is the 297th day of the year (298th in October 23 leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 68 days remaining until the end of the year.
42 BC - Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi - Brutus's army is decisively defeated by Mark Antony and Octavian. Brutus commits suicide.
425 - Valentinian III is elevated as Roman Emperor, at the age of 6.
502 - The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic king Theodoric the Great, discharges Pope Symmachus of all charges, thus ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius.
1086 - At the Battle of az-Zallaqah, the army of Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeats the forces of Castilian King Alfonso VI.
1157 - The Battle of Grathe Heath ends the civil war in Denmark. King Sweyn III is killed and Valdemar I restores the country.
1641 - Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 - anniversary commemorated by Irish Protestants for over 200 years.
1642 - Battle of Edgehill: First major battle of the First English Civil War.
1694 - American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phipps, fail to seize Quebec.
1707 - The first Parliament of Great Britain, i.e., the United Kingdom, meets.
1739 - War of Jenkins' Ear starts: British Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, reluctantly declares war on Spain.
1812 - Claude François de Malet, a French general, begins a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon Bonaparte, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia and that he was now the commandant of Paris. De Malet is executed on October 29.
1813 - The Pacific Fur Company trading post in Astoria is turned over to the rival British North West Company (the fur trade in the Pacific Northwest was dominated for the next three decades by the United Kingdom).
1855 - Kansas Free State forces set up a competing government under their Topeka, constitution, which outlaws slavery in the United States territory.
1861 - U.S. President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in Washington, for all military-related cases.
1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Westport - Union forces under General Samuel R. Curtis defeat Confederate troops led by General Sterling Price at Westport, near Kansas City.
1867 - 72 Senators are summoned by Royal Proclamation to serve as the first members of the Canadian Senate.
1870 - Franco-Prussian War: the Siege of Metz concludes with a decisive Prussian victory.
1906 - Alberto Santos-Dumont flies an airplane in the first heavier-than-air flight in Europe at Champs de Bagatelle, Paris.
1911 - First use of aircraft in war: An Italian pilot takes off from Libya to observe Turkish army lines during the Turco-Italian War.
1912 - First Balkan War: The Battle of Kumanovo between the Serbian and Ottoman armies begins.
1915 - Woman's suffrage: In New York City, 25,000-33,000 women march on Fifth Avenue to advocate their right to vote.
1917 - Lenin calls for the October Revolution.
1929 - Great Depression: After a steady decline in stock market prices since a peak in September, the New York Stock Exchange begins to show signs of panic.
1929 - The first North American transcontinental air service begins between New York City and Los Angeles.
1930 - The first miniature golf tournament was completed in Chattanooga.
1935 - Dutch Schultz, Abe Landau, Otto Berman, and Bernard "Lulu" Rosencrantz are fatally shot at a saloon in Newark in what will become known as The Chophouse Massacre.
1941 - World War II: Field Marshal Georgy Zhukov takes command of Red Army operations designed to prevent the further advance into Russia of German forces and to prevent the German armies from capturing Moscow.
1941 - Burning of the Odessa, Ukraine, Jews: 19,000 Jews are burned alive at Dalnik in Odessa, by Romanian and German troops. The next day, another 10,000 Jews are killed. Romanian Lieutenant-Colonel Nicolae Deleanu administered the executions.
1942 - World War II: The Second Battle of El Alamein starts - At El Alamein in northern Egypt, the British Eighth Army under Field Marshal Montgomery begin a critical offensive to expel the Axis armies from Egypt, never to return.
1942 - All 12 passengers and crewmen aboard an American Airlines DC-3 airliner are killed when it is struck by a U.S. Army Air Forces bomber near Palm Springs. Among the victims is award-winning composer and songwriter Ralph Rainger (" Thanks for the Memory", " Love in Bloom", " Blue Hawaii").
1944 - World War II: The Battle of Leyte Gulf begins - The largest naval battle in history begins in the Philippines; and also, the Soviet Red Army enters Hungary.
1946 - The United Nations General Assembly convened for the first time, at an auditorium in Flushing, New York City.
1956 - Thousands of Hungarians protest against the goverment and Soviet occupation. (The Hungarian Revolution is crushed on November 4).
1958 - The Springhill Mine Bump - An underground earthquake traps 174 miners in the No. 2 colliery at Springhill, Nova Scotia, the deepest coal mine in North America at the time. By November 1, rescuers from around the world had dug out 100 of the victims, marking the death toll at 74.
1965 - Vietnam War: The 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), in conjunction with South Vietnamese forces, launch a new operation, seeking to destroy North Vietnamese forces in Pleiku in the II Corps Tactical Zone (the Central Highlands).
1973 - The Watergate Scandal: US President Richard M. Nixon agrees to turn over subpoenaed audio tapes of his Oval Office conversations about the scandal.
1973 - A United Nations sanctioned cease-fire officially ends the Yom Kippur War between Israel and Syria.
1983 - Lebanon Civil War: The U.S. Marines barracks in Beirut is hit by a truck bomb, killing 241 U.S. Marines. A French army barracks in Lebanon is also hit that same morning, killing 58 troops.
