is the 288th day of the year (289th in October 15 leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 77 days remaining until the end of the year.
533 - Byzantine general Belisarius makes his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Vandals.
1552 - Khanate of Kazan is conquered by troops of Ivan Grozny.
1582 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.
1764 - Edward Gibbon observes a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspires him to begin work on
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 1815 - Napoleon I of France begins his exile on Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.
1863 - American Civil War: The CSS , the first H. L. Hunley submarine to sink a ship, sinks during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.
1878 - The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation.
1880 - Mexican soldiers kill Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.
1888 - The "From Hell" letter sent by Jack the Ripper is received by the investigators.
1894 - Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for spying - Dreyfus affair begins.
1904 - The Russian Baltic Fleet leaves Reval, Estonia for Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War.
1917 - World War I: At Vincennes outside of Paris, Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for Germany.
1928 - The airship, the Graf Zeppelin completed its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, USA.
1932 - Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight.
1934 - The Soviet Republic of China collapses when Chiang Kai-shek's National Revolutionary Army successfully encircle Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.
1939 - The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed La Guardia Airport) is dedicated.
1940 - " The Great Dictator", a satiric social commentary film by and starring Charlie Chaplin, is released.
1944 - The Arrow Cross Party (very similar to Hitler's NSDAP (Nazi party)) takes over the power in Hungary.
1945 - World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval is shot by a firing squad for treason.
1946 - Nuremberg Trials: Hermann Göring poisons himself the night before his execution.
1951 - Television sitcom premieres.
I Love Lucy 1951 - Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes synthesized the first oral contraceptive
1953 - British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.
1965 - Vietnam War: The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam stages the first public burning of a draft card in the United States to result in arrest under a new law.
1969 - Vietnam War: Hundreds of thousands of people take part in National Moratorium antiwar demonstrations across the United States.
1970 - Thirty-five construction workers are killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne collapses.
1970 - Anwar Sadat becomes president of Egypt
1971 - The start of the 2500-year celebration of Iran, celebrating the birth of Persia.
1981 - Professional cheerleader Krazy George Henderson leads what is thought to be the first audience wave in Oakland.
1987 - The Great Storm of 1987 hits France and England.
1989 - Wayne Gretzky becomes the all-time leading points scorer in the NHL.
1990 - Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.
1992 - In Russia, Andrei Chikatilo is found guilty of 53 serial murders.
1997 - The first supersonic land speed record is set by Andy Green in ( ThrustSSC United Kingdom).
1997 - The Cassini probe launches from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.
2001 - NASA's Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter's moon Io.
2003 - China launches Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.
2003 - The Staten Island Ferry boat Andrew J. Barberi collides with a pier at the St. George Ferry Terminal in Staten Island, killing 11 people and injuring 43.
2005 - Iraqi constitution ratification vote
2005 - Riot in Toledo breaks out during a National Socialist/Neo-Nazi protest; over 100 are arrested.
2007 - Sir Menzies Campbell resigns effective immediately as Leader of the Liberal Democrats in the United Kingdom.
