietnam and the Republic of China (see List of territorial disputes).
  27. ^ a b c The sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed by India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China (and the Republic of China). Currently, Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
  28. ^ See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the PRC.
  29. ^ Abbreviated as DRC, and also known as Congo-Kinshasa; also formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  30. ^ See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute.
  31. ^ A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
  32. ^ For more information, see Rigsfællesskabet.
  33. ^ The government of East Timor uses Timor-Leste as the English translation.
  34. ^ Source for the Hindustani, which uses both the Hindi and Urdu script, is Geonames. "Fiji". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coufj.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  35. ^ "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. http://www.itc.gov.fj/lawnet/fiji_act/cap122.html. Retrieved 2010-07-10 .
  36. ^ Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  37. ^ Source for the Albanian is Geonames. "Macedonia". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coumk.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  38. ^ Source for the names in recognised regional and national languages is Geonames. "India". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/couin.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  39. ^ Source for the official name in Kurdish is the Kurdistan Regional Government. "Official website". http://www.krg.org/. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  40. ^ Source: Iraqi constitution
  41. ^ The Irish state is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish the state from the island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
  42. ^ Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  43. ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  44. ^ "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Speeches+by+Israeli+leaders/2008/Address+by+FM+Livni+to+the+8th+Herzliya+Conference+22-Jan-2008.htm?DisplayMode=print. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  45. ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. http://www.law.virginia.edu/html/news/2005_fall/gaza.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  46. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/10/29/isrlpa9577.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  47. ^ See Foreign relations of Israel and Recognition of Israel.
  48. ^ See Names of Japan for more detail.
  49. ^ a b Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.
  50. ^ "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". http://www.ioc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~worldjpn/documents/texts/docs/19650622.T1E.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  51. ^ Source for the Tamil and Chinese romanisations is Geonames. "Malaysia". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coumy.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  52. ^ Source for the formal native version is Geonames. "Marshall Islands". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coumh.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  53. ^ For example, the Cook Islands has diplomatic relations with Germany. Source:Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Laenderinformationen/Cookinseln/Bilateral.html. Retrieved 2010-07-16.  For more information: Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
  54. ^ China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. http://www.china.org.cn/english/international/235447.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  55. ^ Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs". United Nations. http://www.un.int/nauru/foreignaffairs.html. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  56. ^ Tokelau remains a dependent territory after several referendums. Source: Gregory, Angela (25 October 2007). "Tokelau votes to remain dependent territory of New Zealand". New Zealand Herald (Wellington: APN Holdings NZ Limited). http://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/news/article.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=10472094. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  57. ^ Radio New Zealand International (26 March 2007). "American Samoa governor ready to resist Tokelau’s claim to Swains Island". Radio New Zealand Ltd. http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=31024. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  58. ^ Government of New Zealand; Government of Tokelau (8 October 2007). "Draft Constitution of Tokelau – English". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade. http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Foreign-Relations/Pacific/Tokelau/Tokelau-Constitution-(English).php. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  59. ^ Source for the Ayamara and Quechua is Geonames. "Peru". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coupe.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  60. ^ Weller, Marc; Nobbs, Katherine (2010). Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. Philadelphia, United States: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812242300. http://books.google.com/books?id=ru-DIWuuObEC&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 
  61. ^ Names in additional regional and minority languages are taken from Geonames. "Spain". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/coues.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  62. ^ Source for the Irish, Scottish, and Welsh is Geonames. "United Kingdom". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/cougb.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  63. ^ Source for the Hawaiian is Geonames. "United States". Fröhlich, Werner. http://www.geonames.de/couus.html. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  64. ^ Source for the Cyrillic is the Federal Foreign Office of Germany (see references)
  65. ^ a b The non-state sovereign entity Order of Malta is not included. It claims neither statehood nor any territory. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, who either live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are currently too data deficient to be definitively known.
  66. ^ a b "Russia condemned for recognizing rebel regions". CNN.com. 2008-08-26. http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/08/26/russia.vote.georgia/index.html. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  67. ^ Harding, Luke (14 December 2009). "Tiny Nauru struts world stage by recognising breakaway republics". London: Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/14/nauro-recognises-abkhazia-south-ossetia. Retrieved 8 May 2010. 
  68. ^ See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  69. ^ See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  70. ^ See Crawford, James (1999). "Israel (1948–1949) and Paletine (1998–1999): Two Studies in the Creation of States", in Goodwin-Gil G.S. and S. Talmon, The Reality of International Law: Essays in Honour of Ian Brownlie, Oxford University Press Inc., New York, pp. 110–115; In an interview to Uri Avneri (14 April 2010), the PA Prime Minister, Salam Fayyad said: "Dozens of countries recognized this state [of Palestine], and the PLO representatives there enjoy the official status of ambassadors. But did this improve the situation of the Palestinians?"; The Palestinian Foreign Minister Riad al-Malki alleged that 67 states in Latin America, Asia, Africa and Europe have legally recognized the State of Palestine. See ICC prosecutor considers "Gaza war crimes" probe
  71. ^ Kurz, Anat N. (2005) Fatah and the Politics of Violence: the institutionalization of a popular Struggle. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press ISBN 1-84519-032-7, ISBN 978-1-84519-032-3 p. 123
  72. ^ Boyle, Francis A., "Palestine, Palestinians and International Law", Clarity Press, September 1, 2009, ISBN 093286337X, page 19
  73. ^ See Regions and territories: Somaliland (30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  74. ^ Romanization in Pinyin.
  75. ^ "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2008/10/08/2003425320. 
  76. ^ 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  77. ^ "State", pp. 512–3 in Penguin Dictionary of International Relations. Evans, Graham & Newnham, Jeffrey. 1998. (ISBN 0-14-051397-3). London: Penguin Books Ltd.

References


Template:Lists of countries and territories by continent Template:Lists by country Template:Lists of sovereign states by year


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