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Marlborough, Massachusetts
—  City  —
Main St looking east, Marlborough MA.jpg
Main Street
Marlborough ma highlight.png
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°20′45″N 71°33′10″W / 42.34583, -71.55278Coordinates: 42°20′45″N 71°33′10″W / 42.34583, -71.55278
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Middlesex
Settled 1657
Incorporated 1660
Government
 • Type Mayor-council city
 • Mayor Arthur G. Vigeant
Area
 • Total 22.2 sq mi (57.4 km2)
 • Land 21.1 sq mi (54.6 km2)
 • Water 1.1 sq mi (2.8 km2)
Elevation 450 ft (137 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 38,499
 • Density 1,804.0/sq mi (697.2/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 01752
Area code(s) 508 / 774
FIPS code 25-38715
GNIS feature ID 0611360
Website http://www.marlborough-ma.gov/

Marlborough (often spelled Marlboro) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 38,499 at the 2010 census. Marlborough became a prosperous industrial town in the 19th century and made the transition to high technology industry in the late 20th century after the construction of the Massachusetts Turnpike.

Marlborough was declared a town in 1660. It later became a city because of the population size.

HistoryEdit

Early Years Edit

Christopher Allen was recorded as marshal of Marlborough in 1638 and married to Mary Wetherbee.

See Article: Marlborough Indian Plantation

This community was founded on a indian settlement known as Ockoocangasett, one of several Praying Indian Towns in the region, later known as Marlborough Indian Plantation. The town consisted of local indians who had converted to Christianity and then petitioning the Massachusetts General Court for protection from other warring indian tribes.

This group as located at the intersection of two Indian trails, Nashua Trail and Connecticut path. They spoke the language of the Algonquian Indians though the local tribe referred to themselves as the Pennacooks. English settlers were welcomed by the Indians because they protected them from other tribes they were at war with.

First English Settlers Edit

Pricehome1688

Peter Rice Homestead in Marlborough MA - Built 1688

See Article: Marlborough First Settlers

The first settlers of most early New England Towns were of Puritan stock, which is heavily reflected in the character of early Marlborough. The Puritans were a result of the sixteenth century Reformation when the great doctrine of Right or Private Judgement was successfully asserted against the authority of the Papal Church.

John Howe (1620-1680), in 1656 was a fur trader who built a house next to Ockoocangasett.

In the 1650s, several families left the nearby town of Sudbury MA, 18 miles west of Boston, to start a new town. The village was named after Marlborough, the market town in Wiltshire, England. It was first settled in 1657 by 14 men led by Edmund Rice, John Ruddock and John Howe; in 1656 Rice and his colleagues petitioned the Massachusetts General Court to create the town of Marlborough and it was officially incorporated in 1660.

The Reverend William Brimstead was the first minister of the Puritan church and Johnathan Johnson was the first blacksmith.

Land Disputes 1674 Edit

The land grant made by the court to the Sudbury settlers in 1656 overlapped with the land grant made earlier to the Ockoocangasett. There were a number of petitions and legal actions made to rectify clean land title for the settlers. See Marlborough First Settlers, for a list of petitions and petitioners.

King Philips War Casualties 1676 Edit

The settlement was almost destroyed by Native Americans in 1676 during King Philip's War when indian warriors burned down many buildings.

On Sunday, March 20, 1676, while the people were gathered in church, the town of Marlborough was attacked by the Indians. The inhabitants escaped in safety to the fort, but the meeting house and nearly all the dwellings were burned, cattle killed, and everything of value destroyed. Most residents eventually fled to Concord MA and the town was deserted for a good year. Some refugees died in Concord from their injuries. One refugee, Mary Wood (1634-1707), gave birth to a child (Nathaniel) in Concord, April 3, 1676.

The spring of 1676 marked the high point for indian attacks during King Phillip's War, on March 12, they attacked Plymouth Plantation. Though the town withstood the assault, the natives had demonstrated their ability to penetrate deep into colonial territory. They attacked three more settlements: Longmeadow (near Springfield), Marlborough MA, and Simsbury were attacked two weeks later.

Town founder, John Wood (1609-1678), was the sergeant in command of the town garrison in Oct 1675. See also the histories of Moses Newton (1646-1736). The roughly 225 English Colonial residents of Marlborough were forced to abandon the Town until after the war was over.

