is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in October 28 leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 63 days remaining until the end of the year.
306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor.
312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats Maxentius, becoming the sole Roman Emperor.
1061 - Empress Agnes, acting as Regent for her son, brings about the election of Bishop Cadalus, the antipope Honorius II
1516 - Battle of Yaunis Khan: Turkish forces under the Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha defeat the Mameluks near Gaza.
1520 - Pier Gerlofs Donia, the legendary Frisian warrior, folk hero and giant freedom fighter, dies aged 40 in Kimswerd, Frisia.
1531 - Battle of Amba Sel: Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi again defeats the army of Lebna Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia. The southern part of Ethiopia falls under Imam Ahmad's control.
1538 - The first university in the New World, the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, is established.
1628 - The Siege of La Rochelle, which had been ongoing for 14 months, ends with Huguenot surrender
1636 - A vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony establishes the first college in what would become the United States, today known as Harvard University.
1664 - The Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot, later to be known as the Royal Marines, is established.
1775 - American Revolutionary War A British proclamation forbids residents from leaving Boston.
1776 - American Revolutionary War: Battle of White Plains - British Army forces arrive at White Plains, attack and capture Chatterton Hill from the Americans.
1834 - The Battle of Pinjarra occurs in the Swan River Colony in present-day Pinjarra, Western Australia. Between 14 and 40 Aborigines are killed by British colonists.
1848 - The first railroad in Spain - between Barcelona and Mataró - is opened.
1864 - American Civil War: Second Battle of Fair Oaks ends - Union Army forces under General Ulysses S. Grant withdraw from Fair Oaks, after failing to breach the Confederate defenses around Richmond.
1868 - Thomas Edison applied for his first patent, an electrical vote recorder.
1886 - In New York Harbor, President Grover Cleveland dedicates the Statue of Liberty.
1891 - The Mino-Owari Earthquake, the largest earthquake in Japan's history, strikes Gifu Prefecture.
1893 - Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 6 in B Minor, , premiered in Pathétique St. Petersburg, only nine days before the composer's death.
1905 - George Bernard Shaw's is first performed in Mrs. Warren's Profession New York; though it had previously been performed in London, it had been censored, and the American performance was the first on the public stage.
1914 - The single largest one-day percentage decline of the Dow Jones Industrial Average in the recorded history of the New York stock market.
1918 - World War I: Czechoslovakia is granted its independence from Austria-Hungary.
1918 - The German fleet is immobilized when sailors mutiny en masse and disobey an order to leave port five times; 1,000 would ultimately be arrested.
1918 - New Polish government in Western Galicia is established.
1919 - The U.S. Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto, paving the way for Prohibition to begin the following January.
1922 - March on Rome: Italian fascists led by Benito Mussolini march on Rome and take over the Italian government.
1936 - US President Franklin D. Roosevelt rededicates the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary.
1940 - World War II: Italy invades Greece through Albania. This was the selected anniversary of Greece's entry into World War II. It is celebrated in Greece as Okhi Day (Όχι=No) Day.
1941 - Holocaust in Kaunas, Lithuania: German SS forces arrange the massacre of more than 9,000 Jews of the Kaunas ghetto. After the victims assembled on the Demokratu square at 6 am to be shot they are buried in gigantic ditches.
1942 - The Alaska Highway (Alcan Highway) is completed through Canada to Fairbanks.
1942 - Holocaust: 2,000 Jewish children and 6,000 Jewish adults from Cracow are deported by Germans to Belzec death camp.
1942 - Holocaust: SS directive orders all Jewish children's mittens and stockings to be sent from the death camps to the SS families.
1943 - The alleged Philadelphia Experiment supposedly occurred.
1948 - Swiss chemist Paul Müller is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.
1954 - The modern Kingdom of the Netherlands is re-founded as a federal monarchy.
1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviet Union leader Nikita Khrushchev announces that he had ordered the removal of Soviet missile bases in Cuba.
1962 - Y.A. Tittle of the New York Giants became the third quarterback in NFL history to throw seven touchdown passes in one game.
1964 - Vietnam War: U.S. officials deny any involvement in bombing North Vietnam.
1965 - French foreign minister Couve de Murville travels to Moscow.
1965 - Nostra Aetate, the "Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions" of the Second Vatican Council, is promulgated by Pope Paul VI; it absolves the Jews of the alleged killing of Jesus, reversing Innocent III's declaration from 760 years ago. In short, Pope Paul VI announces that the ecumenical council has decided that Jews are not collectively responsible for the killing of Christ.
