|Republic of the Philippines
Repúblika ng Pilipinás
"Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"
"For God, People, Nature, and Country"
|Anthem: Lupang Hinirang
|Largest city||Quezon City|
|Recognised regional languages|
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|-||President||Benigno Aquino III (LP)|
|-||Vice President||Jejomar Binay (PDP-Laban)|
|-||Senate President||Juan Ponce Enrile (PMP)|
|-||House Speaker||Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. (LP)|
|-||Supreme Court Chief Justice||Maria Lourdes Sereno|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|Independence from Spainb and the United States|
|-||Established||April 27, 1565|
|-||Declared||June 12, 1898|
|-||Self-government||March 24, 1934|
|-||Recognized||July 4, 1946|
|-||Current constitution||February 2, 1987|
|-||Land||300,000 km2 (73rd)
115,831 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0.61 (inland waters)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
medium · 44th
|HDI (2011)|| 0.644
medium · 112th
|Currency||Peso (Filipino: piso) (₱) (
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+8)|
|Drives on the||right|
|a.||^a The 1987 Philippine constitution specifies, "Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis."|
|b.||^b Philippine revolutionaries declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898, but the Spanish claim of sovereignty was passed from Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris. This led to the Philippine–American War.</cite>|
|Ilocos Region||Region I||San Fernando, La Union|
|Cagayan Valley||Region II||Tuguegarao, Cagayan|
|Central Luzon||Region III||San Fernando, Pampanga|
|CALABARZON||Region IV-A||Calamba, Laguna|
|MIMAROPA||Region IV-B||Calapan, Oriental Mindoro|
|Bicol Region||Region V||Legazpi, Albay|
|Western Visayas||Region VI||Iloilo City|
|Central Visayas||Region VII||Cebu City|
|Eastern Visayas||Region VIII||Tacloban|
|Zamboanga Peninsula||Region IX||Pagadian|
|Northern Mindanao||Region X||Cagayan de Oro|
|Davao Region||Region XI||Davao City|
|SOCCSKSARGEN||Region XII||Koronadal, South Cotabato|
|Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao||ARMM||Cotabato City|
|Cordillera Administrative Region||CAR||Baguio|
|National Capital Region||NCR||Manila|
The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands with a total land area, including inland bodies of water, of approximately 300,000 square kilometers (120,000 sq mi). Its 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi) of coastline makes it the country with the 5th longest coastline in the world. It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E. longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N. latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea to the east, the South China Sea to the west, and the Celebes Sea to the south. The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the north. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are located to the south-southwest and Palau is located to the east of the islands.
Most of the mountainous islands are covered in tropical rainforest and volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is Mount Apo. It measures up to 2,954 meters (9,692 feet) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao. The Galathea Depth in the Philippine Trench is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world. The trench is located in the Philippine Sea. The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon. Manila Bay, upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River. Subic Bay, the Davao Gulf, and the Moro Gulf are other important bays. The San Juanico Strait separates the islands of Samar and Leyte but it is traversed by the San Juanico Bridge.
Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction. Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake. There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, the area represents a habitat for biodiversity conservation, the site also contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in Asia. The white sand beaches that make Boracay a popular vacation getaway are made of coral remnants.
Due to the volcanic nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa and one of the largest copper deposits in the world. It is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Despite this, poor management, high population density, and environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped. Geothermal energy, however, is another product of volcanic activity that the country has harnessed more successfully. The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power.
Flora and faunaEdit
The Philippines' rainforests and its extensive coastlines make it home to a diverse range of birds, plants, animals, and sea creatures. It is one of the ten most biologically megadiverse countries and is at or near the top in terms of biodiversity per unit area. Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere. Endemic species include the tamaraw of Mindoro, the Visayan spotted deer, the Philippine mouse deer, the Visayan warty pig, the Philippine flying lemur, and several species of bats. The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise.