Casualties include:

1686 Marlborough Indian Plantation Edit

In about 1686, many residents of Marlborough signed several key legal agreements to contract the transfer of title of large piece of indian land known as the Indian Plantation to the townsfolk. Ten Indians also signed it.

1700s Developments Edit

In 1711 Marlborough's territory included Northborough, Southborough, Westborough and Hudson. As population, business, and travel grew in the colonies, Marlborough became a favored rest stop on the Boston Post Road. Many travelers stopped at its inns and taverns, including George Washington, who visited the Williams Tavern (see citation below) soon after his inauguration in 1789.[1]

Revolutionary War Edit

From the book History of Middlesex County - Vol III, page 822-823 by Duane Hamilton Hurd:

On 19 April 1775, news reached Marlborough that the British Army had left Boston and were marching to sieze rebel arms at Concord. Within a few hours, four companies of Marlborough men, consisting of 190 men, were marching to battle.

  1. Marlborough 1775 Minuteman Roster -
    1. Roll of Captain Howe's Company - marched to Cambridge on 19 April 1775, absent from home 16 days.
    2. Roll of Captain Brigham's Company - marched to Cambridge on 19 April 1775, saw service of 10-30 days.
    3. Roll of Captain Barne's Company - marched to Cambridge on 19 April 1775, saw service 10-40 days.
    4. Roll of Capt Silas Gates' Company -
    5. Additional military Rolls - 8 month's men.
  2. 4th Middlesex County Militia Regiment - Under the command of Captain Asahel Wheeler of Sudbury they served for five months at Fort Ticonderoga in General Brickett's brigade of Massachusetts militia. They were later active at the fighting at the Battle of White Plains.
  3. 6th Middlesex County Militia Regiment - Reed's Regiment of Militia also known as the 6th Middlesex County Militia Regiment was called up at Littleton and Westford, Massachusetts on September 27, 1777 as reinforcements for the Continental Army during the Saratoga Campaign. The regiment marched quickly to join the gathering forces of General Horatio Gates as he faced British General John Burgoyne in northern New York. The regiment served in General Briskett's brigade of Massachusetts militia. With the surrender of Burgoyne's Army on October 17, the regiment was disbanded on November 9, 1777.

Military Activity at Marlborough Edit

The patriotic fervor of Marlborough is evidenced even before the start of the war. Sometime in February 1775, General Gage dispatched Captain Brown and Ensign De Beriere with one private, poorly disguised in brown clothes and red neckerchiefs to tour the countryside west of Boston to access political feeling. They were readily identified and harassed from town to town. They arrived in Marlborough to a scene of great commotion and sought shelter overnight in the home of a known Loyalist. The local Committee of Correspondence dispatched men who began searching homes everywhere to find them, and the British then fled the town in great haste to avoid discovery. (ref: pg32 of History of the Revolutionary War by Christopher Ward.)

Marlborough’s position on the Post road brought continued evidence of the war to the Town. In the fall of 1775, cannon captured at Fort Ticonderoga were hauled through here under the direction of General Henry Knox, ox teams being requisitioned from the farmers all along the way to move this heavy equipment which was soon mounted in the fortifications around Boston, to counterbalance the cannon of the British Navy in Boston Harbor.

After British General Burgoyne’s army surrendered at Saratoga, NY, his captured troops, both Hessian and English were marched to Boston and interned in the fall of 1777. A large part of this captured contingent encamped in Marlborough, nearing the end of their three-week march. Two of Burgoyne’s men died in Marlborough and were interred in unmarked graves just off the post Road in the eastern part of the Town. Captain William Morse had left Marlborough with a company of 52 Marlborough men on October 5, 1777 to join the army at Saratoga, and arrived there October 17th the day Burgoyne surrendered.