1965 - In St. Louis, the 630-foot-tall parabolic (catenarian) stainless steel Gateway Arch monument is completed.
1970 - The land speed record set by Gary Gabelich in a rocket-powered automobile called the Blue Flame, fueled with natural gas.
1971 - Britain launches its first (and as of 2007, only) satellite, Prospero, into low Earth orbit atop a Black Arrow carrier rocket.
1972 - The first Airbus A300 flies into the skies.
1976 - John D. Ehrlichman, former domestic policy adviser of President Nixon and convicted Watergate felon, arrives at the Swift Trail Camp minimum-security facility in southeastern Arizona.
1982 - Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) wins elections, leading to first Socialist government in Spain after death of Franco. Felipe Gonzalez becomes Prime Minister-elect.
1985 - Mikhail Gorbachev becomes General Secretary of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union.
1985 - Sandinista Daniel Ortega becomes president of Nicaragua and makes peace overtures to the United States; American policy continues to support the Contras in their revolt against the Nicaraguan government.
1986 - The centennial of the Statue of Liberty's dedication is re-celebrated in New York Harbor.
1988 - The French drug manufacturer Roussel Uclaf states that it will resume distribution of the so-called abortion drug RU-486.
1997 - The Dow Jones Industrial Average gains a record 337.17 points to close at 7,498.32.
1998 - An Air China ( Mainland China) jetliner is hijacked by disgruntled pilot Yuan Bin and flown to Taiwan.
2005 - Plame affair: Lewis Libby, Vice-president Dick Cheney's chief of staff, is indicted in the Valerie Plame case. Libby resigns later that day.
2006 - Voting on a new constitution that would make Kosovo officially a part of Serbia begins; voter turnout on day one was low. (BBC)
2006 - Funeral service for the peace of the executed at Bykivnia forest, outside of Kiev, Ukraine, with reburial of 817 Ukrainian civilians (out of some 100,000) executed by Bolsheviks at Bykivnia in 1930s – early 1940s.
1510 - Francis Borgia, Spanish duke and Jesuit priest (d. 1572)
1585 - Cornelius Jansen, Dutch bishop (d. 1638)
1667 - Maria Anna of Neuburg, second wife of Charles II of Spain (d. 1740)
1691 - Peder Tordenskjold, Norwegian naval hero (d. 1720)
1697 - Canaletto, Italian artist (d. 1768)
1703 - Antoine Deparcieux, French mathematician (d. 1768)
1718 - Ignacije Szentmartony, Croatian Jesuit missionary (d. 1793)
1767 - Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel, queen of Denmark and Norway (d. 1852)
1793 - Eliphalet Remington, American firearms manufacturer (d. 1861)
1804 - Pierre François Verhulst, Belgian mathematician (d. 1849)
1818 - Ivan Turgenev, Russian writer (d. 1883)
1845 - Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski, Polish physicist (d. 1888)
1846 - Georges Auguste Escoffier, French chef (d. 1935)
1875 - Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor, American geographer and editor (d. 1966)
1877 - Joe Adams, American baseball player (d. 1952)
1881 - Bruno Söderström, Swedish athlete (d. 1969)
1885 - Velimir Khlebnikov, Russian poet (d. 1922)
1889 - Juliette Béliveau, Quebec comedian (d. 1975)
1891 - Ormer Locklear, American movie stunt pilot (d. 1920)
1892 - Dink Johnson, American musician (d. 1954)
1896 - Howard Hanson, American composer (d. 1981)
1897 - Edith Head, American costume designer (d. 1981)
1902 - Elsa Lanchester, British-born actress (d. 1986)
1903 - Evelyn Waugh, English writer (d. 1966)
1907 - John Harold Hewitt, Northern Irish poet (d. 1987)
1908 - Arturo Frondizi, President of Argentina (d. 1995)
1909 - Francis Bacon, Anglo-Irish painter (d. 1992)
1912 - Richard Doll, English epidemiologist (d. 2005)
1914 - Jonas Salk, American medical scientist (d. 1995)
1914 - Richard Laurence Millington Synge, Nobel laureate (d. 1994)
1914 - Glenn Robert Davis, U.S. Congressman (d. 1988)
1917 - Jack Soo, American actor (d. 1979)
1922 - Gershon Kingsley, German composer
