is the 287th day of the year (288th in October 13 leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 78 days remaining until the end of the year.
409 - Vandals and Alans crossed the Pyrenees and appeared in Hispania.
1282 - Nichiren Daishonin, founder of the Nichiren School of Buddhism, dies. His ashes are interred at Taisekiji Temple.
1307 - Hundreds of Knights Templar in France are simultaneously arrested by agents of Phillip the Fair, to be later tortured into " admitting" heresy.
1492 - Columbus and his crew land in the Bahamas
1582 - Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.
1773 - The Whirlpool Galaxy was discovered by Charles Messier
1775 - The United States Continental Congress orders the establishment of the Continental Navy (later renamed the United States Navy).
1792 - In Washington, the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion (known as the White House since 1818) is laid.
1812 - War of 1812: Battle of Queenston Heights - As part of the Niagara campaign in Ontario, United States forces under General Stephen Van Rensselaer are repulsed from invading Canada by British and native troops led by Sir Isaac Brock.
1843 - In New York City, Henry Jones and 11 others found B'nai B'rith (the oldest Jewish service organization in the world).
1845 - A majority of voters in the Republic of Texas approve a proposed constitution, that if accepted by the U.S. Congress, will make Texas a U.S. state.
1870 - The Kappa Kappa Gamma fraternity is founded at Monmouth College in Monmouth, by six pioneering women.
1881 - Revival of the Hebrew language as Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends agree to use Hebrew exclusively in their conversations.
1885 - The Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) is founded in Atlanta.
1884 - Greenwich established as universal time meridian of longitude.
1890 - The Delta Chi fraternity is founded by 11 law students at Cornell University in Ithaca.
1892 - Edward Emerson Barnard discovers D/1892 T1 (Barnard 3), the first comet discovered by photographic means, on the night of October 13-14.
1917 - The "Miracle of the Sun" is witnessed by an estimated 70,000 people in the Cova da Iria in Fátima.
1918 - Mehmed Talat Pasha and the Young Turk (C.U.P.) ministry resign and sign an armistice, ending Ottoman participation in World War I.
1923 - Ankara replaces Istanbul as the capital of Turkey.
1943 - World War II: The new government of Italy sides with the Allies and declares war on Germany.
1944 - World War II: Riga, the capital of Latvia is seized by the Red Army.
1946 - France adopts the constitution of the Fourth Republic.
1958 - Burial of Eugenio Pacelli, Pope Pius XII on the 41st anniversary of the "Miracle of the Sun".
1960 - 1960 World Series: Pittsburgh Pirates second baseman Bill Mazeroski becomes the first person to end a World Series with a home run, as the Pirates beat the New York Yankees, four games to three.
1967 - The first game in the history of the American Basketball Association is played as the Anaheim Amigos lose to the Oakland Oaks 134-129 in Oakland.
1971 - 1971 World Series: The first night game in World Series history is played at Pittsburgh's Three Rivers Stadium between the Baltimore Orioles and Pittsburgh Pirates.
1972 - An Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-62 crashed outside Moscow killing 176.
1972 - Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 crashes in the Andes mountains, in between the borders of Argentina and Chile. By December 23, 1972 only 16 out of 45 people lived long enough to be rescued.
1976 - A Bolivian Boeing 707 cargo jet crashes in Santa Cruz killing 100 (97, mostly children, killed on the ground).
1976 - The first electron micrograph of an Ebola viral particle was obtained by Dr. F.A. Murphy, now at U.C. Davis, who was then working at the C.D.C..
1977 - Four Palestinians hijack to Lufthansa Flight 181 Somalia and demand release of 11 members of the Red Army Faction.
1983 - Ameritech Mobile Communications (now Cingular) launched the first US cellular network in Chicago.
1990 - End of the Lebanese war. Syrian forces launch an attack on the free areas of Lebanon removing General Michel Aoun from the presidential palace.
1993 - Captured American Pilot Mike Durant is filmed in an interview in captivity by a CNN camera crew.
1999 - The United States Senate rejects ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).
2003 - The Public Library of Science commences publication of an open access scientific journal, PLoS Biology.
