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North 24 Parganas district (Bengali: উত্তর চব্বিশ পরগণা জেলা) is a district in southern West Bengal, of eastern India. North 24 Parganas extends in the [tropical zone] from latitude 22º11'6" north to 23º15'2" north and from longitude 88º20' east to 89º5' east. It is bordered to Nadia by north, to Bangladesh (Khulna Division) by north and east, to South 24 Parganas and Kolkata by south and to Kolkata, Howrah and Hoogly by west. Barasat is the district headquarters of North 24 Parganas.

North 24 Parganas is West Bengal's most populous district.[2] It is also the tenth-largest district in the State by area and second-most populated district in the country, after Thane district of Maharashtra.[2]

HistoryEdit

Ancient HistoryEdit

According to Ptolemy's Treatise on geography, written in the 2nd Century A.D., the ancient land of Gangaridi was stretched between the rivers Bhagirathi-Hoogly (lower Ganges) and Padma-Meghna. The modern-day 24 Parganas was the southern and the south-eastern territory of that legendary kingdom.

Archeological excavation at Berachampa village in Deganga PS proves that though the area was not directly attached to the rule of the Guptas, yet it could not shun their cultural influence. Xuanzang (c. 629-685) visited 30 Buddhist Biharas and 100 Hindu Temples in India and some of these were in the Greater 24 Parganas region.

The district was not a part of Shashanka's unified Bengali empire known as Gauda, but it is assumed that the district which was the south-west frontier territory of ancient Bengal, was comprised in under the rule of Dharmapala (estimated c. 770-810). The Pala rule was not quite strong in this part, as no excavation uncovered any of Buddhist Pala antiquities but many Hindu Sena sculptures.

Middle AgesEdit

In the middle of 16th century, Portuguese pirates began to invade and plunder many of the waterways and prosperous human settlements in the lower delta region. People left these places in fear of being murdered, raped, or captured to be sold as slaves. The Basirhat sub-division of North 24 Parganas suffered these torments.

Maharaja Pratapaditya, a Bhuian king (one of the 12 feudal lords of Bengal who declared their sovereignty from the Mughal Empire) of Jessore, Khulna, Barisal and Greater 24 Parganas, fought and resisted the Portuguese in the early years of the 17th Century. When he was defeated by the Mughals, Lakshmikanta Majumdar of Barisha, a sub-ordinate of the king, won the favor of fortune. While establishing the famous Kali Temple at Kalighat, Majumdar got some help from Raja Basanta Roy, Pratapaditya's uncle who was later killed by his ever-suspicious nephew. Yet Majumdar played for Abdul Rahman Khan, the Mughal Subbadar (governor of Mughal provinces). Pratapaditya lost the battles of Salka and Magrahat and was captured by the Mughal. Later he died in prison on the way to Delhi. Majumdar was reworded the zamindari of Magura, Paikan, Anwarpur and Kalikata for his treason against his own sovereign from Jahangir in 1611. Later his grandson was bestowed the Zamindari of Khulna and Greater 24 Parganas (partially) by Murshid Quli Khan, the Nawab of Bengal. Once the capital of Raja Bikramaditya and Maharaja Pratapaditya was at Dhumghat. Later it was transferred to Ishwaripur (originated from the name Jeshoreshwaripur). Maharaja Pratapaditya declared independence of South Bengal (Jessore, Khulna in north, Sundarbans, Bay of Bengal in South, Barisal in east and River Ganges in west) against the Mughal Empire of India.

