is the 301st day of the year (302nd in October 27 leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 64 days remaining until the end of the year.
312 - Constantine the Great receives his famous Vision of the Cross.
710 - Saracen invasion of Sardinia.
939 - Edmund I succeeds Athelstan as King of England.
1275 - Traditional founding of the city of Amsterdam.
1524 - Italian Wars: The French troops lay siege to Pavia.
1553 - Condemned as a heretic, Michael Servetus is burned at the stake just outside Geneva.
1644 - Second Battle of Newbury in the English Civil War.
1682 - Philadelphia is founded.
1795 - The United States and Spain sign the Treaty of Madrid, which establishes the boundaries between Spanish colonies and the U.S.
1806 - The French Army enters in Berlin.
1807 - Occupation of Portugal by French-Spanish troops.
1810 - United States annexes the former Spanish colony of West Florida.
1838 - Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state or be exterminated.
1870 - Marshal François Achille Bazaine surrenders to Prussian forces at Metz along with 140,000 French soldiers in one of the biggest French defeats of the Franco-Prussian War.
1904 - The first underground New York City Subway line opens; the system becomes the biggest in United States, and one of the biggest in world.
1916 - Battle of Segale: Negus Mikael, marching on the Ethiopian capital in support of his son Emperor Iyasus V, is defeated by Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis, securing the throne for Empress Zauditu.
1922 - A referendum in Rhodesia rejects the country's annexation to the South African Union.
1924 - The Uzbek SSR is founded in the Soviet Union.
1936 - Mrs Wallis Simpson filed for divorce which would eventually allow her to marry King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, thus forcing his abdication from the throne.
1946 - First commercially-sponsored television program airs ( , sponsored by Geographically Speaking Bristol-Myers).
1948 - Léopold Sédar Senghor founds the Senegalese Democratic Bloc (BDS).
1949 - An airliner flying from Paris to New York crashes near the Azores. Among the victims are violinist Ginette Neveu and boxer Marcel Cerdan.
1953 - British nuclear test Totem 2 is detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.
1954 - Benjamin O. Davis Jr. becomes the first African-American general in the United States Air Force.
1958 - Iskander Mirza, the first President of Pakistan, is deposed in a bloodless coup d'état by General Ayub Khan, who was appointed the enforcer of martial law by Mirza 20 days earlier.
1961 - NASA launched the first Saturn I rocket in Mission Saturn-Apollo 1.
1962 - Major Rudolph Anderson of the United States Air Force became the only direct human casualty of the Cuban Missile Crisis when his U-2 reconnaissance airplane was shot down in Cuba by a Soviet-supplied SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile.
1962 - The plane of Enrico Mattei, Italian industry's most relevant figure, crashes in mysterious circumstances.
1964 - Ronald Reagan delivers a speech on behalf of Republican candidate for president, Barry Goldwater. The speech launched his political career and came to be known as " A Time for Choosing".
1970 - Louis Néel receives the Nobel Prize.
1971 - Democratic Republic of the Congo is renamed Zaire.
1973 - The Canon City meteorite, a 1.4 kg chondrite type meteorite strikes in Fremont County.
1981 - The Soviet submarine U 137 runs aground on the east coast of Sweden.
1986 - The United Kingdom government suddenly deregulates financial markets, leading to a total restructuring of the way in which they operate in the country, in an event now referred to as the Big Bang.
1990 - Supreme Soviet of Kirghiz SSR chooses Askar Akayev as republic's first president.
1991 - Turkmenistan achieved independence from the Soviet Union.
1991 - First free legislative elections in Poland since 1936.
1992 - United States Navy radioman Allen R. Schindler is brutally murdered by shipmates for being gay, precipitating first military, then national debate about gays in the military that resulted in the United States " Don't ask" military policy.
1995 - Latvia applies for membership in the European Union.
1995 - Former Italian Prime Minister Bettino Craxi is condemned for in absentia corruption.
1997 - October 27: Stock markets around the world crash because of fears of a global economic meltdown. The Dow Jones Industrial Average plummets 554.26 points to 7,161.15. For the first time, the New York Stock Exchange activated their "circuit breakers" twice during the day eventually making the controversial move of closing the Exchange early.
1998 - Gerhard Schröder becomes Chancellor of Germany for the first time.
2002 - Trades unionist Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva is elected as President of Brazil.
2002 - The ITV Network aired a constant regional service for the last time in England and Wales, but LWT lost its identity completely. All companies ( except ) formed the national UTV, Channel, Scottish TV & Grampian TV ITV1 with regional references only before regional programmes.
2005 - Riots begin in Paris after the deaths of two Muslim teenagers.