1162 - Leonora of England, Queen of Castile (d. 1214)
1474 - Mariotto Albertinelli, Italian painter (d. 1515)
1566 - Richard Boyle, Irish politician (d. 1643)
1613 - Luisa of Medina-Sidonia, queen of Portugal (d. 1666)
1696 - John Hervey, English statesman and writer (d. 1743)
1713 - Allan Ramsay, Scottish painter (d. 1784)
1714 - Pieter Burmann the Younger, Dutch philologist (d. 1778)
1768 - Jacques Félix Emmanuel Hamelin, French explorer (d. 1839)
1820 - John William Dawson, Canadian geologist (d. 1899)
1821 - Rudolf Virchow, German physician, pathologist, biologist, and politician (d. 1902)
1853 - Lillie Langtry, British actress (d. 1929)
1862 - Mary Kingsley, English writer and explorer (d. 1900)
1876 - Rube Waddell, American baseball player (d. 1914)
1878 - Patrick Joseph Hartigan, Australian Roman Catholic priest (d. 1952)
1880 - Sasha Cherny, Russian poet (d. 1932)
1887 - Jozef Tiso, Slovak politician (d. 1947)
1890 - Conrad Richter, American novelist and short story writer (d. 1968)
1900 - Gerald Marks, American songwriter ( All of Me) (d. 1997)
1902 - Arna Wendell Bontemps, American writer (d. 1973)
1907 - Yves Allégret, French film director (d. 1987)
1909 - Art Tatum, American jazz pianist (d. 1956)
1909 - Herbert Block, American cartoonist (d. 2001)
1911 - Ashok Kumar, Indian actor (d. 2001)
1915 - Terry Frost, English artist (d. 2003)
1915 - Cornel Wilde, American actor (d. 1989)
1917 - Laraine Day, American actor
1917 - George Virl Osmond, Osmond family patriarch (d. 2007)
1917 - Burr Tillstrom, American puppeteer (d. 1985)
1918 - Robert Hudson Walker, American actor (d. 1951)
1920 - Laraine Day, American actress (d. 2007)
1921 - Yves Montand, Italian-born singer and actor (d. 1991)
1923 - Faas Wilkes, Dutch footballer (d. 2006)
1925 - Lenny Bruce, American comedian (d. 1966)
1925 - Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1925 - Gustav Winckler, Danish singer (d. 1979)
1926 - Ray Brown, American jazz bassist (d. 2002)
1927 - Lee Konitz, American jazz saxophonist
1931 - Eddie Mathews, American baseball player (d. 2001)
1931 - Raymond Kopa, French footballer
1932 - Jack Colvin, American actor (d. 2005)
1933 - Raynald Frechette, Quebec politician and judge (d. 2007)
1933 - Queen Narriman, second and last wife of King Farouk and mother of their only child King Fuad (d. 2005)
1934 - Nana Mouskouri, Greek singer and politician
1937 - Sami Frey, French actor
1938 - Hugo Young, English journalist (d. 2003)
1939 - T. J. Cloutier, American poker player
1939 - Melinda Dillon, American actress
1940 - Pharoah Sanders, American saxophonist
1941 - Paul Simon, American singer and musician ( Simon and Garfunkel)
1942 - Jerry Jones, American football team owner
1942 - Pamela Tiffin, American film actress
1942 - Bob Bailey, American baseball player
1944 - Robert Lamm, American musician ( Chicago)
1945 - Christophe, French singer
1945 - Dési Bouterse, Surinam politician
1946 - Edwina Currie, British politician
1947 - Sammy Hagar, American singer ( Van Halen)
1947 - Jerry Trupiano, American sports broadcaster
1947 - Alan Wakeman, English saxophonist ( Soft Machine)
1948 - John Ford Coley, American musician
1948 - Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Pakistani musician and singer (d. 1997)
1948 - Ted Poe, American politician
1949 - Tom Mees, American sports broadcaster (d. 1996)
1949 - Patrick Nève, Belgian racing driver
1952 - John Lone, Hong Kong actor
1953 - Pat Day, American jockey
1954 - George Frazier, American baseball player
1954 - Claude Ribbe, French historian
1954 - Mordechai Vanunu, Israeli nuclear technician
1956 - Chris Carter, American television producer
1958 - Jair-Rohm Parker Wells, American musician and composer
1959 - Marie Osmond, American entertainer
1960 - Joey Belladonna, American musician ( Anthrax)
1960 - Tim Brewster, American football coach
1960 - Ari Fleischer, former White House press secretary
1961 - Doc Rivers, basketball player and coach
1962 - T'Keyah Crystal Keymáh, American actress
1962 - Kelly Preston, American actress
1962 - Jerry Rice, American football star
1963 - Colin Channer, Jamaican writer
1964 - Niè Hǎishèng, Chinese astronaut
1964 - Christopher Judge, American actor
1965 - Johan Museeuw, Belgian cyclist
1967 - Scott Cooper, American baseball player
1967 - Trevor Hoffman, American baseball player
1967 - Steve Vickers, English footballer
