is the 293rd day of the year (294th in October 19 leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 72 days remaining until the end of the year.
202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal.
439 - The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa.
1216 - King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.
1453 - The French recapture of Bordeaux brings the Hundred Years' War to a close, with the English retaining only Calais on French soil.
1466 - The Thirteen Years' War ends with the Second Treaty of Toruń. Gdansk Pomerania and Prussia as a whole are incorporated into Poland; the Teutonic Knights are allowed to rule its eastern part as Polish vassals.
1469 - Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella I of Castile, a marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country, Spain.
1512 - Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology ( Doctor in Biblia).
1781 - At Yorktown, Virginia, British commander Lord Cornwallis surrendered to a Franco- American force led by George Washington and the comte de Rochambeau, paving the way for the end of the American Revolutionary War.
1789 - Chief Justice John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States.
1812 - Napoleon I of France retreats from Moscow.
1813 - The Battle of Leipzig concludes, giving Napoleon Bonaparte one of his worst defeats.
1822 - In Parnaíba; Simplício Dias da Silva, João Cândido de Deus e Silva and Domingos Dias declare the independent state of Piauí.
1864 - Battle of Cedar Creek - Union Army under Philip Sheridan destroys Confederate Army under Jubal Early.
1864 - Confederate raiders launch an attack on Saint Albans from Canada.
1873 - Yale, Princeton, Columbia, and Rutgers universities draft the first code of American football rules.
1904 - Polytechnic University of the Philippines founded as Manila Business School through the superintendence of the American C.A. O'Reilley.
1912 - Italy takes possession of Tripoli, Libya from the Ottoman Empire.
1914 - The First Battle of Ypres begins.
1917 - Love Field in Dallas is opened.
1921 - Portuguese Prime Minister António Granjo and other politicians are murdered in a Lisbon coup.
1933 - Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.
1935 - The League of Nations places economic sanctions on fascist Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia.
1943 - Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
1944 - United States forces land in the Philippines.
1950 - The military of the People's Republic of China takes control of the town of Chamdo in eastern Tibet.
1954 - First ascent of Cho Oyu
1960 - The United States government places an embargo on Communist Cuba.
1969 - The first Prime Minister of Tunisia in twelve years, Bahi Ladgham, is appointed by President Habib Bourguiba.
1973 - President Richard Nixon rejects an Appeals Court demand to turn over the Watergate tapes.
1974 - Niue becomes self-govering colony of New Zealand
1976 - Battle of Aishiya in Lebanon. The same day, the Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes) is placed on the List of Endangered Species.
1983 - Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada, is overthrown and executed in a military coup d'état led by Bernard Coard.
1986 - Samora Machel, President of Mozambique and a prominent leader of FRELIMO, and 33 others died when their Tupolev 134 plane crashed into the Lebombo Mountains.
1987 - In retaliation for Iranian attacks on ships in the Persian Gulf, the U.S. Navy disables three of Iran's offshore oil platforms.
1987 - ( Black Monday) Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 22%, 508 points. This is considered a Stock Market Crash.
1989 - Guildford Four convictions are quashed by the Court of Appeal - they had spent 15 years in prison through a miscarriage of justice.
1991 - 7.0 Richter Scale earthquake in Northern Italy - 2000 dead
1998 - The Earth Liberation Front sets fire to the Vail Mountain ski resort in Vail, causing $12 million in damage.
2001 - SIEV-X, an Indonesian fishing boat en-route to Christmas Island, carrying over 400 asylum seekers, sank in international waters with the loss of 353 people.
2003 - Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II.
2004 - Myanmar prime minister Khin Nyunt is ousted and placed under house arrest by the Thai government on charges of corruption.
2004 - Care International aid worker Margaret Hassan is kidnapped in Iraq.
2005 - Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.
2005 - Hurricane Wilma becomes the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record with a minimum pressure of 882 mb.
2005 - The last Major League Baseball game is played at Busch Memorial Stadium.
2006 - The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the 12,000 mark for the first time.
2007 - Philippines. Amidst corruption controversies hounding the Arroyo administration, a bomb explosion rocked Glorietta 2, a shopping mall in Makati, which killed 11 and injured more than 100 people.