Jashoreshwari Kali Temple (built by Pratapaditya), Chanda Bhairab Mandir at Ishwaripur (a triangular temple, built during the Sena period), Five domed Tenga Mosque at Banshipur (Mughal period), two big and four small domed Hammankhana (constructed by Pratapaditya) at Bangshipur, Govinda Dev Temple at Gopalpur (built by Basanta Roy, uncle of Maharaja Pratapaditya in 1593), Jahajghata Port (Khanpur). Pratapaditya king of Jessore and one of the bara-bhuiyans of Bengal. Pratapaditya fought against the Mughal imperial army during its inroad into Bengal in the early 17th century. His father Shrihari (Shridhar), a Kayastha, was an influential officer in the service of daud khan karrani. On the fall of Daud he fled away with the government treasure in his custody. He then set up a kingdom for himself in the marshy land to the extreme south of Khulna district (1574) and took the title of Maharaja. Pratapaditya succeeded to the kingship in 1574. The baharistan and the travel diary of Abdul Latif and the contemporary European writers, all testify to the personal ability of Pratapaditya, his political pre-eminence, material resources and martial strength, particularly in war-boats. His territories covered the greater part of what is now included in the greater Jessore, Khulna and Barisal districts. He established his capital at Dhumghat, a strategic position at the confluence of the Jamuna and Ichhamati.

Among the Bengal zamindars Pratapaditya was the first to send his envoy to Islam Khan Chisti with a large gift to win the favour of the Mughals, and then tendered personal submission to the Subahdar (1609). He promised military assistance and personal service in the Mughal campaign against musa khan, a pledge that he did not keep. To punish Pratapaditya for his disloyalty as a vassal and to subjugate his territory, a large expedition was launched under the command of Ghiyas Khan, which soon reached a place named Salka, near the confluence of the Jamuna and Ichhamati (1611). Pratapaditya equipped a strong army and a fleet and placed them under expert officers including Feringis, Afghans and Pathans. His eldest son Udayaditya made a big fort at Salka with natural barriers on three sides rendering it almost impregnable. In battle the Jessore fleet gained an initial advantage. But the imperial army cut off the Jessore fleet, made a breach in its ranks and broke its unity and discipline. In the melee that followed, the admiral Khwaja Kamal was killed. Udayaditya lost heart and hastily fled to his father, narrowly escaping capture. Jamal Khan evacuated the fort and followed Udayaditya.

Pratapaditya prepared himself to fight a second time from a new base near the confluence of Kagarghat canal and the Jamuna. He made a big fort at a strategic point and gathered all his available forces there. The imperialists began the battle by an attack on the Jessore fleet (Jan 1612) and compelled it to seek shelter beneath the fort. But their further advance was checked by the heavy cannonade of the Jessore artillery. A sudden attack of the imperialists completely defeated the Jessore fleet and they fell upon the fort with the elephants in front, thereby compelling Pratapaditya to evacuate the fort and retreat.

The second defeat sealed the fate of Pratapaditya. At Kagarghat he tendered submission to Ghiyas Khan, who personally escorted Pratapaditya to Islam Khan at Dhaka. The Jessore king was put in chains and his kingdom was annexed. Pratapaditya was kept confined at Dhaka. No authentic information is available regarding his last days. Probably he died at Benares on his way to Delhi, as a prisoner.[3]basirhat uttar, basirhat daksin

British RajEdit

The territory of Greater 24 Parganas were under the Satgaon (ancient Saptagram, now in Hoogly district) administration during the Mughal era and later it was included in Hoogly chakla (district under post-Mughal Nawabi rule) during the rule of Murshid Quli Khan. In 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, Nawab Mir Jafar confer the Zamindari of 24 parganas and janglimahals (small administrative units) to the British East India Company. These were Amirpur, Akbarpur, Balia, Birati, Azimabad, Basandhari, Baridhati, Bagjola, Kalikata, Garh, Hatiagarh, Islampur, Dakshin Sagar, Kharijuri, Khaspur, Ikhtiarpur, Magura, Medanmalla, Maida, Manpur,Barasat,Muragachha,Pechakuli, Paikan, Rajarhat, Shahpur, Shahnagar, Satal,New Barrackpore[Aharampur] and Uttar Pargana. Since then, this entire territory is known as Twentyfour Parganas.

In 1751, the Company assigned John Zephaniah Holwell as zemindar of the District.[4] In 1759, after the Bengali War of 1756-57, the Company assigned it to Lord Clive as a personal Jaghir (zamindari) and after his death it again came under the direct authority of the Company.