1922 - Butch van Breda Kolff, American basketball coach (d. 2007)
1922 - Simon Muzenda, Zimbabwe politician (d. 2003)
1924 - Antonio Creus, Spanish racecar driver (d. 1996)
1926 - Bowie Kuhn, American Commissioner of Baseball (d. 2007)
1927 - Dame Cleo Laine, British singer
1928 - Ion Mihai Pacepa, Romanian general
1929 - Joan Plowright, British actress
1929 - Marcel Bozzuffi, French actor (d. 1988)
1929 - John Hollander, American poet
1930 - Bernie Ecclestone, English racing official
1932 - Suzy Parker, American actress (d. 2003)
1933 - Garrincha, Brazilian footballer (d. 1983)
1936 - Charlie Daniels, American musician
1936 - Carl Davis, American-born musical conductor and composer
1937 - Lenny Wilkens, American basketball player and coach
1938 - David Dimbleby, English television commentator
1938 - Anne Perry, English-born novelist
1939 - Jane Alexander, American actress
1939 - Miroslav Cerar, Yugoslav gymnast
1940 - Susan Harris, American television writer and producer
1941 - John Hallam, Irish actor
1941 - Hank Marvin, English guitarist
1941 - Curtis Lee, American singer
1942 - Kees Verkerk, Dutch speed skater
1943 - Conny Froboess, German singer
1943 - Charo López, Spanish actress
1944 - Dennis Franz, American actor
1944 - Anton Schlecker, German billionaire
1944 - Coluche, French comedian and actor (d. 1986)
1945 - Elton Dean, English musician ( Soft Machine) (d. 2006)
1945 - Wayne Fontana, British singer ( The Mindbenders)
1946 - Wim Jansen, Dutch footballer and coach
1946 - John Hewson, Australian politician
1948 - Telma Hopkins, American singer ( Tony Orlando and Dawn)
1949 - Bruce Jenner, American athlete
1949 - Tracy Reed, American actress
1950 - Sihem Bensedrine, Tunisian human rights activist
1952 - Annie Potts, American actress
1953 - Pierre Boivin, Canadian businessman and hockey executive
1955 - Bill Gates, American software executive
1956 - Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, President of Iran
1956 - Dave Wyndorf, American singer ( Monster Magnet)
1960 - Landon Curt Noll, Astronomer, Cryptographer and Mathematician: youngest to world record for the largest known prime 3 times
1958 - William Reid, Scottish musician ( The Jesus and Mary Chain)
1962 - Daphne Zuniga, American actress
1962 - Scotty Nguyen, professional poker player
1963 - Lauren Holly, American actress
1963 - James Miller, the "Fan Man" (d. 2002)
1963 - Eros Ramazzotti, Italian singer
1965 - Jami Gertz, American actress
1965 - Luigi Miraglia, Italian Latinist
1966 - Steve Atwater, American football player
1966 - Andy Richter, American comedian and actor
1967 - Julia Roberts, American actress
1967 - John Romero, American video game designer
1967 - Sophie
1967 - Kevin Macdonald, Scottish film director
1968 - Marc Lièvremont, French rugby union footballer and coach
1969 - Ben Harper, American musician
1969 - Javier Grillo-Marxuach, Puerto Rican screenwriter and producer
1972 - Terrell Davis, American football player
1972 - Brad Paisley, American musician
1973 - Antonio Banks, American professional wrestler
1974 - Joaquin Phoenix, Puerto Rican-born actor
1974 - Vicente Moreno, Spanish footballer
1974 - Braden Looper, American baseball player
1974 - Dejan Stefanović, Serbian footballer
1974 - Dayanara Torres, Puerto Rican actress and beauty queen
1976 - Karl Tremblay, Canadian singer ( Les Cowboys Fringants)
1978 - Marta Etura, Spanish actress
1978 - Justin Guarini, American singer
1979 - Aki Hakala, Finnish drummer ( The Rasmus)
1979 - Martin Škoula, Czech ice hockey player
1980 - Alan Smith, English footballer
1980 - Christy Hemme, American professional wrestler
1980 - Kanzi, Most Literate Non-Human
1981 - Milan Baroš, Czech footballer
1981 - Solomon Andargachew, Ethiopian footballer
1982 - Jeremy Bonderman, American baseball player
1982 - Mai Kuraki, Japanese singer
1982 - Anthony Lerew, American baseball player
1983 - Jarrett Jack, American basketball player
1984 - Obafemi Martins, Nigerian footballer