1276 - Prince Hisaaki, Japanese shogun (d. 1328)
1433 - Marsilio Ficino, Italian philosopher (d. 1499)
1562 - Archbishop George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1633)
1582 - Dmitry Ivanovich, Tsarevich (d. 1591)
1605 - Thomas Browne, English writer (d. 1682)
1610 - James Butler, English statesman and soldier (d. 1688)
1658 - Adolf Friedrich II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1704)
1680 - John Abernethy, Irish Protestant minister (d. 1740)
1688 - William Cheselden, English surgeon and anatomist (d. 1752)
1718 - Victor-François, Marshal of France (d. 1804)
1720 - John Woolman, American Quaker preacher and abolitionist (d. 1772)
1721 - Joseph de Guignes, French orientalist (d. 1800)
1784 - John McLoughlin, Canadian fur trader (d. 1857)
1810 - Cassius Marcellus Clay, American abolitionist (d. 1903)
1851 - Empress Myeongseong, Empress of Korea (d. 1895)
1858 - George Albert Boulenger, Belgian naturalist (d. 1937)
1862 - Auguste Lumière, French inventor (d. 1954)
1873 - Jaap Eden, Dutch skater and cyclist (d. 1925)
1873 - John Barton King, American cricketer (d. 1965)
1876 - Mordecai Brown, baseball player (d. 1945)
1882 - Umberto Boccioni, futurist painter (d. 1916)
1885 - Charles Merrill, American investment banker (d. 1956)
1895 - Lewis Mumford, American historian (d. 1990)
1895 - Frank Durbin Last U.S veteran of the Battle of Verdun (d. 1999)
1896 - Bob O'Farrell, baseball player (d. 1988)
1897 - Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Pakistani scientist and scholar (d. 1994)
1899 - Miguel Ángel Asturias, Guatemalan writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1974)
1900 - Bill Ponsford, Australian cricketer (d. 1991)
1900 - Roy Worters, Canadian ice hockey goaltender (d. 1957)
1900 - Erna Berger, German soprano (d. 1990)
1901 - Arleigh Burke, Naval commander (d. 1996)
1903 - Tor Johnson, Swedish wrestler and actor (d. 1971)
1907 - Roger Wolfe Kahn, American bandleader (d. 1962)
1908 - Geirr Tveitt, Norwegian composer (d. 1981)
1909 - Cozy Cole, American jazz drummer (d. 1981)
1909 - Marguerite Perey, French physicist (d. 1975)
1910 - Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Indian-born physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1995)
1910 - Paul Robert, French lexicographer and publisher (d. 1980)
1913 - Vinicius de Moraes, Brazilian poet and songwriter (d. 1980)
1916 - Jean Dausset, French immunologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1916 - Emil Gilels, Ukrainian pianist (d. 1985)
1920 - Pandurang Shastri Athavale, Indian philosopher (d. 2003)
1922 - Jack Anderson, American journalist (d. 2005)
1926 - Joel Feinberg, American moral philosopher (d. 2004)
1926 - Arne Bendiksen, Norwegian singer and songwriter
1931 - John le Carré, English novelist
1932 - Robert Reed, American actor (d. 1992)
1936 - Tony Lo Bianco, American actor
1937 - Peter Max, American artist
1937 - Marilyn Bell, Canadian long distance swimmer
1940 - Michael Gambon, Irish actor
1941 - Simon Ward, British actor
1942 - Andrew Vachss, American author and attorney
1943 - Robin Holloway, British composer
1943 - Takis Ikonomopoulos, Greek footballer
1944 - Peter Tosh, Jamaican musician, political activist (d. 1987)
1944 - George McCrae, American soul singer
1945 - Harris Glen Milstead, American actor and singer best known for his drag persona, Divine. (d. 1988)
1945 - Patricia Ireland, President of the NOW
1945 - John Lithgow, American actor
1945 - Jeannie C. Riley American country and gospel singer
1946 - Philip Pullman, English writer
1947 - Giorgio Cavazzano, comics artist and illustrator
1948 - Patrick Simmons, American musician ( The Doobie Brothers)
1949 - Jamie McGrigor, British politician
1951 - Demetrios Christodoulou, Greek mathematical physicist, recipient of the Bôcher Memorial Prize
1952 - Verónica Castro, Mexican actress and singer
1954 - Sam Allardyce, English football manager
1954 - Deborah Blum, American writer
1956 - Carlo Urbani, Italian physician (d. 1993)
1956 - Sunny Deol, Indian actor
1956 - Didier Theys, Belgian racing driver
1957 - Ray Richmond, entertainment/media columnist
1957 - Karl Wallinger, Welsh musician ( The Waterboys, World Party)
1958 - Tiriel Mora, Australian actor
1958 - Lou Briel, Puerto Rican singer, composer, actor & showman
1960 - Jonathan FeBland, English musician, writer and artist