In 1793, during the rule of Lord Cornwallis, entire Sunderbans were in Twentyfour Parganas. In 1802, some parganas on the western banks of river Hoogly were included into it. These parganas were in Nadia earlier. In 1814, a separate collectorate was established in Twenty-four Parganas. In 1817, Falta and Baranagar and in 1820, some potions of Nadia’s Balanda and Anwarpur were encompassed to it. In 1824, portions of Barasat, Khulna and Bakhargunge (now in Bangladesh) were also included to it. In 1824, the district Headquarter was shifted from Kolkata to Baruipur, but in 1828, it was removed to Alipore. In 1834, the district was split into two districts – Alipore and Barasat, but later these were united again.

In 1905, some portion of this district around the Sunderbans was detached and linked to Khulna and Barishal. These parts remained in Pakistan (later Bangladesh territories where Jessore’s Bangaon was joined to Twentyfour Pargana after the 1947 partition.

After IndependenceEdit

In 1983, an administrative reform committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Ashok Mitra suggested to spilt the district into two and as per the recommendation of the committee in 1986, 1 March two districts – North and South 24 Parganas were created. The North 24 Parganas which was included to the Presidency Division has been formed with 5 sub-divisions of the Greater 24 Parganas namely Barasat (Headquarter), Barrackpore, Basirhat, Bangaon and Bidhannagar (a satellite township of Kolkata, popularly known as Salt Lake).

GeographyEdit

The district lies within the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The river Ganges flows along the entire west border of the district. There are many other rivers, which include the Ichhamati, Jamuna, and Bidyadhari.

LocationEdit

Latitude: 23°15'North - 22°11' North
Longitude: 89°5'East - 88°20' East

LandEdit

Soil Status varies from alluvial to clay loam. Ratio of land High: Medium:Low=17:44:39

Groundwater Arsenic ContaminationEdit

North 24 Parganas is one of the nine (including Kolkata) severely arsenic affected district in West Bengal. On the basis of updated survey conducted by School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, out of total 22 administrative blocks in 22, 21 and 16 blocks arsenic above 10 μg/L (WHO Recommended value of arsenic in drinking water), 50 μg/L (Indian standard value of arsenic in drinking water) and 300 μg/L (the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions) was noted respectively. The maximum arsenic contamination level found in this district is 2830μg/L in the Baduria block.

ClimateEdit

The climate is tropical, like the rest of the Gangetic West Bengal. The hallmark is the Monsoon, which lasts from early June to mid September. The weather remains dry during the winter (mid November to mid February) and humid during summer.

  • Annual Rainfall 1,579mm (Normal)
  • Temperature 41°C in May (Max) and 10°C in January (Min)
  • Relative Humidity Between 50% in March & 90% in July

EconomyEdit

Muslims are mainly engaged in farming, fishing and other agricultural activities. The average size of agricultural landholdings in 3.2 Bighas. Hindu "Refugees" from Bangladesh form a major part of the industrial workforce. North 24 Parganas is one of the economically backward District of West Bengal , but there is chronic poverty in the southern half of the District ( the Sundarbans area )

DivisionsEdit

Administrative subdivisionsEdit

The district comprises five subdivisions: Barrackpore, Barasat Sadar, Basirhat, Bangaon and Bidhannagar. Barrackpore subdivision consists of sixteen municipalities (Kanchrapara, Halisahar, Naihati, Bhatpara, Garulia, Barrackpore, North Barrackpur, New Barrackpur, Titagarh, Khardaha, Panihati, Kamarhati, Baranagar, Dum Dum, North Dumdum and South Dumdum) and two community development blocks: Barrackpore–I and Barrackpore–II. Barasat Sadar subdivision consists of six municipalities (Barasat, Habra, Rajarhat Gopalpur, Ashoknagar Kalyangarh, Madhyamgram and Gobardanga) and seven community development blocks: Barasat–I, Barasat–II, Amdanga, Deganga, Habra–I, Habra–II and Rajarhat. Bangaon subdivision consists of Bangaon municipality and three community development blocks: Bagda, Bangaon and Gaighata. Basirhat subdivision consists of three municipalities (Basirhat, Baduria and Taki) and ten community development blocks: Baduria, Basirhat–I, Basirhat–II, Haroa, Hasnabad, Hingalganj, Minakhan, Sandeshkhali–I and Sandeshkhali–II and Swarupnagar. Bidhannagar subdivision consists of only Bidhannagar municipality.[5] Barasat is the district headquarters. There are 35 police stations, 22 development blocks, 27 municipalities, 200 gram panchayats and 1599 villages in this district.[5][6]