1989 - The Hungarian Republic is officially declared by president Mátyás Szűrös, replacing the communist Hungarian People's Republic.
1989 - The explosion and fire at Phillips 66 Company's Houston Chemical Complex in Pasadena killed 23 and injured 314 others. The main explosion registered between 3 and 4 of the Richter magnitude scale.
1992 - Emperor Akihito becomes the first Emperor of Japan to stand on Chinese soil.
1998 - Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat reach a " land for peace" agreement.
2001 - The Provisional Irish Republican Army of Northern Ireland commences disarmament after peace talks.
2002 - Moscow Theatre Siege begins: Chechen rebels seize the House of Culture theater in Moscow and take approximately 700 theater-goers hostage.
2004 - Brazil's " Operation Cajuana" launches its first rocket into space, the VSB-30, just 14 months after its space program was hit a deadly launch pad accident.
2004 - A powerful earthquake and its aftershocks hit Niigata prefecture, northern Japan, killing 35 people, injuring 2,200, and leaving 85,000 homeless or evacuated.
1503 - Isabella of Portugal, queen of Spain and empress of Germany (d. 1539)
1516 - Charlotte de Valois, princess of France (d. 1524)
1634 - Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, Queen of Sweden (d. 1716)
1698 - Ange-Jacques Gabriel, French architect (d. 1782)
1705 - Maximilian Ulysses Reichsgraf von Browne, Austrian field marshal (d. 1757)
1715 - Peter II of Russia (d. 1730)
1762 - Samuel Morey, American inventor (d. 1843)
1766 - Emmanuel, French marshal (d. 1847)
1771 - Jean-Andoche Junot, French general (d. 1813)
1790 - Chauncey Allen Goodrich, American clergyman (d. 1860)
1796 - Stefano Franscini, Swiss Federal Councilor (d. 1857)
1801 - Albert Lortzing, German composer (d. 1851)
1805 - John Russell Bartlett, American linguist (d. 1886)
1813 - Ludwig Leichhardt, German explorer (d. 1848)
1817 - Pierre Athanase Larousse, French lexicographer (d. 1875)
1835 - Adlai E. Stevenson, Vice President of the United States (d. 1914)
1844 - Sarah Bernhardt, French actress (d. 1923)
1844 - Robert Bridges, English poet (d. 1930)
1865 - Neltje Blanchan, American writer (d. 1918)
1869 - John Heisman, American football player and coach (d. 1936)
1870 - Bishop Francis Kelley, Catholic Bishop of Oklahoma (d. 1948)
1875 - Gilbert N. Lewis, American chemist (d. 1946)
1876 - Franz Schlegelberger, German judge and politician (d. 1970)
1880 - Una O'Connor, Irish actress (d. 1959)
1885 - Lawren Harris, Canadian painter (d. 1970)
1888 - Onésime Gagnon, Canadian politician (d. 1961)
1893 - Gummo Marx, American actor (d. 1977)
1894 - Rube Bressler, baseball player (d. 1966)
1896 - André Lévêque, French engineer (d. 1930)
1900 - Douglas Jardine, English cricketer (d. 1958)
1904 - Harvey Penick, American golfer (d. 1995)
1905 - Felix Bloch, Swiss physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1983)
1905 - Gertrude Ederle, American swimmer (d. 2003)
1908 - Ilya Frank, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1990)
1909 - Zellig Harris, American linguist (d. 1992)
1918 - James Daly, American actor (d. 1978)
1919 - Manolis Andronikos, Greek archeologist, professor at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (d. 1992)
1920 - Ted Fujita, Japanese meteorologist (d. 1998)
1922 - Coleen Gray, American actress
1923 - Aslam Farrukhi, Pakistani scholar and poet
1923 - Ned Rorem, American composer
1923 - Frank Sutton, American actor (d. 1974)
1925 - Johnny Carson, American television host (d. 2005)
1925 - Fred Shero, Canadian hockey player and coach (d. 1990)
1925 - Manos Hadjidakis, Greek composer (d. 1994)
1928 - Harold P. Warren, American movie director (d. 1985)
1927 - Leszek Kołakowski, Polish philosopher
1931 - Jim Bunning, American baseball player and politician
1931 - Diana Dors, British actress (d. 1984)
1935 - Chi Chi Rodriguez, Puerto Rican golfer
1936 - Philip Kaufman, American film director
1939 - Ellie Greenwich, American singer
1940 - Pelé, Brazilian footballer
1941 - Igor Smirnov, Moldovan politician
1941 - Greg Eagles, African-American voice actor
1942 - Michael Crichton, American writer
1942 - Anita Roddick, founder of The Body Shop (d. 2007)
1944 - Mike Harding, English singer and comedian
1945 - Kim Larsen, Danish singer
1946 - Graça Machel, wife of Nelson Mandela
1946 - Mel Martinez, American politician
1948 - Hermann Hauser, Austrian-born entrepreneur
1949 - Nick Tosches, American writer
1949 - Michael 'Wurzel' Burston, British musician, Former member of Motörhead
1951 - Charly Garcia, Argentine singer