1967 - Kate Walsh, American actress
1968 - Tisha Campbell-Martin, American actress and singer
1968 - Carlos Marin, Spanish baritone ( Il Divo)
1969 - Rhett Akins, American country singer
1969 - Nancy Kerrigan, American figure skater
1969 - Cady McClain, American actress
1970 - Serena Altschul, American reporter
1970 - Mel Jackson, American actor and R&B musician
1971 - Sacha Baron Cohen, English comedian
1971 - Billy Bush, American TV host
1971 - Pyrros Dimas, Greek weightlifter
1972 - Summer Sanders, American swimmer
1973 - Brian Dawkins, American football player
1973 - Matt Hughes, American mixed martial artist
1973 - Nanako Matsushima, Japanese actress
1974 - Hawick Lau, Chinese actor and singer
1974 - Joseph Utsler, American rapper ( Insane Clown Posse)
1975 - Tom Anderson, American entrepreneur
1975 - David Kennedy, American musician ( Box Car Racer, Angels & Airwaves)
1977 - Gareth Batty, English cricketer
1977 - Paul Pierce, American basketball player
1977 - Kiele Sanchez, American actress
1978 - Jermaine O'Neal, American basketball player
1979 - Wes Brown, English footballer
1980 - Ashanti, American singer
1980 - Magne Hoseth, Norwegian footballer
1980 - Scott Parker, English footballer
1980 - Jon Micah Sumrall, American singer ( Kutless)
1981 - Ryan Ashford, English footballer
1981 - Kele Okereke, lead singer of Bloc Party
1982 - Ian Thorpe, Australian swimmer
54 - Claudius, Roman Emperor (b. 10 BC)
1093 - Robert I
1282 - Nichiren Japanese founder of Nichiren Buddhism (b. 1222)
1415 - Thomas FitzAlan, English military leader (b. 1381)
1508 - Edmund de Ros, English politician (b. 1446)
1605 - Theodore Beza, French theologian (b. 1519)
1673 - Kristoffer Gabel, Danish statesman (b. 1617)
1687 - Geminiano Montanari, Italian astronomer (b. 1633)
1694 - Samuel von Pufendorf, German jurist (b. 1632)
1706 - Iyasus the Great, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1682)
1715 - Nicolas Malebranche, French philosopher (b. 1638)
1759 - John Henley, English minister (b. 1692)
1788 - Robert Nugent, Irish politician and poet (b. 1702)
1812 - Sir Isaac Brock, British general (killed in battle) (b. 1769)
1815 - Joachim Murat, French marshal and King of Naples (executed) (b. 1767)
1825 - King Maximilian I of Bavaria (b. 1756)
1869 - Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, French literary critic (b. 1804)
1882 - Arthur de Gobineau, French philosopher (b. 1816)
1890 - Samuel Freeman Miller, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (b. 1816)
1904 - Pavlos Melas, Greek officer who organized and participated in the Greek Struggle for Macedonia (b. 1870)
1905 - Sir Henry Irving, the first British actor to be knighted (b. 1838)
1909 - Francisco Ferrer Guardia, Spanish free-thinker (b. 1849)
1917 - Florence La Badie, American actress
1919 - Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Danish writer, Nobel laureate (b. 1857)
1926 - Hans E. Kinck, Norwegian author and philologist (b. 1865)
1931 - Ernst Didring, Swedish author (b. 1868)
1938 - E.C. Segar, American cartoonist ( Popeye) (b. 1894)
1945 - Milton S. Hershey, American chocolate tycoon (b. 1857)
1950 - Ernest Haycox, American writer (b. 1899)
1955 - Manuel Ávila Camacho, President of Mexico (b. 1897)
1966 - Clifton Webb, American actor (b. 1889)
1968 - Bea Benaderet, American actress (b. 1906)
1971 - Stafford Smythe, Canadian NHL executive (b. 1921)
1974 - Ed Sullivan, American television personality (b. 1901)
1979 - Rebecca Helferich Clarke, English composer and violist (b. 1886)
1987 - Walter Brattain, American physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1902)
1987 - Kishore Kumar, Indian Singer (b. 1929)
1988 - Mike Venezia, jockey (b. 1945)
1990 - Lê Ðức Thọ, Vietnamese general and politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1911)
2000 - Jean Peters, American actress (b. 1926)
2001 - Peter Doyle, Australian pop singer ( The New Seekers) (b. 1949)
2002 - Stephen Ambrose, American historian and biographer (b. 1936)
2003 - Bertram Brockhouse, Canadian physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1918)
2005 - Vivian Malone Jones, American civil rights activist (b. 1942)
2006 - Wang Guangmei, Chinese first lady (b. 1921)
2007 - Bob Denard, French mercenary (b. 1929)
Holidays and observances Edit
External links Edit
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