The Philippines lacks large predators, with the exception of snakes, such as pythons and cobras, saltwater crocodiles and birds of prey, such as the national bird, known as the Philippine Eagle, which scientists suggest as the largest eagle in the world. The largest crocodile in captivity was captured in the southern island of Mindanao. Other native animals include the palm civet cat, the dugong, and the Philippine tarsier associated with Bohol. With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands, Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora, including many rare types of orchids and rafflesia. The narra is considered as the most important type of hardwood.
Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as 2.2 million square kilometers (850,000 square miles) producing unique and diverse marine life and is an important part of the Coral Triangle. There are 2,400 fish species and over 500 species of coral. The Apo Reef is the country's largest contiguous coral reef system and the second-largest in the world. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of pearls, crabs, and seaweeds.
Deforestation, often the result of illegal logging, is an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the country's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999. Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia, which the Philippines is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 20th century. According to Conservation International, "the country is one of the few nations that is, in its entirety, both a hotspot and a megadiversity country, placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation."
The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate and is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: tag-init or tag-araw, the hot dry season or summer from March to May; tag-ulan, the rainy season from June to November; and tag-lamig, the cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan. Temperatures usually range from 21°C (70°F) to 32°C (90°F) although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.
The average yearly temperature is around 26.6°C (79.88°F). In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. Whether in the extreme north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 feet) above sea level is 18.3°C (64.9°F), making it a popular destination during hot summers. Likewise, Tagaytay is a favored retreat.
Sitting astride the typhoon belt, most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and thunderstorms from July to October, with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 inches) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 inches) in some of the sheltered valleys. The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 1911 cyclone, which dropped over 1,168 millimetres (46.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio City. Bagyo is the local term for a tropical cyclone in the Philippines.
The national economy of the Philippines is the 43rd largest in the world, with an estimated 2011 gross domestic product (nominal) of $224.754 billion. Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, and fruits. Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand. Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso (₱ or PHP).
A newly industrialized country, the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Of the country's total labor force of around 38.1 million, the agricultural sector employs close to 32% but contributes to only about 13.8% of GDP. The industrial sector employs around 13.7% of the workforce and accounts for 30% of GDP. Meanwhile the 46.5% of workers involved in the services sector are responsible for 56.2% of GDP.
The unemployment rate as of July 2009 stands at around 7.6% and due to the global economic slowdown inflation as of September 2009 reads 0.70%. Gross international reserves as of July 2011 are $75.174 billion. In 2004, public debt as a percentage of GDP was estimated to be 74.2%; in 2008, 56.9%. Gross external debt has risen to $66.27 billion. The country is a net importer.
After World War II, the country was for a time regarded as the second wealthiest in East Asia, next only to Japan. However, by the 1960s its economic performance started being overtaken. The economy stagnated under the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos as the regime spawned economic mismanagement and political volatility. The country suffered from slow economic growth and bouts of economic recession. Only in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization did the economy begin to recover.
The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. But the extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth. There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades. Yet average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole and the daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2. Despite enjoying sustained economic growth during the 2000s (decade), as of 2010, the country's economy remains smaller than those of its Southeast Asian neighbors Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore in terms of GDP and GDP per capita (nominal).
Other incongruities and challenges exist. The economy is heavily reliant on remittances which surpass foreign direct investment as a source of foreign currency. Regional development is uneven with Luzon—Metro Manila in particular—gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions, although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the country. Despite constraints, service industries such as tourism and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country. Goldman Sachs includes the country in its list of the "Next Eleven" economies. But China and India have emerged as major economic competitors.
Goldman Sachs estimates that by the year 2050, it will be the 14th largest economy in the world. HSBC also projects the Philippine economy to become the 16th largest economy in the world, 5th largest economy in Asia and the largest economy in the South East Asian region by 2050.
The Philippines is a member of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Asian Development Bank which is headquartered in Mandaluyong City, the Colombo Plan, and the G-77 among other groups and institutions.