1800s Manufacturing Edit

In 1836, Samuel Boyd, known as the "father of the city," and his brother Joseph, opened the first shoe manufacturing business - an act that would change the community forever. By 1890, with a population of 14,000, Marlborough had become a major shoe manufacturing center, producing boots for Union soldiers, as well as footwear for the civilian population. Marlborough became so well known for its shoes that its official seal was decorated with a factory, a shoe box, and a pair of boots when it was incorporated as a city in 1890.[2]

The Civil War resulted in the creation of one of the region's most unusual monuments. Legend has it that a company from Marlborough, assigned to Harpers Ferry, appropriated the bell from the firehouse where John Brown last battled for the emancipation of the slaves. The company left the bell in the hands of one Mrs. Elizabeth Snyder for 30 years, returning in 1892 to bring it back to Marlborough. The bell now hangs in a tower at the corner of Route 85 and Main Street.

Around that time, Marlborough is believed to have been the first community in the country to receive a charter for a streetcar system, edging out Baltimore by a few months. The system, designed primarily for passenger use, provided access to Milford to the south, and Concord to the north. As a growing industrialized community, Marlborough began attracting skilled craftsmen from Quebec, Ireland, Italy, and Greece.[2]

U.S. Civil War Edit

At the start of the Civil War, 1861-1865, Marlborough’s area included what is now the Town of Hudson (which was incorporated in 1866) and over those years the average population was about 6,200 people. The total number who saw war service was, according to a prominent veteran, 831. This would be 13 ½% of the population, and of those, 91, or more than one in eleven died in the service. Marlborough men served in seventy different army organizations in the Civil War besides those who served in the navy.

Continually since the Revolutionary War, there had been at least one militia company in Marlborough, and district regimental musters were held in Marlborough or some nearby town every year. In the 1840s there were three Marlborough companies, and in the 1850s one company, and in 1860 there were two rifle companies. When the call came from President Lincoln to furnish troops in the spring of 1861, both of these companies were recruited to full strength, and eager to go into action. They were Companies F and I of the 13th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment. They were fully equipped, even gaudily; their high-crowned hats had a big black feather ornament on one side and a bronze American Eagle on the other. While they impatiently awaited orders in Marlborough, some of their members resigned to join other regiments that were assembled at Boston and ready to leave for the front. Resignations were permissible for the volunteer companies of that date were unofficial enterprises of patriotic civilians, and were not subject to government regulations until mustered into the United States Army.

Meanwhile a band of musicians made up of twenty Marlborough men had volunteered and been accepted to accompany the 5th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, and plans to recruit a regiment in Boston to be comprised entirely of Irish immigrants had matured and the 9th Massachusetts Infrantry Regiment including Company G made up of 65 Marlborough men under Capt. John Carey of Marlborough had been mustered into the U.S. Army on June 11, 1861, for a 3-years service. Finally after what seemed to be never-ending delays, the call came for the 13th Massachusetts Regiment, and Marlborough’s companies F and I, left by train at the Main Street depot for Boston, and were mustered into the U.S. Army for three years on July 16, 1861.

The Marlboro Journal and Mirror of July 16, 1864 notes in two brief paragraphs that Co. I of the 5th Mass. Reg. Left Marlborough on July 13th under Capt. A.A. Powers for the camp at Readville near Boston, numbering 130 men. And on July 15th another company entrained for the same camp under Capt. David L. Brown, who was the lieutenant of Co. I of the 13th when the John Brown Bell was taken from Harper’s Ferry in 1861.

Another company was furnished from Marlborough to serve a term of nine months, so that in all, six companies were recruited in Marlborough, the three later ones including many who re-enlisted after being discharged from earlier service. With so many men in so many different branches of the Military Services, Marlborough was represented in campaigns throughout the whole southland. The Irish Volunteers who were the first to leave Marlborough suffered the most casualties, including 18 men and Capt. John Carey. The two companies in the 13th Regiment lost in all 21 men, including John L. Spencer who was the first to die of all the Marlborough men and who succumbed at Harper’s Ferry. The whole Town of Marlborough turned out for his funeral, even though he had no family in Marlborough, as this was the first instance of the tragedy of the war. Many Marlborough men lost an arm or leg, and Postmaster John. S. Fay suffered the loss of both an arm and leg, after which he was confined in Libby prison. Others suffered at Andersonville Prison.

Source: Marlborough City History See also : Marlborough and the Civil War - Slide show online.

Other 1800s Developments Edit

  • Rice Street - Named for Henry Rice (1786-1867) a well known Boston politician and War of 1812 Veteran. Upon Rice's death, his estate near the center of Marlborough 42.34765°N 71.54924°W was sold to build housing for workers in the shoe factories that were being established in the rapidly industrializing town. Rice Street in the Middle Village area near downtown Marlborough was named after Henry at that time.