70 BC - Virgil, Roman poet (d. 19 BC)
1471 - Konrad Mutian, German humanist (d. 1526)
1542 - Akbar, Jellaladin Mahommed, Mughal Emperor (d. 1605)
1608 - Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist (d. 1647)
1686 - Allan Ramsay, Scottish poet (d. 1758)
1701 - Marie-Marguerite d'Youville, first native Canadian canonized (d. 1771)
1711 - Elisabeth Teresa of Lorraine, queen of Sardinia (d. 1741)
1784 - Thomas Robert Bugeaud, Marshal of France and duke of Isly (d. 1849)
1814 - Mikhail Lermontov, Russian author (d. 1841)
1825 - Queen Marie of Prussia (d. 1889)
1829 - Asaph Hall, American astronomer (d. 1907)
1836 - James Tissot, French artist (d. 1902)
1840 - Honoré Mercier, politician and premier of Quebec (d. 1894)
1844 - Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher (d. 1900)
1858 - John L. Sullivan, American boxer (d. 1918)
1872 - Wilhelm Miklas, Austrian president (d. 1956)
1874 - Prince Alfred of Edinburgh (d. 1899)
1878 - Paul Reynaud, French politician (d. 1966)
1879 - Jane Darwell, Academy Award-winning American actress (d. 1967)
1881 - P. G. Wodehouse, British novelist (d. 1975)
1882 - Charley O'Leary, American baseball player (d. 1941)
1884 - Arch Hoxsey, pioneer aviator (d. 1910)
1893 - King Carol II of Romania (d. 1953)
1894 - Moshe Sharett, second Prime Minister of Israel (d. 1965)
1898 - Boughera El Ouafi, Algerian athlete (d. 1951)
1900 - Mervyn LeRoy, American film director (d. 1987)
1905 - C. P. Snow, British writer (d. 1980)
1906 - Hiram Leong Fong, American politician (d. 2004)
1907 - Varian Fry, American journalist (d. 1967)
1908 - John Kenneth Galbraith, Canadian economist (d. 2006)
1909 - Robert Trout, American reporter (d. 2000)
1909 - Jesse Leonard Greenstein, American astronomer (d. 2002)
1915 - Yitzhak Shamir, Israeli politician
1917 - Jan Miner, American actress (d. 2004)
1917 - Arthur Schlesinger Jr., American historian and political commentator (d. 2007)
1920 - Mario Puzo, American novelist (d. 1999)
1920 - Henri Verneuil, French film director (d. 2002)
1922 - Agustina Bessa-Luís, Portuguese writer
1923 - Italo Calvino. Italian writer (d. 1985)
1924 - Lee Iacocca, American industrialist
1924 - Mark Lenard, American actor (d. 1996)
1924 - Marguerite Andersen, German writer
1925 - Mickey Baker, American guitarist ( Mickey & Sylvia)
1926 - Michel Foucault, French philosopher (d. 1984)
1926 - Evan Hunter, American author (d. 2005)
1926 - Jean Peters, American actress (d. 2000)
1926 - Karl Richter, German conductor (d. 1981)
1930 - Fereydun M. Esfandiary, Iranian philosopher (d. 2000)
1931 - Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, President of India
1934 - N. Ramani, Indian flutist
1935 - Bobby Joe Morrow, American sprinter
1935 - Barry McGuire, American singer
1938 - Fela Kuti, Nigerian musician (d. 1997)
1938 - Marv Johnson, American singer (d. 1993)
1940 - Tommy Bishop, English rugby league player
1940 - Peter Doherty, Australian immunologist, Nobel laureate
1942 - Penny Marshall, American actress
1944 - Sali Berisha, President of Albania
1944 - David Trimble, Irish politician, Nobel laureate
1944 - Haim Saban, Egyptian-born American media proprietor
1945 - Jere Burns, American actor
1945 - Jim Palmer, American baseball player
1946 - Richard Carpenter, American musician ( The Carpenters)
1948 - Chris de Burgh, Irish singer and songwriter
1953 - Tito Jackson, American musician
1953 - Larry Miller, American actor and comedian
1953 - Betsy Clifford, Canadian alpine skier
1954 - Peter Bakowski, Australian poet
1955 - Kulbir Bhaura, British field hockey player
1955 - Tanya Roberts, American actress
1957 - Mira Nair, Indian director
1957 - Stacy Peralta, American director
1959 - Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York
1959 - Emeril Lagasse, American chef
1959 - Todd Solondz, American film director
1961 - John Kenny, Irish sports broadcaster and journalist
1964 - Roberto Vittori, Italian astronaut
1966 - Jorge Campos, Mexican footballer
1968 - Jyrki 69, Finnish musician The 69 Eyes
1968 - Didier Deschamps, French football player
1969 - Vanessa Marcil, American actress
1969 - Dominic West, British actor
1969 - Vítor Baía, Portuguese footballer