Population in Philippines increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame. The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685. As of 2011, the Philippines has become the world's 12th most populous nation, with a population of over 94 million. It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. The population growth rate between 1995 to 2000 of 3.21% decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005 to 2010 period, but remains a contentious issue. The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. Life expectancy at birth is 71.94 years, 75.03 years for females and 68.99 years for males.
There are about 11 million Filipinos outside the Philippines. Since the liberalization of United States immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. In 2007 there were an estimated 3.1 million. According to the United States Census Bureau, immigrants from the Philippines made up the second largest group after Mexico that sought family reunification. Some two million Filipinos work in the Middle East, with nearly a million in Saudi Arabia alone.
According to the 2000 census, 28.1% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Bisaya/Binisaya, 7.5% Hiligaynon, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, and 25.3% as "others", which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro, the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the Ibanag, and the Ivatan. There are also indigenous peoples like the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Bajau, and the tribes of Palawan. Negritos, such as the Aeta and the Ati, are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.
Filipinos generally belong to several Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people. It is believed that thousands of years ago Austronesian-speaking Taiwanese aborigines migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan, bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing, eventually displacing the earlier Negrito groups of the islands. They were later supplanted by arrivals of Chinese and Japanese in the northern islands, and Malays and Arabs in the southern islands. Later arrivals during the colonial period include Indians, Spaniards, Americans, as well as other European peoples. Intermarriage between the groups is evident in the major cities and urban areas. Their descendants are known as mestizos.
The two most important non-indigenous minorities include the Chinese and the Spaniards. Chinese Filipinos, mostly descended from immigrants from Fujian, China after 1898, number 2 million, although there is an estimated 28 million Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry, stemming from precolonial Chinese migrants. Meanwhile, the exact number of Spanish Filipinos remains unknown, but genetic studies extrapolated that 3.6% of all Filipinos have West European ancestry, most probably Spanish. Other significant minorities include Americans, mostly White, numbering 300,000 and Koreans, numbering 96,000.
Metro Manila is the most populous of the twelve defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the 11th most populous in the world. As of the 2007 census, it had a population of 11,553,427, comprising 13% of the national population. Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, and Rizal) of Greater Manila, the population is around 21 million.
Metro Manila's gross regional product is estimated as of July 2009 to be ₱468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP. In 2011, it ranked as the 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in Southeast Asia, according to PricewaterhouseCoopers. Cebu City in the Visayas and Davao City in Mindanao are other important urban centers. Template:Largest cities of the Philippines
|Top five Native Languages (2010)|
|Language||Speakers in millions|
Ethnologue lists 175 individual languages in the Philippines, 171 of which are living languages while 4 no longer have any known speakers. They are part of the Borneo–Philippines group of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family.
According to the 1987 Philippine Constitution, Filipino and English are the official languages. Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog, spoken mainly in Metro Manila and other urban regions. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. The constitution designates regional languages such as Bicolano, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Tagalog, and Waray-Waray as auxiliary official languages, and mandates that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.
Other languages such as Aklanon, Boholano, Chavacano, Zamboangueño, Cuyonon, Ifugao, Itbayat, Ivatan, Kalinga, Kamayo, Kankana-ey, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Masbatenyo, Romblomanon, Surigaonon, Tausug, Yakan, and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces.
The Philippines is a secular nation having a constitution separating the state and church. However, more than 90% of the population are Christians: about 80% belong to the Roman Catholic Church while 10% belong to other Christian denominations, such as the Iglesia ni Cristo, the Philippine Independent Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, United Church of Christ in the Philippines, and Jehovah's Witnesses. As a result of Spanish cultural influence, the Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being East Timor.
