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Ludhiana district

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Ludhiana district
ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ ਜ਼ਿਲ੍ਹਾ
—  district  —
District map of East Punjab
Districts of Punjab, India



India Punjab location map
Red pog.svg
Ludhiana district
Location of the district headquarters in Punjab, India
Coordinates: 30°53′N 75°51′E / 30.883, 75.85Coordinates: 30°53′N 75°51′E / 30.883, 75.85
Country Flag of India.svg India
State Punjab
Headquarters Ludhiana
Area
 • Total 3,767 km2 (1,454 sq mi)
Population (2011)‡[›]
 • Total 3,487,882
 • Density 975/km2 (2,530/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code 0161
Sex ratio 1000/869 /
Literacy 82.50%
Lok Sabha constituency 1
Vidhan Sabha constituency 14
Website ludhiana.nic.in
^  ‡:  Population increase (2001–2011): 15%

Ludhiana district (Punjabi: ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ ਜ਼ਿਲ੍ਹਾ) is one of the 22 districts in the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India. Ludhiana city which is district headquarters is the hub of industry in Punjab. The main industries are bicycle parts and hosiery. Ludhiana is the biggest city of the state. It has eight tehsils, seven sub-tehsils and twelve development blocks.[1]

As of 2011 census, the district population constituted 12.59 percent of the total Punjab population.[2]

HistoryEdit

Ludhiana gets its name from the Lodhi Dynasty, which is believed to have founded the city in 1480. During the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar the area formed part of the Sarkar or Sirhind. In the latter period of Mughal rule the western part of the district was leased to the Rais of Raikot, by the early eighteen century they had become semi independent of the Mughals. In 1747 Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded and battled the imperial army near Khanna, although the Mughals were able to stop Ahmad Shah - his subsequent invasions weakened the Mughals, which allowed the Rais to take control of Ludhiana town in 1760.[3] Chakar, Talwandi Rai in 1478 AD, Raikot in 1648 AD and Jagraon in 1688 AD were founded by the Rai family of Raikot. Ref-Ludhiana Dist. Gazetteer 1888-89&1904. Chiefs of Punjab 1890,1909 & 1940

During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Ludhiana became an important British cantonment. Initially, in 1805, Ranjit Singh occupied Ludhiana. However, in 1809, the British decided to curb his advance eastward and sent troops to confront him. Ranjit Singh was forced to sign the treaty of 'perpetual friendship' with the British, which confined his activities to the right bank of the Sutlej. British troops were permanently stationed in Ludhiana and the Cis-Sutlej states came under British protection.

According to the 1901 census, Hindus numbered 269,076, or 40 per cent of the total; Muslims, 235,937, or 35 per cent; and Sikhs, 164,919, or 24 per cent.[4] In 1947 due to violence and strife between the communities the Muslim population were compelled to leave for Pakistan.[5]

LocationEdit

Ludhiana is one of the centrally located cities of Punjab, which is located on the Grand Trunk Road from Delhi to Amritsar at latitude 30.55 North & longitude 75.54 East in the state of Punjab in Northern India.

Ludhiana is the most centrally located district which falls in the Malwa region of the state of Punjab. For administrative purposes it has been placed in the Patiala Division. It lies between north latitude 30°-34' and 31°-01' and east longitude 75°-18' and 76°-20'. It is bounded on the north by the Satluj River, which separates it from Jalandhar district. The river also forms its northern boundary with Hoshiarpur district. On other sides it shares common boundaries with Rupnagar district in the east, Moga district in the west, and Barnala, Sangrur and Patiala districts in the south and southeast, respectively.[1]

TopographyEdit

The topography of the district is typical representative of an alluvial plain. It owes its origin to the aggravation work of the Satluj River. The alluvium deposited by the river has been worked over by the wind, which gave rise to a number of small dunes and sand mounds. Most of these dunes have been leveled by farmers of the district.

The district can be divided into the flood plain of the Satluj and the upland plain.

ClimateEdit

The climate of the district is characterized by dryness except a brief spell of monsoon season, a very hot summer and a bracing winter. The cold season is from mid-November to the early part of March. The succeeding period until the end of June is the hot season. July, August and half of September constitute the southwest monsoon. The period of mid-September to about the middle of November may be termed as post-monsoon or transitional period. June is generally the hottest month. Hot and scorching dust-laden winds blow during summer season. December and January are the coldest months.

Climate data for Ludhiana
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19
(66)
21
(69)
26
(78)
34
(94)
38
(101)
39
(103)
34
(94)
33
(91)
33
(92)
32
(89)
26
(79)
21
(69)
29.7
(85.4)
Average low °C (°F) 7
(44)
8
(47)
13
(55)
18
(65)
23
(73)
26
(79)
26
(79)
24
(76)
23
(74)
17
(63)
11
(52)
7
(45)
17.0
(62.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 20.3
(0.80)
38.1
(1.50)
30.5
(1.20)
20.3
(0.80)
20.3
(0.80)
61
(2.40)
228.6
(9.00)
188
(7.40)
86.4
(3.40)
5.1
(0.20)
12.7
(0.50)
20.3
(0.80)
731.5
(28.8)
Source: [6]

RainfallEdit

The rainfall in the district increases from the southwest toward the northeast. About 70% of the rainfall is received during the period of July through September. The rainfall between December and March accounts for 16% of the rainfall the remaining 14% rainfall is received in the other months of the year.

Rivers and drainsEdit

The Sutlej and its tributary, the Buddha Nala, constitute the chief hydrographic features of the district. A brief description of these is as follows.

Sutlej River
originates from Mansarovar Lake in Tibet. After flowing through Himachal Pradesh, it debouches from the Shivaliks. Just about Rupnagar, 32 km east of the boundary of Samrala Tehsil, it flows due west along the top of the district for 96 km and turns, as it leaves Jagraon Tehsil, slightly north toward its junction with the Beas at Harike. It maintains an east-west direction. It can be devastating during floods. The Sutlej has experienced a westward drift during recent times. Old towns and villages, such as Bahlulpur, Machhiwara, and Kum Kalan, were built on its banks. The river has since been dammed at Bhakhra, which has considerably checked its flooding menace in the district.
Buddha Nala
It runs parallel to the Satluj on its south for a fairly large section of its course in the district and ultimately joins the Satluj at Gorsian Kadar Baksh in the northwestern corner of the district. It floods during the rainy season, but in the dry season it can be crossed on foot at certain points. Ludhiana and Machhiwara are situated to the south of the Buddha Nala. The water of the stream is polluted after it enters Ludhiana City.

Demographics Edit

According to the 2011 census Ludhiana district has a population of 3,487,882,[2] roughly equal to the nation of Panama[7] or the US state of Connecticut.[8] This gives it a ranking of 87th in India (out of a total of 640).[2] The district has a population density of 975 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,530 /sq mi).[2] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 15 percent.[2] Ludhiana has a sex ratio of 869 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 82.5 percent.[2]

ReferencesEdit

Template:Ludhiana district


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Ludhiana district. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

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