1900s Developments Edit

Marlborough Mass city hall

City Hall (1905) by Allen, Collins & Berry

Shoe manufacturing continued in Marlborough long after the industry had fled many other New England communities. Rice & Hutchins, Inc. operated several factories in Marlborough from 1875 to 1929. Famous Frye boots were manufactured here through the 1970s, and The Rockport Company, founded in Marlborough in 1971, continues to maintain an outlet store in the city. In 1990, when Marlborough celebrated its centennial as a city, the festivities included the construction of a park in acknowledgment of the shoe industry, featuring statues by the sculptor David Kapenteopolous.

The construction of Interstates 495 and 290 and the Massachusetts Turnpike has enabled Marlborough to begin its fifth century on the cutting edge of a new industry: high technology and specialized electronics. Today, thousands flock here to work at Fidelity Investments, Raytheon, Hewlett-Packard, AMD, Sun Microsystems, Navilyst Medical, Netezza, Boston Scientific, Sunovion (formerly Sepracor), 3Com, Egenera, Evergreen Solar and the many other electronics and computer firms that provide the strong business community in the city. Because of the city's central location with easy access to major highways and the pro-business, pro-development policies of the city government, the population of Marlborough has more than doubled in the last 25 years to over 38,000 at the time of the last census.

GeographyEdit

Marlborough is located at 42°21′3″N 71°32′51″W / 42.35083, -71.5475 (42.350909, -71.547530).[3] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.2 square miles (57 km2), of which, 21.1 square miles (55 km2) of it is land and 1.1 square miles (2.8 km2) of it (4.87%) is water. Marlborough is drained by the Assabet River. Within city limits are three large lakes, known as Lake Williams, Millham Reservoir and Fort Meadow Reservoir. A portion of Fort Meadow Reservoir extends into nearby Hudson.

Marlborough is crossed by Interstate 495, U.S. Route 20 and Massachusetts Route 85. The eastern terimus of Interstate 290 is also in Marlborough.

Adjacent townsEdit

Marlborough is located in eastern Massachusetts, bordered by six towns:

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1790 1,554
1800 1,735 +11.6%
1810 1,674 −3.5%
1820 1,952 +16.6%
1830 2,077 +6.4%
1840 2,101 +1.2%
1850 2,941 +40.0%
1860 5,911 +101.0%
1870 8,474 +43.4%
1880 10,127 +19.5%
1890 13,805 +36.3%
1900 13,609 −1.4%
1910 14,579 +7.1%
1920 15,028 +3.1%
1930 15,587 +3.7%
1940 15,154 −2.8%
1950 15,756 +4.0%
1960 18,819 +19.4%
1970 27,936 +48.4%
1980 30,617 +9.6%
1990 31,813 +3.9%
2000 36,255 +14.0%
2010 38,499 +6.2%

As of the census[15] of 2000, there were 36,255 people, 14,501 households, and 9,280 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,719.4 people per square mile (663.7/km²). There were 14,903 housing units at an average density of 706.8 per square mile (272.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 87.70% White, 2.17% African American, 0.20% Native American, 3.76% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.27% from other races, and 2.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.06% of the population.

There were 14,501 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.0% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 36.7% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $56,879, and the median income for a family was $70,385. Males had a median income of $49,133 versus $32,457 for females. The per capita income for the city was $28,723. About 4.7% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.9% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.

EducationEdit

Public Library, Marlborough, MA

Public library (1903-04), a Carnegie library designed by Peabody & Stearns

Public schoolsEdit

See also Marlborough Public Schools

Charter schoolsEdit

Advanced Math & Science Academy grades ( 6-12 )

Parochial schoolsEdit

Private schoolsEdit

After school programsEdit

TransportationEdit

Marlborough is located near the intersection of Routes 495, 290, 20 and the Massachusetts Turnpike.[16] It is connected to neighboring towns and cities by MWRTA.[16]

Major highwaysEdit

Marlborough is served by Two Interstate, one U.S Highway and one state highways:

Route number Type Local name Direction
I-495 Interstate 495 (Massachusetts) Interstate Interstate 495 (Massachusetts) north/south
I-290 Interstate 290 (Massachusetts) Interstate Interstate 290 (Massachusetts) east/west
US 20 U.S. Route 20 United States highway Boston Post Rd., East/West Main St.
Lakeside Ave
east/west
MA Route 85 Route 85 State route Lincoln St., Washington St., Bolton St. and
Maple St.
north/south

Mass-transitEdit

BusEdit

  • The MetroWest Regional Transit Authority (MWRTA) operates a regional bus service which provides fixed route public bus lines servicing multiple communities in the MetroWest region, including the towns of Ashland, Framingham, Holliston, Hopkinton, Milford, Marlborough, Sudbury, Sherborn, Natick and Weston.[17]
    • MWRTA Routes 7 connect Marlborough with Framingham which is well connected to Boston and other parts of the state via rail and bus.[18]
    • MWRTA Route 7C (Inner City Marlborough) line runs roughly east-west through Marlborough. This route runs through the downtown Marlborough and connects multiple Shopping Complexes/Malls, residential localities and Marlborough Hospital.[19] Transfers can be made between routes 7 and 7C at the Marlborough City Hall stop.[18][20]

Private servicesEdit

  • A number of private Taxi/Limousin services have been listed as being operated in Marlborough e.g. Marlborough City Taxi, American Way, Etc.[21]

MediaEdit

NewspapersEdit

The MetroWest Daily News, a daily newspaper covering Marlborough and surrounding communities in the MetroWest region

The Marlborough Enterprise, the city's weekly newspaper

TelevisionEdit

Channel 8 (Comcast), Channel 34 (Verizon): m8, Public-access television (Marlborough Cable Trust). [1]

Channel 10 (Comcast), Channel 33 (Verizon): WMCT, Your Community Station (Marlborough Cable Trust). [2]

Channel 98: Marlborough Public Schools' student run station

RadioEdit

InternetEdit

Points of interestEdit

File:Homestead--Fall--larger.jpg

Notable residentsEdit

Marlborough district courthouse

Marlborough District Courthouse, seen from across Lake Williams

Sister Cities And TownsEdit

Cities

Towns

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Marlborough Massachusetts History - Williams Tavern". History RootsWeb. http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~historyofmarlborough/williamstavernstory.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  2. ^ a b History of Marlborough
  3. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  4. ^ "TOTAL POPULATION (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk. 
  5. ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=04000US25&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-T1&-ds_name=PEP_2009_EST&-_lang=en&-format=ST-9&-_sse=on. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  6. ^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen1990/cp1/cp-1-23.pdf. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  7. ^ "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1980a_maABC-01.pdf. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  8. ^ "1950 Census of Population". Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/23761117v1ch06.pdf. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  9. ^ "1920 Census of Population". Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/41084506no553ch2.pdf. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  10. ^ "1890 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/41084506no553ch2.pdf. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  11. ^ "1870 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1870e-05.pdf. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  12. ^ "1860 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c.. http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1860a-08.pdf. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  13. ^ "1850 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c.. http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1850c-11.pdf. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  14. ^ (1952) "1950 Census of Population" 1: Number of Inhabitants. Retrieved on July 12, 2011. 
  15. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  16. ^ a b "City of Marlborough Official Website, Transportation". City of Marlborough. http://www.marlborough-ma.gov/Gen/MarlboroughMA_WebDocmnts/transportation. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  17. ^ "MWRTA Official Website". MWRTA. http://www.mwrta.com/. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  18. ^ a b "MWRTA Route 7 Details". MWRTA. http://www.mwrta.com/index.cfm?event=Schedules&RouteID=12. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  19. ^ "MWRTA Route 7C Details". http://www.mwrta.com/index.cfm?event=Schedules&RouteID=20. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  20. ^ "Rates and Transfers Details". http://www.mwrta.com/index.cfm?event=RatesInfo. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  21. ^ "Yahoo Local listing of taxi services in Marlborough". http://local.yahoo.com/results?p=Taxi+Services&ycatfilt=96926021&csz=Marlborough%2C+MA&cityfilt=marlborough+ma. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  22. ^ "John Rock: Pioneer in the Development of Oral Contraceptives", Marc A. Shampo, PhD and Robert A. Kyle, MD

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

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