Between 5 and 10% of the population are Muslim, most of whom live in parts of Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago—an area known as Bangsamoro or the Moro region. Some have migrated into urban and rural areas in different parts of the country. Most Muslim Filipinos practice Sunni Islam according to the Shafi'i school. Philippine traditional religions are still practiced by many aboriginal and tribal groups, often syncretized with Christianity and Islam. Animism, folk religion, and shamanism remain present as undercurrents of mainstream religion, through the albularyo, the babaylan, and the manghihilot. Buddhism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religion, are dominant in Chinese communities. There are also followers of Hinduism, Sikhism, and Judaism and Baha'i.
The National Statistics Office reports a simple literacy rate of 93.4% and a functional literacy rate of 84.1% for 2003. Literacy is about equal for males and females. Spending for education is around 2.5% of GDP. According to the Department of Education, or DepEd, there were 44,846 elementary schools and 10,384 secondary schools registered for the school year 2009–2010 while the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, 607 of which are public and 1,573 private. Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs. Republic Act No. 9155 gives the framework of basic education in the Philippines and provides for compulsory elementary education and free high school education.
Several government agencies are involved with education. The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and nonformal education; the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers the post-secondary middle-level education training and development; and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises the college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulates standards in higher education. In 2004, madrasahs were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education. Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State University and College (SUC) or Local College and University (LCU). SUCs are funded by the national government as determined by the Philippine Congress. The University of the Philippines is the national university of the Philippines.
Most of the national burden of health care is taken up by private health providers. In 2006, total expenditures on health represented 3.8% of GDP. 67.1% of that came from private expenditures while 32.9% was from government. External resources accounted for 2.9% of the total. Health expenditures represented about 6.1% of total government spending. Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was $52. The proposed national health budget for 2010 is ₱28 billion (about $597 million) or ₱310 ($7) per person. The government share of total spending on health has declined steadily, and with more people, there has been less to spend per person.
There are an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses, 43,220 dentists, and 1 hospital bed per every 769 people. Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. 70% of nursing graduates go overseas to work. The country is the biggest supplier of nurses. In 2001 there were about 1,700 hospitals, of which about 40% were government-run and 60% private. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 25% of all deaths. According to official estimates, 1,965 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported in 2003, of which 636 had developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Other estimates have as many as 12,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in 2005.
The transportation infrastructure in the country is relatively underdeveloped. Partly this is due to the mountainous terrain and the scattered geography of the islands, but it is also the result of the government's persistent underinvestment in infrastructure. In 2003, only 3.6% of GDP went to infrastructure development which was significantly lower than that of some of its neighbors. Consequently, while there are 203,025 kilometers (126,154 mi) of roads in the country, only around 20% of the total is paved.
Nevertheless there are many ways to get around, especially in urban areas. Buses, jeepneys, taxis, and motorized tricycles are commonly available in major cities and towns. In 2007, there were about 5.53 million registered motor vehicles with registration increasing at an average annual rate of 4.55%. Train services are provided by three main railway networks that serve different areas of Metro Manila and parts of Luzon: the Manila Light Rail Transit System (LRT), the Manila Metro Rail Transit System (MRT), and the Philippine National Railways (PNR).
As an archipelago, inter-island travel via watercraft is often necessary. The busiest seaports are Manila, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, and Zamboanga. Passenger ships and other sea vessels such as those operated by Superferry, Negros Navigation, and Sulpicio Lines serve Manila, with links to various cities and towns. In 2003, the 919-kilometer (571 mi) Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established.
Some rivers that pass through metropolitan areas, such as the Pasig River and Marikina River, have air-conditioned commuter ferries. The Pasig River Ferry Service has numerous stops in Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina. There are 3,219 kilometers (2,000 mi) of navigable inland waterways.
There are 85 public airports in the country, and around 111 more that are private. The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) is the main international airport. Other important airports include the Clark International Airport, Mactan-Cebu International Airport, Francisco Bangoy International Airport and Zamboanga International Airport. Philippine Airlines, Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name, and Cebu Pacific, the leading low-cost airline, are the major airlines serving most domestic and international destinations.