1962 - Tracy Chevalier, American author
1962 - Evander Holyfield, American boxer
1963 - Prince Laurent of Belgium
1964 - Jorge Luis Gonzales, Cuban-born American boxer
1965 - Brad Daugherty, American basketball player
1965 - Ty Pennington, American television carpenter
1966 - Roger R. Cross, Jamaican-born actor
1966 - Jon Favreau, American actor, writer and director
1967 - Yoko Shimomura, Japanese composer
1969 - Trey Parker, American cartoonist, comedian, writer, and actor
1969 - Erwin Sánchez, Bolivian footballer
1970 - Chris Kattan, American comedian and actor
1972 - Keith Foulke, American baseball pitcher
1972 - Pras, American musician
1973 - Hicham Arazi, Moroccan tennis player
1973 - Joaquin Gage, Canadian ice hockey player
1976 - Joy Bryant, American actress
1976 - Omar Gooding, American actor
1976 - Desmond Harrington, American actor
1976 - Dan Smith, Canadian ice hockey player
1976 - Michael Young, baseball player
1977 - Louis-José Houde, Québec stand-up comic
1977 - Jason Reitman, Canadian filmmaker
1977 - Raúl Tamudo, Spanish footballer
1978 - Enrique Bernoldi, Brazilian Formula One driver
1978 - Zakhar Dubenskiy, Russian footballer
1979 - Brian Robertson, American trombonist ( Suburban Legends)
1979 - José Luis "Parejita" López, Mexican footballer
1980 - Benjamin Salisbury, American actor
1981 - Heikki Kovalainen, Finnish Formula One driver
1982 - Gonzalo Pineda, Mexican footballer
727 - Saint Frideswide
1187 - Pope Urban III
1216 - King John
1432 - John de Mowbray, English politician (b. 1392)
1587 - Francesco I de' Medici (b. 1541)
1608 - Martin Delrio, Flemish theologian and occultist (b. 1551)
1636 - Marcin Kazanowski, Polish politician
1682 - Thomas Browne, English writer (b. 1605)
1723 - Godfrey Kneller, German-born painter (b. 1646)
1745 - Jonathan Swift, Irish author (b. 1667)
1790 - Lyman Hall, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1724)
1813 - Józef Antoni Poniatowski, Polish prince and Marshal of France (friendly fire) (b. 1763)
1842 - Aleksey Koltsov, Russian poet (b. 1808)
1851 - Marie Thérèse Charlotte (b. 1778)
1856 - William Sprague III, American politician from Rhode Island (b. 1799)
1889 - King Louis of Portugal (b. 1838)
1897 - George Pullman, American inventor and industrialist (b. 1831)
1901 - Carl Frederik Tietgen, Danish financier and industrialist (b. 1829)
1918 - Harold Lockwood, American actor (b. 1887)
1936 - Lu Xun, Chinese writer (b. 1881)
1937 - Ernest Rutherford, New Zealand physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (b. 1871)
1943 - Camille Claudel, French sculptor (b. 1864)
1950 - Edna St. Vincent Millay, American poet (b. 1892)
1956 - Isham Jones, American musician (b. 1894)
1960 - George Wallace, Australian vaudevillian and film comedian (b. 1895)
1973 - Walt Kelly, American cartoonist (b. 1913)
1978 - Gig Young, American actor (b. 1913)
1983 - Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada (b. 1944)
1985 - Alfred Rouleau, French Canadian businessman (b. 1915)
1986 - Dele Giwa, Nigerian journalist
1986 - Samora Machel, President of Mozambique (b. 1933)
1987 - Jacqueline Du Pré, English cellist (b. 1945)
1987 - Hermann Lang, German race car driver (b. 1909)
1988 - Son House, American musician (b. 1902)
1994 - Martha Raye, American comedian and actress (b. 1916)
1995 - Don Cherry, American jazz trumpet player (b. 1936)
1997 - Glen Buxton, American guitarist (b. 1947)
1999 - Nathalie Sarraute, Russian-born French writer (b. 1900)
1999 - James C. Murray, American politician (b. 1917)
2003 - Alija Izetbegović, President of Bosnia-Herzegovina (b. 1925)
2003 - Margaret Murie, American conservationist (b. 1902)
2003 - Michael Hegstrand, American professional wrestler (b. 1957)
2004 - Kenneth E. Iverson, Canadian computer scientist (b. 1920)
2005 - Dallas Cook, American musician ( Suburban Legends) (b. 1982)
2005 - Corinne Lévesque, wife of Quebec premier René Lévesque (b. 1943)
2006 - James Glennon, American cinematographer (b. 1942)
2007 - LaLa Brown, American singer and protégé of Lyfe Jennings (b. 1986)
2007 - Dr. Randall Forsberg, American nuclear freeze advocate (b. 1943)
2007 - Michael Maidens, English footballer with Hartlepool United (b. 1987)
2007 - Jan Wolkers, Dutch writer (b. 1925)
Holidays and observances Edit
External links Edit
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