1156 - Count Raymond VI of Toulouse (d. 1222)
1401 - Catherine of Valois, queen of Henry V of England (d. 1437)
1466 - Erasmus, Dutch humanist and theologian (d. 1536)
1728 - James Cook, British naval captain and explorer (d. 1779)
1744 - Mary Moser, English painter (d. 1819)
1760 - August von Gneisenau, Prussian field marshal (d. 1831)
1782 - Niccolò Paganini, Italian violinist and composer (d. 1840)
1811 - Isaac Singer, American inventor (d. 1875)
1811 - Stevens Thomson Mason, first Governor of Michigan (d. 1843)
1842 - Giovanni Giolitti, Italian statesman (d. 1928)
1844 - Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Swedish writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1916)
1854 - Sir William Smith, Scottish founder of the Boys' Brigade (d. 1914)
1858 - Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1919)
1865 - Charles Spencelayh, English painter (d. 1958)
1873 - Emily Post, American etiquette author (d. 1960)
1877 - George Thompson, English cricketer (d. 1943)
1885 - Sigrid Hjertén, Swedish modernist painter (d. 1948)
1894 - Oliver Leese, British general (d. 1978)
1896 - Edith Brown, survivor of the (d. Titanic 1997)
1906 - Earle Cabell, American politician (d. 1975)
1910 - Jack Carson, Canadian actor (d. 1963)
1911 - Leif Erickson, American actor and singer (d. 1986)
1914 - Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet (d. 1953)
1915 - Harry Saltzman, American film producer (d. 1994)
1917 - Augustine Harris, British Bishop of Middlesbrough (d. 2007)
1917 - Oliver Tambo, South African freedom fighter (d. 1993)
1918 - Teresa Wright, American actress (d. 2005)
1920 - Nanette Fabray, American actress
1920 - K. R. Narayanan, 10th President of India
1921 - Warren Allen Smith, American encyclopedist
1922 - Poul Bundgaard, Danish actor and singer (d. 1998)
1922 - Ralph Kiner, American baseball player
1923 - Roy Lichtenstein, American artist (d. 1997)
1924 - Ruby Dee, American actress
1924 - Michel Galabru, French actor
1925 - Albert Medwin, American inventor
1925 - Warren Christopher, US Secretary of State (1993–1997)
1926 - H.R. Haldeman, American political personality (d. 1993)
1928 - Gilles Vigneault, Québécois poet, singer and songwriter
1931 - Nawal el-Saadawi, Egyptian writer
1932 - Sylvia Plath, American poet (d. 1963)
1932 - Jean-Pierre Cassel, French actor (d. 2007)
1933 - Floyd Cramer, American popular pianist (d. 1997)
1934 - Giorgos Konstadinou, Greek actor and director
1937 - Lara Parker, American actress
1939 - John Cleese, British actor and writer
1940 - John Gotti, American gangster (d. 2002)
1940 - Maxine Hong Kingston, American writer
1941 - Dick Trickle, American auto racer
1942 - Lee Greenwood, American singer
1945 - Luis Inácio Lula da Silva, President of Brazil
1945 - John Kane, actor/writer
1946 - Carrie Snodgress, American actress (d. 2004)
1946 - Ivan Reitman, Czechoslovakian-born Canadian film actor, producer and director
1949 - Garry Tallent, American bass player ( E Street Band)
1949 - Clifford Antone, American businessman (d. 2006)
1950 - Fran Lebowitz, American writer
1951 - Carlos Frenk, Mexican/British cosmologist
1951 - K.K. Downing, British guitarist ( Judas Priest)
1951 - Nancy Jacobs, American politician
1951 - Jayne Kennedy, American actress, model, and sportscaster
1952 - Hameed Haroon, Pakistani publisher
1952 - Roberto Benigni, Italian director and actor
1953 - Peter Firth, British actor
1953 - Robert Picardo, American actor
1955 - Debra Bowen, American politician
1956 - Veronica Hart, American porn actress
1957 - Jeff East, American actor
1957 - Glenn Hoddle, English footballer
1958 - Simon Le Bon, English singer ( Duran Duran)
1958 - Lee Carter, Alabama Judge of the 25th Judicial Circuit
1960 - Tom Nieto, American baseball player
1963 - Marla Maples, American actress and model
1964 - Mark Taylor, Australian test cricket captain (1994-1999)
1967 - Scott Weiland, American singer ( Stone Temple Pilots and Velvet Revolver)
1970 - Adrian Erlandsson, Swedish drummer ( Cradle of Filth)
1971 - Jade Arcade, American comics artist and writer
1971 - Theodoros Zagorakis, Greek footballer