Other than municipality area, each subdivision contains community development blocks which in turn are divided into rural areas and census towns. In total there are 48 urban units: 27 municipalities and 20 census towns and 1 cantonment board.[6][7]

Barrackpore subdivisionEdit

Barasat Sadar subdivisionEdit

Bangaon subdivisionEdit

Basirhat subdivisionEdit

Bidhannagar subdivisionEdit

This subdivision consists of urban areas only,[5] viz. Bidhannagar municipality.

Assembly constituenciesEdit

The district is divided into 28 assembly constituencies:[9]

  1. Bagadaha (SC) (assembly constituency no. 84),
  2. Bangaon (assembly constituency no. 85),
  3. Gaighata (assembly constituency no. 86),
  4. Habra (assembly constituency no. 100),
  5. Ashoknagar (assembly constituency no. 101),
  6. Amdanga (assembly constituency no. 89),
  7. Barasat (assembly constituency no. 90),
  8. Rajarhat (SC) (assembly constituency no. 91),
  9. Deganga (assembly constituency no. 92),
  10. Swarupnagar (assembly constituency no. 93),
  11. Baduria (assembly constituency no. 94),
  12. Basirhat (assembly constituency no. 95),
  13. Hasnabad (assembly constituency no. 96),
  14. Haroa (SC) (assembly constituency no. 97),
  15. Sandeshkhali (SC) (assembly constituency no. 98),
  16. Hingalganj (SC) (assembly constituency no. 99),
  17. Bijpur (assembly constituency no. 128),
  18. Naihati (assembly constituency no. 129),
  19. Bhatpara (assembly constituency no. 130),
  20. Jagatdal (assembly constituency no. 131),
  21. Noapara (assembly constituency no. 132),
  22. Titagarh (assembly constituency no. 133),
  23. Khardaha (assembly constituency no. 134),
  24. Panihati (assembly constituency no. 135),
  25. Kamarhati (assembly constituency no. 136),
  26. Baranagar (assembly constituency no. 137),
  27. Dum Dum (assembly constituency no. 138) and
  28. Belgachia East (assembly constituency no. 139).

Bagdaha, Rajarhat, Haroa, Sandeshkhali and Hingalganj constituencies are reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates. Bagdaha, Bangaon, Gaighata, Habra, Ashoknagar, Barasat and Deganga assembly constituencies form the Barasat (Lok Sabha constituency). Amdanga, Bijpur, Naihati, Bhatpara, Jagatdal, Titagarh and Noapara assembly constituencies form the Barrackpore (Lok Sabha constituency). Rajarhat, Khardah, Panihati, Kamarhati, Baranagar, Dum Dum and Belgachia East assembly constituencies form the Dum Dum (Lok Sabha constituency). Swarupnagar, Baduria, Basirhat, Hasnabad, Haroa and Hingalganj constituencies are part of the Basirhat (Lok Sabha constituency), which also contains one assembly segment from South 24 Parganas district. Along with six assembly constituencies from South 24 Parganas district, Sandeshkhali assembly constituency forms the Joynagar (Lok Sabha constituency), which is reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC).