The Philippines has a sophisticated cellular phone industry and a high concentration of users. As of 2008, there are about 67.9 million cellular phone subscribers in the Philippines. Text messaging is a popular form of communication and has fostered a culture of quick greetings and forwarded jokes among Filipinos. In 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day. Out of this growing number of avid text message senders, over five million of them use their cellular phones as virtual wallets, making it a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks.
The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company commonly known as PLDT is the leading telecommunications provider. It is also the largest company in the country. Its wholly owned subsidiaries Smart Communications and Piltel, along with Globe Telecom of the Ayala Group, BayanTel, and Sun Cellular are the major cellular service providers in the country.
There are approximately 383 AM and 659 FM radio stations and 297 television and 873 cable television stations. Estimates for internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people. Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent internet activities.
Culture and societyEdit
Philippine culture is a combination of Eastern and Western cultures. The Philippines exhibits aspects found in other Asian countries with a Malay heritage, yet its culture also displays a significant amount of Spanish and American influences. Traditional festivities known as barrio fiestas (district festivals) to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are common. The Moriones Festival and Sinulog Festival are a couple of the most well-known. These community celebrations are times for feasting, music, and dancing. Some traditions, however, are changing or gradually being forgotten due to modernization. The Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has been lauded for preserving many of the various traditional folk dances found throughout the Philippines. They are famed for their iconic performances of Philippine dances such as the tinikling and singkil that both feature the use of clashing bamboo poles.
One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos. However, a Spanish name and surname does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial decree, the Clavería edict, for the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of the Spanish naming system on the population. The names of many streets, towns, and provinces are also in Spanish. Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II. Some examples remain, mainly among the country's churches, government buildings, and universities. Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the San Agustín Church in Manila, the Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte, the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Ilocos Sur, and the Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo. Vigan in Ilocos Sur is also known for the many Hispanic-styled houses and buildings preserved there.
The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the ready acceptance and influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos' love of fast food, film, and music. Fast food outlets are found on many street corners. American global fast food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast food chains like Goldilocks and most notably Jollibee, the leading fast food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against their foreign rivals. Filipinos regularly listen to and watch contemporary American, Asian, and European music and film just as they enjoy Original Pilipino Music (also known as OPM) and local films.
Philippine cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian origins to become a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic, Chinese, American, and other Asian influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, such as the paellas and cocidos created for fiestas. Popular dishes include lechón, adobo, sinigang, kare-kare, tapa, crispy pata, pancit, lumpia, and halo-halo. Some common local ingredients used in cooking are calamondins, coconuts, saba (a kind of short wide plantain), mangoes, milkfish, and fish sauce. Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors.
Unlike many of their Asian counterparts, Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Philippine cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork. The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan is seen more often in less urbanized areas.
Mythology and literatureEdit
Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. While each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell, Hindu and Spanish influences can nonetheless be detected in many cases. Philippine mythology mostly consists of creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures, such as the aswang, the manananggal, the diwata/engkanto, and nature. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are Maria Makiling, Lam-Ang, and the Sarimanok.
Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created in the 19th century. Francisco Balagtas the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Filipino language. José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) and El Filibusterismo (The Filibustering, also known as The Reign of Greed) and is considered a national hero. His depiction of the injustices of Spanish rule, and his death by firing squad, inspired other Philippine revolutionaries to seek independence. In the 20th century, among those officially recognized as National Artists of the Philippines in literature are N.V.M. Gonzalez, Nick Joaquin, F. Sionil Jose, and Alejandro Roces.
Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English. Other Philippine languages, including various Visayan languages are also used, especially in radio due to its ability to reach remote rural locations that might otherwise not be serviced by other kinds of media. The dominant television networks ABS-CBN, GMA and TV5 also have extensive radio presence.
