Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938)

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Allama Muhammad Iqbal was born 9 November 1877 in Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan to Shaikh Nur Muhammad and died 21 April 1938 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan of unspecified causes. He married Karim Bibi 1895 . He married Mukhtar Begum 1909 .


Muhammad Iqbal, son of Sheikh Nur Muhammad son of Shaikh Rafiq (the former Sahaj Ram Sapru, according to one telling). His grandfather Shaikh Rafiq, a Kashmiri, had joined a wave of migration to Sialkot, where he made a living peddling Kashmiri shawls. Shaikh Rafiq had two sons, Shaikh Ghulam Qadir and Shaikh Nur Muhammad.

  • As a poet and philosopher, he is often referred to as just "Iqbal" and that name, used alone, almost invariably refers to him, just as "Shakespeare", or "Dickens", or "Rumi" refers to a specific person of that name.
  • He is also referred to, in Urdu circles, and especially in Pakistan, as:
    • Hakeem ul Ummath ("Doctor of the Ummah"--which is a lot like the Catholic Church uses "Doctor of the Church"; "Ummah" or "Ummath" being the word used by Muslims for the worldwide commity of Muslims)
    • Shayar-e-Mashriq ("Poet of the East/Orient")
    • Mufakkir-e-Pakistan ("Philosopher/Thinker of Pakisan"; crediting his role in the ideological and intellectual process of the creation of Pakistan. Please note that his role as philosopher and poet is not Pakistan-specific; he died before Pakistan came into existence and his contributions to Urdu and Persian literature and Muslim thought were made in the context of colonial India)

For a detailed biography, see the Biography tab.


Offspring of Muhammad Iqbal and Karim Bibi  ¢
Name Birth Death Joined with
Mi'raj Iqbal (1895)
Aftab Iqbal (1899)

Offspring of Muhammad Iqbal and Mukhtar Begum
Name Birth Death Joined with
Javed Iqbal
Munazza (from Sardar Begum)

Offspring of Muhammad Iqbal and unknown parent
Name Birth Death Joined with


  • Shaikh Ata Muhammad, Brother (d. 1940, Sialkot)
  • four sisters
    • Taleb Bibi (d. 1902, Sialkot)
    • Karim Bibi (d. 1958, Sialkot)
    • Fatima Bibi (d. Sialkot
    • Zainab Bibi (d. Sialkot)

Sources and notes

‡ General
¢ Children

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