Impact of delimitation of constituenciesEdit

As per order of the Delimitation Commission in respect of the delimitation of constituencies in the West Bengal, the district will be divided into 33 assembly constituencies:[10]

  1. Bagda (SC) (assembly constituency no. 94),
  2. Bangaon Uttar (SC) (assembly constituency no. 95),
  3. Bangaon Dakshin (SC) (assembly constituency no. 96),
  4. Gaighata (SC) (assembly constituency no. 97),
  5. Swarupnagar (SC) (assembly constituency no. 98),
  6. Baduria (assembly constituency no. 99),
  7. Habra (assembly constituency no. 100),
  8. Ashoknagar (assembly constituency no. 101),
  9. Amdanga (assembly constituency no. 102),
  10. Bijpur (assembly constituency no. 103),
  11. Naihati (assembly constituency no. 104),
  12. Bhatpara (assembly constituency no. 105),
  13. Jagatdal (assembly constituency no. 106),
  14. Noapara (assembly constituency no. 107),
  15. Barrackpur (assembly constituency no. 108),
  16. Khardaha (assembly constituency no. 109),
  17. Dum Dum Uttar (assembly constituency no. 110),
  18. Panihati (assembly constituency no. 111),
  19. Kamarhati (assembly constituency no. 112),
  20. Baranagar (assembly constituency no. 113),
  21. Dum Dum (assembly constituency no. 114),
  22. Rajarhat New Town (assembly constituency no. 115),
  23. Bidhannagar (assembly constituency no. 116),
  24. Rajarhat Gopalpur (assembly constituency no. 117),
  25. Madhyamgram (assembly constituency no. 118),
  26. Barasat (assembly constituency no. 119),
  27. Deganga (assembly constituency no. 120),
  28. Haroa (assembly constituency no. 121),
  29. Minakhan (SC) (assembly constituency no. 122),
  30. Sandeshkhali (ST) (assembly constituency no. 123),
  31. Basirhat Dakshin (assembly constituency no. 124),
  32. Basirhat Uttar (assembly constituency no. 125) and
  33. Hingalganj (SC) (assembly constituency no. 126).

Sandeshkhali constituency will be reserved for Scheduled Tribes (ST) candidates. Bagdaha, Bangaon North, Bangaon South, Gaighata, Swarupnagar, Minakhan and Hingalganj constituencies will be reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates. Along with two assembly constituencies of Nadia district, Bagda, Bangaon North, Bangaon South, Gaighata and Swarupnagar assembly constituencies will form the Bangaon (Lok Sabha constituency), which will be reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates. Amdanga, Bijpur, Naihati, Bhatpara, Jagatdal, Noapara and Barrackpur assembly constituencies will form the Barrackpur (Lok Sabha constituency). Khardah, North Dumdum, Panihati, Kamarhati, Baranagar, Dum Dum and Rajarhat Gopalpur assembly constituencies will form the Dum Dum (Lok Sabha constituency). Habra, Ashoknagar, Rajarhat New Town, Bidhannagr, Madhyamgram, Barasat and Deganga assembly constituencies will form the Barasat (Lok Sabha constituency). Baduria, Haroa, Minakhan, Sandeshkhali, Basirhat South, Basirhat North, and Hingalganj constituencies will form the Basirhat (Lok Sabha constituency).

TransportEdit

Bus TerminiEdit

Baduria, Baguihati, Bangaon, Bangur Avenue, Chinar Park, Bara Jaguli, Barasat, Duttapukur, Barrackpur, Berachampa, Basirhat, Clive House, Dum Dum Airport, Dum Dum Cantonment Railway Station, Dum Dum Park, Dum Dum Railway Station, Ghola, Gouripur, Habra, Hakimpur, Haroa , Hasnabad, Hatiara, Itindaghat, Kachrapara, Kalindi, Kharibari, LakeTown, Madhyamgram, Nagerbazar, Parthapur, Patharghata, Rahara, Sangrampur, Thakdari

Auto-rickshaw standsEdit

Barasat, Baguihati, Chinar Park, Birati, Nager Bazer, Gorabazer, Airport no 1 Gate, Dum Dum Station, Satgachi More, Jessore Road Lake Town, Durganagar, Duttapukur, Shyamnagar Station, Naihati, Habra station more, Habra so pump. Itinda- Basirhat Court- College. Boyerghata- Tentulia,Habra-Bodor,Habra-Ashokenagar,Habra-Guma,Habra-Kumra,Habra-Machhlandpur