The entertainment industry is vibrant and feeds broadsheets and tabloids with an unending supply of details about celebrities and sensationalist scandals du jour. Drama and fantasy shows are anticipated as are Latin telenovelas, Asianovelas, and anime. Daytime television is dominated by game shows, variety shows, and talk shows such as Eat Bulaga and It's Showtime. Philippine cinema has a long history and is popular domestically, but has faced increasing competition from American, Asian and European films. Critically acclaimed directors and actors include Lino Brocka and Nora Aunor for films like Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag (Manila: In the Claws of Light) and Himala (Miracle). In recent years it has become common to see celebrities flitting between television and movies and then moving into politics provoking concerns.
Various sports and pastimes are popular in the Philippines including basketball, boxing, cockfighting, volleyball, football, badminton, karate, taekwondo, billiards, ten-pin bowling, chess, and sipa. motocross, cycling, and mountaineering are also becoming popular. Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines. In almost every corner of the cities, there is a basketball court.
The Philippines has participated in the Summer Olympic Games since 1924, making it the first country in Southeast Asia to compete and win a medal. The country had competed in every Summer Olympic Games since then, except when they participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics. The Philippines is also the first tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympics.
Traditional Philippine games such as luksung baka, patintero, piko, and tumbang preso are still played primarily as children's games among the youth. Sungka is a traditional native Philippine board game. Card games are popular during festivities, with some, including pusoy and tong-its, being used as a form of illegal gambling. Mahjong is played in some Philippine communities. The yo-yo, a popular toy in the Philippines, was introduced in its modern form by Pedro Flores with its name from the Ilokano language.
Arnis (Eskrima or Kali in some regions) is the national martial art and sport. Today there are said to be almost as many Philippine fighting styles as there are islands in the Philippines. In 1972, the Philippine government included Filipino martial arts into the national sports arena. The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports also incorporated them into the physical education curriculum for high school and college students.
Some Filipinos recognized for their achievements include Francisco Guilledo, Flash Elorde, Nonito Donaire and Manny Pacquiao in boxing; Paulino Alcántara in football (soccer); Carlos Loyzaga, Robert Jaworski, and Ramon Fernandez in basketball; Efren Reyes in billiards; Eugene Torre in chess; and Rafael Nepomuceno in bowling.
- Outline of the Philippines
- Index of Philippines-related articles
- International rankings of the Philippines
- ^ "Republic Act No. 8491". Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 2007-12-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20071205235342/http://www.gov.ph/aboutphil/RA8491.asp. Retrieved 2008-09-30. Link revisited on November 19, 2010.
- ^ "Presidential Decree No. 940". May 29, 1976. http://www.chanrobles.com/presidentialdecrees/presidentialdecreeno940.html#.UKFPmeRJ4Zk.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j General Information. (older version – as it existed in 2007 – during the presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo), The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines.
- ^ Based on the official mapping authority of the Philippines (NAMRIA): http://www.namria.gov.ph/philGeo.aspx (as of 2012).
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Central Intelligence Agency (2009-10-28). "East & Southeast Asia :: Philippines". The World Factbook. Washington, DC: Author. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
- ^ a b "Philippines population". National Statistics Office of the Republic of the Philippines. http://www.census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2012/pr1227tx.html. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- ^ a b c d "Philippines". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=566&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=35&pr.y=15. Retrieved October 2012.
- ^ United Nations Development Programme. (2011). Table 1 – Human Development Index and its components. Human Development Report 2010 – The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-28445-6 90101.
- ^ Lucas, Brian (August 2005). "Which side of the road do they drive on?". http://www.brianlucas.ca/roadside/. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- ^ a b 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, Article XIV, Section 7. Retrieved 2009-11-21 from the Chan Robles Virtual Law Library.
- ^ General Profile of the Philippines : Geography, Philippine Information Agency.
- ^ Global Pinoys to rally at Chinese consulates – The Philippine Star » News » Headlines. Philstar.com (2012-04-27). Retrieved on 2012-07-04.