1984 - Amanda Paige, American model
1996 - Naelee Rae, American actress
1996 - Jasmine Jessica Anthony, American actress
312 - Maxentius, Roman emperor (b. c. 278)
1225 - Jien, Japanese poet and historian (b. 1155)
1312 - Elisabeth of Tirol, German queen
1412 - Margaret I of Denmark, wife of Haakon VI of Norway (b. 1353)
1485 - Rodolphus Agricola, Dutch humanist (b. 1443)
1520 - Pier Gerlofs Donia, Frisian pirate and freedom fighter
1568 - Ashikaga Yoshihide, Japanese shogun (b. 1539)
1627 - Jahangir, Mughal Emperor of India (b. 1569)
1639 - Stefano Landi, Italian composer (b. 1587)
1646 - William Dobson, English painter (b. 1610)
1661 - Agustín Moreto y Cavana, Spanish playwright (b. 1518)
1676 - Jean Desmarets, French writer (b. 1595)
1703 - John Wallis, English mathematician (b. 1616)
1704 - John Locke, English philosopher (b. 1632)
1708 - Prince George of Denmark, Consort of Queen Anne of England (b. 1653)
1716 - Stephen Fox, British politician (b. 1627)
1740 - Empress Anna of Russia (b. 1693)
1754 - Friedrich von Hagedorn, German poet (b. 1708)
1755 - Joseph Bodin de Boismortier, French composer (b. 1689)
1763 - Heinrich, German statesman (b. 1700)
1768 - Michel Blavet, French flutist (b. 1700)
1792 - Paul Möhring, German physician and scientist (b. 1710)
1792 - John Smeaton, British civil engineer (b. 1724)
1800 - Artemas Ward, American politician and soldier (b. 1727)
1806 - Charlotte Turner Smith, British poet and novelist (b. 1749)
1818 - Abigail Adams, First Lady of the United States (b. 1744)
1841 - Johan August Arfwedson, Swedish chemist (b. 1792)
1857 - Louis Eugène Cavaignac, French soldier and politician (b. 1802)
1877 - Robert Swinhoe, British naturalist (b. 1835)
1879 - Marie Roch Louis Reybaud, French writer (b. 1799)
1899 - Ottmar Mergenthaler, German-born inventor (tuberculosis) (b. 1854)
1900 - Max Müller, German-born orientalist (b. 1823)
1916 - Cleveland Abbe, American meteorologist (b. 1838)
1916 - Oswald Boelcke, German pilot (b. 1891)
1917 - Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (b. 1831)
1918 - Ulisse Dini, Italian mathematician (b. 1845)
1929 - Bernhard von Bülow, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1849)
1939 - Alice Brady, American actress (b. 1892)
1952 - Billy Hughes, seventh Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1862)
1957 - Ernst Gräfenberg, German physician and scientist (b. 1881)
1959 - Camilo Cienfuegos, Cuban revolutionary (b. 1932)
1965 - Earl Bostic, American saxophonist (b. 1913)
1969 - Constance Dowling, American actress (b. 1920)
1973 - Taha Hussein, Egyptian writer (b. 1889)
1973 - Sergio Tofano, Italian actor (b. 1883)
1975 - Georges Carpentier, French boxer (b. 1894)
1975 - Oliver Nelson, American jazz composer and arranger (b. 1932)
1986 - John Braine, British novelist (b. 1922)
1987 - André Masson, French artist (b. 1896)
1997 - Paul Jarrico, American screenwriter (b. 1915)
1998 - Ted Hughes, British poet (b. 1930)
2000 - Lída Baarová, Czech actress (b. 1914)
2000 - Carlos Guastavino, Argentine composer (b. 1912)
2001 - Gerard Hengeveld, Dutch composer (b. 1910)
2002 - Margaret Booth, American film editor (b. 1898)
2002 - Erling Persson, Swedish entrepreneur (b. 1917)
2004 - Jimmy McLarnin, Northern Irish-born boxer (b. 1907)
2005 - Eugene K. Bird, German prison director (b. 1926)
2005 - Bob Broeg, American sports writer (b. 1918)
2005 - Raymond Hains, French artist (b. 1926)
2005 - Tony Jackson, American basketball player (b. 1942)
2005 - Fernando Quejas, Cape Verdean singer and musician (b. 1922)
2005 - Richard Smalley, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1943)
2005 - Ljuba Tadić, Serbian actor (b. 1929)
2006 - Red Auerbach, American basketball coach and executive (b. 1917)
2006 - Trevor Berbick, Jamaican boxer (b. 1955)
2006 - Marijohn Wilkin, American songwriter (b. 1920)
2007 - Porter Wagoner, American country singer (b. 1927)
Holidays and observances Edit
External links Edit
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