DemographicsEdit

According to the 2011 census North 24 Parganas district has a population of 10,082,852,[11][12] roughly equal to the nation of Bolivia[13] or the US state of Michigan.[14] This gives it a ranking of 2nd in India (out of a total of 640) and 1st in its state.[11] The district has a population density of 2,463 inhabitants per square kilometre (6,380 /sq mi) .[11] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 12.86 %.[11] North Twenty Four Parganas has a sex ratio of 949 females for every 1000 males,[11] and a literacy rate of 84.95 %.[11]


2001:

  • Population Density: 2959 per square km
  • Sex ratio: 982 females per 1000 males
  • Decadal Growth Rate 1991-200 : 24.64
  • Literacy rate (excluding 0-6 age group), in percentage: 87.66 (highest in West Bengal).[15]
    • Male:93.14; Female:81.81

Hindus - 75.23%, Muslims - 24.22 % , Christians-0.23% and Sikhs - 0.12 %(Source: Census Report of 2001, Government Of India). Hindu refugees from Bangladesh form 42 % of the total population.

Flora and faunaEdit

In 1984 North 24 Parganas district became home to Sundarbans National Park, which has an area of 1,330 km2 (513.5 sq mi).[16] It shares the park with South 24 Parganas district. It is also home to the Bibhutibhusan Wildlife Sanctuary, which was established in 1985 and has an area of 0.6 km2 (0.2 sq mi).[16]

EducationEdit

  • Primary school 3799
  • Middle school 26163
  • High school 204560
  • Higher Secondary school 153
  • Degree college 237
  • Technical schools & colleges 16
  • University 1

Health facilitiesEdit

  • District Hospital 10 with 2500 beds (wrong information)
  • Sub Divisional Hospital 14 with 1870 beds
  • state General Hospital 18 with 1870 beds
  • ESI Hospital 01 with 200 beds
  • Rural Hospital k 07 with 228 beds
  • Block Primary Health Centre 15


ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/prov_data_products_wb.html
  2. ^ a b "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. http://www.census2011.co.in/district.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  3. ^ Muazzam Hussain Khan (Banglapedia)
  4. ^ McCabe, Joseph (1920) "Holwell, John Zephaniah" A biographical dictionary of modern rationalists Watts & Co., London, pp. 356-357, p. 357 OCLC 262462698
  5. ^ a b c "Directory of District, Sub division, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal, March 2008". West Bengal. National Informatics Centre, India. 2008-03-19. http://wbdemo5.nic.in/writereaddata/Directoryof_District_Block_GPs(RevisedMarch-2008).doc. Retrieved 2008-12-01. 
  6. ^ a b "District at a glance". Official website of the North 24 Parganas district. Archived from the original on 2008-06-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20080602171559/http://north24parganas.gov.in/glance.html. Retrieved 2008-12-01. 
  7. ^ "Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Density and General Sex Ratio by Residence and Sex, West Bengal/ District/ Sub District, 1991 and 2001". West Bengal. Directorate of census operations. http://web.cmc.net.in/wbcensus/DataTables/02/Table5_11.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-01. 
  8. ^ "Page on Barrackpore subdivision". Official website of North 24 Parganas district. http://north24parganas.gov.in/barrackpore.html. Retrieved 2008-12-01. 
  9. ^ "General election to the Legislative Assembly, 2001 – List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies". West Bengal. Election Commission of India. http://archive.eci.gov.in/se2001/background/S25/WB_ACPC.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
  10. ^ "Press Note, Delimitation Commission". Assembly Constituencies in West Bengal. Delimitation Commission. http://www.wbgov.com/e-gov/English/DELIMITATION.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. http://www.census2011.co.in/district.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  12. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/Population-explosion-across-Thane-district-worries-officials/articleshow/7839700.cms
  13. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html. Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Bolivia 10,118,683 July 2011 est." 
  14. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Michigan 9,883,640" 
  15. ^ http://updateox.com/west-bengal/district-wise-literacy-rate-in-west-bengal-2001-2011-census/
  16. ^ a b Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: West Bengal". http://oldwww.wii.gov.in/envis/envis_pa_network/index.htm. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 

External linksEdit

Template:North 24 Parganas topics


Coordinates: 22°08′N 88°30′E / 22.13, 88.5


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at North 24 Parganas district. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

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