|Orange County, Virginia|
Location in the state of Virginia
Virginia's location in the U.S.
343 sq mi (888 km²)
342 sq mi (886 km²)
2 sq mi (5 km²), 0.50%
76/sq mi (29.2/km²)
The first European settlement in what was to become Orange County was Germanna, formed when Governor Alexander Spotswood settled 12 immigrant families from Westphalia, Germany there in 1714; a total of 42 people. Settlers established the legal entity of Orange County in 1734 from a portion of Spotsylvania County. Unlike other counties whose boundaries had ended at the Blue Ridge Mountains, Orange was conceived of as extending to the Mississippi River and Great Lakes. The colony of Virginia claimed the land, but very little of it had yet been occupied by any English. For this reason, some contend that Orange County was at one time the largest county that ever existed. This condition lasted only four years; in 1738 most of the western tract was split off into Augusta County.
Orange County was named for Prince William III of Orange, a famous Protestant King of Great Britain and Ireland, by Ulster-Scots settlers in the 18th century. The family name of William of Orange was derived from the dynasty's ancestral origins as feudal lords of the French town of Orange, which was named by the ancient Gauls in honour of a Celtic water deity.
President James Madison's home, Montpelier, and the ruins of Virginia governor and U.S. Senator James Barbour's former home, Barboursville, are located in the county. Both are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. President Zachary Taylor was born here. During the Civil War, the Battle of the Wilderness took place in the County in May 1864. Portions of the battlefield are preserved as Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, established in 1927.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 343 square miles (889 km²), of which 342 square miles (885 km²) is land and 2 square miles (4 km²) (0.50%) is water.
- Madison County - northwest
- Culpeper County - north
- Spotsylvania County - east
- Louisa County - south
- Albemarle County - southwest
- Greene County - west
As of the census of 2000, there were 25,881 people, 10,150 households, and 7,470 families residing in the county. The population density was 76 people per square mile (29/km²). There were 11,354 housing units at an average density of 33 per square mile (13/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 84.36% White, 13.78% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, and 0.90% from two or more races. 1.28% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 10,150 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.70% were married couples living together, 10.70% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.40% were non-families. 22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.90.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.00% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 25.60% from 45 to 64, and 17.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 93.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $42,889, and the median income for a family was $48,197. Males had a median income of $31,982 versus $24,209 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,107. About 7.10% of families and 9.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.60% of those under age 18 and 10.80% of those aged 65 or over.
The county is served locally by the Orange County Review a Media General owned weekly newspaper and regionally by the Fredericksburg, Virginia based The Free Lance Star. Radio station WVCV is licensed to Orange and the county is also served by radio stations in the Fredericksburg, Virginia and Charlottesville, Virginia radio markets.
The Wilderness Battlefield
The Battle of the Wilderness was fought in Orange County on May 5–6, 1864. The battle marked the first occasion legendary Generals Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee would face each other in battle. The fighting at the Wilderness was also the first battle in Grant's Overland Campaign that would ultimately lead to the fall of Richmond and Lee’s surrender at Appomattox.
Over 160,000 troops were engaged at the Wilderness in a bloody, see-saw, battle that saw both sides on the brink of destruction. When the guns fell silent on May 7, over 29,000 soldiers lay dead or wounded on the fields at the Wilderness, and Grant’s Union army was able to disengage and press on toward Richmond.
Today, the Battle of the Wilderness is a part of the Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, which has preserved 2,773 acres (11.222 km2) of the original battlefield. The park is closed on New Years Day, Thanksgiving and Christmas Day. Otherwise the park grounds are open from dawn to dusk on a daily basis.
The Ellwood Manor is the only surviving house that witnessed the Battle of the Wilderness in May 1864. During the battle Ellwood became a base of operations for the Union Army as Union General Ulysses S. Grant made his headquarters nearby. Ellwood would also play a role in the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863 when Confederate General Stonewall Jackson, who was wounded during the battle, had his arm amputated and buried in the family cemetery at Ellwood. Following the battle at Chancellorsville, Ellwood served as a Confederate hospital.
In 2008, Ellwood was named “Favorite Virginia Civil War Site” by the Rappahannock Electric Cooperative’s “Cooperative Living” magazine.
Doctor Holladay House
Formerly called the Doctor Holladay House, the Holladay House in Orange, Virginia (c.a. 1830) is on the nationally-recognized Journey Through Hallowed Ground. Named for Dr. Lewis Holladay, a prominent Virginia physician, the Holladay House has witnessed almost two centuries of American history. The building is historically significant because it is one of only a few antebellum structures still standing in Orange, Virginia.
Since approximately 1830, the Holladay House has served as a mercantile store, a residence, a doctor’s office, and a Virginia bed and breakfast inn. In the early 20th century, a private schoolhouse for local children was also on the property. Only a handful of proprietors have owned the home, and the Holladay family was its steward for over 100 years. The Holladay House still boasts much of its original woodwork, including floors, mantels, doors and period antiques from the Holladay family.
Now a Virginia bed and breakfast inn, the Holladay House is one of the two oldest standing structures in historic downtown Orange, and is registered with the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Orange Commercial Historic District. It has been a landmark on Main Street for generations.
As of September 2008, Wal-Mart has submitted a proposal to build a 141,000-square-foot (13,100 m2) Supercenter store less than one quarter mile from the National Park Service Boundary of the Wilderness Battlefield. It would be situated on a 52-acre (210,000 m2) tract just north of the Route 3/Route 20 intersection in Orange County. Preservation groups have formed the Wilderness Battlefield Coalition to oppose the construction of this Wal-Mart, arguing that it is likely to produce a significant increase in traffic and subsequent development.
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Orange County, Virginia
- Orange Volunteer Fire Company
- ^ . Weldon Cooper Center Population Estimates Retrieved January 26, 2011
- ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- ^ John Gwathmey, 1937, Twelve Virginia Counties p. 277.
- ^ "American President: Zachary Taylor". Miller Center of Public Affairs. http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/taylor. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- ^ Virginia, State of (1998-2009). "Virginia.gov - Education - Home Page". http://www.state.va.us/cmsportal3/education_4096/schools,_libraries_and_museums_4101/k-12_schools_4356/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-30.
- ^ Schools, Orange County Public. "Orange County Schools Office of the Superintendent". http://www.ocss-va.org/departments/superintendent/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-30.
- ^ Ellwood named favorite Virginia Civil War site - Culpeper Star-Exponent
- ^ Groups want to sidetrack Orange project - Fredericksburg Free-Lance Star
- Orange County official government site
- Orange County Historical Society
- Memorial Foundation of the Germanna Colonies in Virginia
- The Wilderness Battlefield Coalition - Help Stop the Wilderness Walmart
|Madison County||Culpeper County|
|Greene County||Spotsylvania County|
Orange County, Virginia
|Albemarle County||Louisa County|
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