1951 - Fatmir Sejdiu, President of Kosovo
1952 - Pierre Moerlen, French drummer and percussionist (d. 2005)
1954 - Ang Lee, Taiwanese-born director
1956 - Dwight Yoakam, American singer
1958 - Nancy Grace, American former prosecutor
1959 - Sam Raimi, American film director
1959 - "Weird Al" Yankovic, American musical parodist
1960 - Wayne Rainey, American motorcyclist
1961 - Laurie Halse Anderson, American writer
1961 - Don and Ron Harris, American professional wrestlers
1961 - Andoni Zubizarreta, Spanish footballer
1962 - Doug Flutie, American football player
1964 - Robert Trujillo, American bassist ( Metallica)
1965 - Al Leiter, American baseball player
1965 - Augusten Burroughs, American writer
1966 - Alex Zanardi, Italian race car driver
1967 - Dale Crover, American musician ( Melvins, The Men of Porn, Altamont)
1969 - Trudi Canavan, Australian writer
1970 - Jasmin St. Claire, West Indian actress
1971 - Christopher Horner, American cyclist
1974 - Sander Westerveld, Dutch footballer
1975 - Odalys Garcia, Cuban actress
1975 - Jessicka, American artist
1975 - Keith Van Horn, American basketball player
1976 - Ryan Reynolds, Canadian actor and comedian
1976 - Cat Deeley, English model and television personality
1978 - Steve Harmison, English cricketer
1978 - Jimmy Bullard, English footballer
1978 - Archie Thompson, Australian footballer
1979 - Jorge Solis, Mexican professional boxer
1979 - Simon Davies, Welsh footballer
1980 - Pedro Liriano, Dominican baseball player
1981 - Jeroen Bleekemolen, Dutch racing driver
1982 - Mirel Radoi, Romanian footballer
1982 - Valentin Badea, Romanian footballer
1983 - Josh Strickland, American entertainer
1983 - Filipos Darlas, Greek footballer
1984 - Izabel Goulart, Brazilian model
1985 - James Kotecki, American political blogger
1986 - Jake Robinson, English footballer
1987 - Faye Hamlin, Swedish singer ( Play)
1988 - Nicolaj Agger, Danish football player
1990 - Stevie Brock, American singer
1991 - Princess Mako of Akishino of Japan
42 BC - Marcus Junius Brutus, Roman senator (b. 85 BCE)
930 - Daigo, Emperor of Japan (b. 885)
1456 - Giovanni da Capistrano, Italian saint (b. 1386)
1550 - Tiedemann Giese, Polish Catholic bishop (b. 1480)
1581 - Michael Neander, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1529)
1616 - Leonhard Hutter, German theologian (b. 1563)
1688 - Charles du Fresne, French philologist (b. 1610)
1730 - Anne Oldfield, English actress (b. 1683)
1764 - Emmanuel-Auguste de Cahideuc, French naval officer (b. 1683)
1774 - Michel Benoist, French Jesuit missionary and scientist (b. 1715)
1869 - Edward Smith-Stanley, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1799)
1872 - Théophile Gautier, French writer (b. 1811)
1885 - Charles S. West, Texas jurist and politician (b. 1829)
1910 - Chulalongkorn, King of Thailand (b. 1853)
1915 - W. G. Grace, English cricketer (b. 1848)
1921 - John Boyd Dunlop, Scottish inventor (b. 1840)
1939 - Zane Grey, American author (b. 1872)
1942 - Ralph Rainger, American composer (b. 1901)
1944 - Charles Glover Barkla, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1877)
1950 - Al Jolson, American singer and actor (b. 1886)
1959 - Gerda Lundequist, Swedish actress (b. 1871)
1978 - Maybelle Carter, American guitarist and musical innovator (b. 1909)
1983 - Jessica Savitch, American journalist (b. 1947)
1984 - James Petrillo, leader of the U.S. musicians union (b. 1892)
1984 - Oskar Werner, Austrian actor (b. 1922)
1986 - Edward Adelbert Doisy, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1893)
1989 - Armida, Mexican-American stage, vaudeville and film actress (b. 1911)
1990 - Louis Althusser, French philosopher (b. 1918)
1996 - Bob Grim, baseball player (b. 1930)
1997 - Bert Haanstra, Dutch filmmaker (b. 1916)
1998 - Barnett Slepian, American physician (b. 1946)
2001 - Ronald William Kirby, British artist (b. 1928)
2002 - Adolph Green, American lyricist and playwright (b. 1915)
2003 - Tony Capstick, English actor, comedian, and musician (b. 1944)
2003 - Soong May-ling, wife of the President of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek (b. 1897)
2004 - Robert Merrill, American baritone (b. 1919)
2005 - Stella Obasanjo, Nigerian first lady (b. 1945)
2005 - William Hootkins, American actor (b. 1948)
2005 - John Muth, American economist (b. 1930)
2006 - Lebo Mathosa, South African entertainer (b. 1977)
2007 - John Ilhan, Australian entrepreneur, Crazy John's mobile phones (b. 1965)
2007 - Lim Goh Tong, Founder of Genting Group (b. 1918)
Holidays and observances Edit
External links Edit
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