1970 - Eric Benét, American singer
1971 - Andy Cole, British footballer
1971 - Jason Arhndt, American wrestler
1972 - Matt Keeslar, American actor
1972 - Sandra Kim, Belgian singer
1975 - Ginuwine, American singer
1975 - Glen Little, English footballer
1976 - Yoon Son-ha, South Korean actress and singer
1977 - Masato Kawabata, Japanese racing driver
1977 - Erin McKeown, American musician
1977 - David Trezeguet, French football player
1977 - Patricio Urrutia, Ecuadorian footballer
1978 - Devon Gummersall, American actor
1978 - Takeshi Morishima Japanese professional wrestler
1979 - Paul Robinson, English football player
1979 - Māris Verpakovskis, Latvian football player
1980 - Tom Boonen, Belgian cyclist
1980 - Siiri Nordin, Finnish singer ( Killer)
1981 - Keyshia Cole, African American R&B singer
1981 - Elena Dementieva, Russian tennis player
1981 - Guo Jingjing, Chinese diver
1981 - Radoslav Židek, Slovak snowboarder
1982 - Paulini Curuenavuli, Fijian singer
1982 - Charline Labonté, French Canadian ice hockey goaltender
1983 - Stephy Tang, Hong Kong singer and actress
1985 - Walter López, Uruguayan footballer
1985 - Marcos Martinez Ucha, Spanish racing driver
1986 - Lee Donghae, Korean singer (a member of super junior)
1987 - Jesse Levine, American tennis player
1992 - Vincent Martella, American actor
2005 - Prince Christian of Denmark
412 - Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria
898 - Lambert
912 - Abdullah ibn Muhammad, Emir of Córdoba
1002 - Otto-Henry (b. 946)
1080 - Rudolf of Rheinfeld, Duke of Swabia
1326 - Walter de Stapledon, English bishop (b. 1261)
1389 - Pope Urban VI
1564 - Vesalius, Flemish anatomist (b. 1514)
1715 - Humphry Ditton, English mathematician (b. 1675)
1730 - Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, French explorer (b. 1658)
1788 - Samuel Greig, Scottish-Russian admiral (b. 1735)
1810 - Alfred Moore, American judge (b. 1755)
1811 - Nathaniel Dance-Holland, English painter (b. 1735)
1817 - Tadeusz Kościuszko, Polish and Lithuanian national hero (b. 1746)
1819 - Sergey Vyazmitinov, Russian general and statesman (b. 1744)
1820 - Karl Philipp Fürst zu Schwarzenberg, Austrian field marshal (b. 1771)
1837 - Ivan Dmitriev, Russian statesman and poet (b. 1760)
1880 - Victorio, Apache leader
1891 - Gilbert Arthur a Beckett, English writer (b. 1837)
1900 - Zdeněk Fibich, Czech composer (b. 1850)
1910 - Stanley Ketchel, boxer (murdered) (b. 1886)
1917 - Mata Hari, Dutch dancer and spy (b. 1876)
1918 - Shirdi Sai Baba, Indian guru (b. circa 1838)
1930 - Herbert Henry Dow, American chemical industrialist (b. 1866)
1934 - Raymond Poincaré, French statesman (b. 1860)
1945 - Pierre Laval, Prime Minister of Vichy France (executed) (b. 1883)
1946 - Hermann Göring, German air force commander (suicide) (b. 1893)
1948 - Edythe Chapman, American actress (b. 1863)
1959 - Lipót Fejér, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1880)
1960 - Clara Kimball Young, American actress (b. 1890)
1963 - Horton Smith. American golfer (b. 1908)
1964 - Cole Porter, American composer (b. 1891)
1976 - Carlo Gambino, American gangster (b. 1902)
1980 - Mikhail Lavrentyev, Russian physicist and mathematician (b. 1900)
1980 - Apostolos Nikolaidis, Greek footballer and volleyball player (b. 1896)
1981 - Philip Fotheringham-Parker, British racing driver (b. 1907)
1987 - Thomas Sankara, African revolutionary and leader of Burkina Faso (assassinated) (b. 1949)
1988 - Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji, English composer and pianist (b. 1892)
1994 - Sarah Kofman, French philosopher (b. 1934)
1995 - Marco Campos, Brazilian racing driver (b. 1976)
2000 - Konrad Emil Bloch, German-born biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1912)
2001 - Zhang Xueliang, Chinese ruler of Manchuria (b. 1901)
2003 - Bertram N. Brockhouse, Canadian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1918)
2003 - Ben Metcalfe, Canadian environmental activist (b. 1919)
2005 - Jason Collier, American basketball player (b. 1977)
2005 - Matti Wuori, Finnish politician (b. 1945)
Holidays and observances Edit
External links Edit
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