1971 - Jorge Soto, Peruvian footballer
1972 - Lee Clark, English footballer
1972 - Evan Coyne Maloney, American filmmaker
1972 - Brad Radke, American baseball player
1972 - Marika Krook, Finnish singer ( Edea)
1972 - Maria Mutola, Mozambican athlete
1973 - Jason Johnson, American baseball pitcher ( Cincinnati Reds)
1975 - Zadie Smith, British novelist
1977 - Jiří Jarosík, Czech footballer
1977 - Kumar Sangakkara, Sri Lankan cricketer
1978 - Vanessa-Mae, Singapore musician
1978 - Sergei Samsonov, Russian ice hockey player
1979 - Melanie Vallejo, Australian TV actress
1980 - Tanel Padar, Estonian singer
1980 - Cassia Riley, American model
1981 - Han Hye-jin, South Korean actress
1981 - Kristi Richards, Canadian freestyle skier
1982 - Patrick Fugit, American actor
1982 - Dennis Moran, American computer hacker
1982 - Takashi Tsukamoto, Japanese actor
1982 - Keri Hilson, American singer
1984 - Kelly Osbourne, English television personality
1984 - Brady Quinn, American football player
1984 - Irfan Pathan, Indian cricketer
1986 - Matty Pattison, English footballer
1987 - Andrew Bynum, American basketball player
1987 - Yi Jianlian, Chinese basketball player
939 - King Athelstan I of England (b. 895)
1271 - Hugh IV, French crusader (b. 1213)
1312 - John II (b. 1275)
1327 - Elizabeth de Burgh, queen of Robert I of Scotland (b. 1289)
1331 - Abu al-Fida, Arab historian and geographer (b. 1273)
1430 - Vytautas the Great, Grand Duke of Lithuania (b. 1350)
1439 - Albert II of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1397)
1449 - Ulugh Beg, Timurid ruler and astronomer (b. 1394)
1505 - Ivan III of Russia (b. 1440)
1553 - Michael Servetus, Spanish theologian and doctor (burned at the stake) (b. 1511)
1561 - Lope de Aguirre, Spanish conquistador (b. 1510)
1573 - Laurentius Petri, first Lutheran Archbishop of Sweden (b. 1499)
1605 - Akbar, Jellaladin Mahommed, Mughal Emperor (born 1542)
1617 - Ralph Winwood, English politician (b. 1563)
1670 - Vavasor Powell, Welsh non-conformist leader (b. 1617)
1674 - Hallgrímur Pétursson, Icelandic poet (b. 1614)
1675 - Gilles de Roberval, French mathematician (b. 1602)
1789 - John Cook, American farmer and Governor of Delaware (b. 1730)
1917 - Arthur Rhys Davids, English pilot (b. 1897)
1935 - E. A. D. Eldridge, British racing driver (b. 1897)
1942 - Helmuth Hubener, Youth Political Activist against the Hitler regime (b. 1925)
1949 - Marcel Cerdan, French boxer (b. 1916)
1949 - Ginette Neveu, French violinist (b. 1919)
1953 - Thomas Wass, English cricketer (b. 1873)
1962 - Enrico Mattei, Italian politician (b. 1906)
1968 - Lise Meitner, German physicist (b. 1878)
1975 - Rex Stout, American novelist (b. 1886)
1977 - James M. Cain, American novelist (b. 1892)
1980 - Steve Peregrin Took, English singer and songwriter (b. 1949)
1980 - John Hasbrouck van Vleck, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1899)
1980 - Judy LaMarsh, Canadian politician, author and broadcaster (b. 1924)
1990 - Xavier Cugat, Spanish-born musician (b. 1900)
1990 - Princess Sophie von Hohenberg, daughter of assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (b. 1901)
1990 - Elliott Roosevelt, American war hero, author, and advertising executive (b. 1910)
1990 - Jacques Demy, French film director (b. 1931)
1990 - Ugo Tognazzi, Italian actor (b. 1922)
1992 - David Bohm, American-born physicist, philosopher, and neuropsychologist (b. 1917)
1996 - Morey Amsterdam, American actor (b. 1908)
1996 - Arthur Tremblay, French Canadian politician (b. 1917)
1999 - Robert Mills, American physicist (b. 1927)
1999 - Charlotte Perriand, French architect and designer (b. 1903)
2000 - Walter Berry, Austrian bass-baritone (b. 1929)
2002 - Tom Dowd, American recording engineer (b. 1925)
2003 - Rod Roddy, American television announcer (b. 1937)
2004 - Serginho, Brazilian footballer (b. 1974)
2006 - Joe Niekro, American baseball player (b. 1944)
2006 - Brad Will, American anarchist and independent journalist (b. 1970)
Holidays and observances Edit
External links Edit
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