Muzaffarpur District (Hindi: मुज़फ़्फ़रपुर ज़िला, Urdu: مُظفٌر پور ضلع) is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Muzaffarpur town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Muzaffarpur district is a part of Tirhut Division.
Muzaffarpur is one of the largest commercial and educational centres of North Bihar. It is famous for litchis which is a fruit famous for its juicy taste. Muzaffarpur is an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. The district headquarters are located at Muzaffarpur. The district occupies an area of 3173 km² and has a population of 3,743,836 (as of 2001). Mark Twain, while on way to Kathmandu, stayed in the local Muzaffarpur Club and relished this beautiful East Indian town.
Muzaffarpur district was created in 1875 for the sake of administrative convenience by splitting up the earlier district of Tirhut. The present district of Muzaffarpur came to its existence in the 18th century and named after Muzaffar Khan, an Amil (Revenue Officer) under British Dynasty. Purbi Champaran and Sitamarhi districts on North, on the South Vaishali and Saran districts, on the East Darbhanga and Samastipur districts and on the West Saran and Gopalganj districts surround Muzaffarpur.
According to the Ramayana, King Janaka, the father of Sita ruled Videha, which is a traditional name for the entire region including eastern Nepal and northern Bihar. Sitamarhi, a town in this region, ascribes to the Hindu mythological belief where Sita sprang to life out of an earthen pot while Rajarshi Janak was tilling the land. Sita was to become the wife of Rama, the central figure in the Ramayana.
As per recorded history the Vajjin Republic was a confederation of eight clans of which the Licchavis were the most powerful and influential. Even the powerful kingdom of Magadha had to conclude matrimonial alliances in 519 B.C. with the neighboring estates of the Licchavis.
Ajatashatru invaded Vaishali and extended his sway over Tirhut. It was at this time that Patliputra (the modern Patna) was founded at the village Patali on the banks of the sacred river Ganges and Ajatashatru built an invincible fortress to keep vigil over the Licchavis on the other side of the river.
Ambarati, 40 km from Muzaffarpur is believed to be the village home of Amrapali, the famous Royal court dancer of Vaishali. Vaishali, a center of religious renaissance, Baso Kund, the birthplace of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism and a contemporary of Gautama Buddha, continue to attract visitors from across the international borders.
From the visit of the Chinese traveller Xuanzang’s till the rise of the Pala Empire, Muzaffarpur was under the control of Harsha Vardhan. After 647 A.D. the district passed on to the local chiefs. In the 8th century A.D. the Pala kings continued to have their hold over Tirhut until 1019 A.D. Later Chedi kings of Central India ruled till they were replaced by the Sena dynasty in 11th century.
Between 1210 & 1226, Ghais-u-ddin Iwaz, the ruler of Bengal, was the first Muslim invader of Tirhut. He, however, could not succeed in conquering the kingdom but extorted tributes. It was in 1323 that Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq established his control over the district. The history of Muzaffarpur will remain incomplete without a reference to the Simraon dynasty (in the north-east part of Champaran) and its founder Nanyupa Deva who extended his power over the whole of Mithila and Nepal.
During the regime of Harasimha Deva, the last king of the dynasty, Tughlaq Shah invaded Tirhut in 1323 and gained control over the territory. Tughlaq Shah handed over the management of Tirhut to one Kameshwar Thakur. Thus, the sovereign power of Tirhut passed from the Hindu chiefs to the Muslims but the Hindu chief continued to enjoy complete autonomy.
By the end of the 14th century, the whole of North Bihar including Tirhut passed on to the Rajahs of Jaunpur and remained under their control for nearly a century until defeated by Sikandar Lodi of Delhi. Meanwhile, Alauddin Husain Shah, the Nawab of Bengal, had become so powerful that he exercised his control over large tracts including Tirhut.
The emperor of Delhi advanced against Hussain Shah in 1499 and got control over Tirhut after defeating its Raja. The power of the Nawabs of Bengal began to wane and with the decline and fall of Mahood Shah, north Bihar including Tirhut formed a part of the mighty Mughal Empire. Though Muzaffarpur with the entire north Bihar had been annexed yet the petty powerful chieftains continued to exercise effective control over this area till the days of Daud Khan, the Nawab of Bengal. Daud Khan had his stronghold at Patna and Hajipur and after his fall a separate Subah of Bihar was constituted under the Mughal Empire and Tirhut formed a part of it.
The East India Company, after the battle of Buxar in 1764, controlled over whole of Bihar. The success of the insurgents at Delhi in 1857 caused grave concern to the English inhabitants in this district and revolutionary fervor began to permeate the entire district.
In 1908 the young Bengali revolutionary, Khudi Ram Bose, an 18 year-old, was hanged for throwing the bomb at the carriage of Pringle Kennedy who was actually mistaken for Kingsford, the District Judge of Muzaffarpur. After Indian independence in 1947, a memorial to this Bose was constructed at Muzaffrapur.
The visit of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi to Muzaffarpur district in December 1920 and again in January 1927 had political effect in arousing the people and the district continued to play a prominent role in the country’s freedom struggle.
The significance of Muzaffarpur in Indian civilization arises out of its position on the frontier line between two most spiritual influences and is a meeting place of Hindu and Islamic culture and thoughts. Muzaffarpur fostered political leaders and statesmen alike among whom were Rajendra Prasad, George Fernandis and Acharya Kriplani etc. The language of the region is Vajjika,-a close mix of Maithili and Bhojpuri.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Muzaffarpur one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
In 1997 ACME COMPUTERS founded by Pankaj Sahu. Since then Now it the pioneer IT training center of the city. it is situated in sikandarpur area of muzaffarpur.
According to the 2011 census Muzaffarpur district has a population of 4,778,610, roughly equal to the nation of Singapore or the US state of Alabama. This gives it a ranking of 24th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 1,506 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,900 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 27.54 %. Muzaffarpur has a sex ratio of 898 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 65.68 %.
- ^ "District-specific Literates and Literacy Rates, 2001". Registrar General, India, Ministry of Home Affairs. http://www.educationforallinindia.com/page157.html. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
- ^ a b c d e f g "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. http://www.census2011.co.in/district.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- ^ Law, Gwillim (2011-09-25). "Districts of India". Statoids. http://www.statoids.com/yin.html. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
- ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Bihar: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1118–1119. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
- ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. http://islands.unep.ch/Tiarea.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-11. "Mansel Island 3,180km2"
- ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (September 8, 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. http://www.nird.org.in/brgf/doc/brgf_BackgroundNote.pdf. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html. Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Singapore 4,740,737 July 2011 est."
- ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Alabama 4,779,736"
|Purba Champaran district||Sitamarhi district|
|Saran district||Darbhanga district|
|Vaishali district||Samastipur district|
|Bhagalpur: Banka | Bhagalpur|
|Darbhanga: Begusarai | Darbhanga | Madhubani | Samastipur|
|Kosi: Madhepura | Saharsa | Supaul|
|Magadh: Arwal | Aurangabad | Gaya | Jehanabad | Nawada|
|Munger: Jamui | Khagaria | Munger | Lakhisarai | Sheikhpura|
|Patna: Bhojpur | Buxar | Kaimur | Patna | Rohtas | Nalanda|
|Purnia: Araria | Katihar | Kishanganj | Purnia|
|Saran: Gopalganj | Saran | Siwan|
|Tirhut: East Champaran | Muzaffarpur | Sheohar | Sitamarhi | Vaishali | West Champaran|
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