- ^ "Cebu". encyclopedia.com, citing The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Cebu.html. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- ^ Zaide 1994, pp. 354.Template:Cnf
- ^ Scott, William Henry. (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth-century Philippine Culture and Society. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 6. ISBN 971-550-135-4. http://books.google.com/?id=15KZU-yMuisC. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
- ^ Spate, Oskar H. K. (1979). "Chapter 4. Magellan's Successors: Loaysa to Urdaneta. Two failures: Grijalva and Villalobos". The Spanish Lake – The Pacific since Magellan, Volume I. Taylor & Francis. p. 97. ISBN 0-7099-0049-X. http://epress.anu.edu.au/spanish_lake/mobile_devices/ch04s05.html. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- ^ Friis, Herman Ralph. (Ed.). (1967). The Pacific Basin: A History of Its Geographical Exploration. American Geographical Society. p. 369. http://books.google.com/?id=veuwAAAAIAAJ&cd=5&dq=islas+del+poniente+san+lazaro&q=islas+del+poniente#search_anchor. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- ^ Galang, Zoilo M. (Ed.). (1957). Encyclopedia of the Philippines, Volume 15 (3rd ed.). E.Floro. p. 46. http://books.google.com/?id=lt5uAAAAMAAJ&cd=2&dq=islas+del+poniente+san+lazaro&q=islas+del+poniente+#search_anchor. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- ^ Tarling, Nicholas. (1999). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia – Volume One, Part Two – From c. 1500 to c. 1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-521-66370-9. http://books.google.com/?id=jtsMLNmMzbkC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- ^ Quezon, Manuel, III. (2005-03-28). "The Philippines are or is?". Manuel L. Quezon III: The Daily Dose. Retrieved 2009-12-20.
- ^ Henderson, Barney (August 4, 2010). "Archaeologists unearth 67000-year-old human bone in Philippines". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/philippines/7924538/Archaeologists-unearth-67000-year-old-human-bone-in-Philippines.html. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
- ^ Fox, Robert B. (1970). The Tabon Caves: Archaeological Explorations and Excavations on Palawan. National Museum. p. 44. http://books.google.com/?id=pd6AAAAAMAAJ&q=tabon+man. Retrieved 2009-12-16.
- ^ Scott, William Henry. (1984). Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. p. 15. ISBN 971-10-0227-2. http://books.google.com/?id=FSlwAAAAMAAJ&q=pre-mongoloid.
- ^ Scott, William Henry. (1984). Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. p. 138. ISBN 971-10-0227-2. http://books.google.com/?id=FSlwAAAAMAAJ&q=pygmy+Negrito. "Not one roof beam, not one grain of rice, not one pygmy Negrito bone has been recovered. Any theory which describes such details is therefore pure hypothesis and should be honestly presented as such."
- ^ Solheim, Wilhelm G., II. (2006). Archeology and Culture in Southeast Asia. University of the Philippines Press. pp. 57–139. ISBN 978-971-542-508-7.
- ^ Solheim, Wilhelm G., II. (January 2006). Origins of the Filipinos and Their Languages. Archived from the original on 2008-08-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20080803020434/http://web.kssp.upd.edu.ph/linguistics/plc2006/papers/FullPapers/I-2_Solheim.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- ^ Mijares, Armand Salvador B. (2006). The Early Austronesian Migration To Luzon: Perspectives From The Peñablanca Cave Sites. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 26: 72–78.
- ^ Legarda, Benito, Jr. (2001). "Cultural Landmarks and their Interactions with Economic Factors in the Second Millennium in the Philippines". Kinaadman (Wisdom) A Journal of the Southern Philippines 23.
- ^ a b Ring, Trudy, Robert M. Salkin, and Sharon La Boda. (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. pp. 565–569. ISBN 1-884964-04-4. http://books.google.com/?id=vWLRxJEU49EC&pg=PA565&dq=#v=onepage&q=. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- ^ Zaide, Gregorio F. (1957). Philippine Political and Cultural History. Philippine Education Co. p. 42. http://books.google.com/?id=pJYVAQAAIAAJ&q=Kingdom+of+tondo&dq=Kingdom+of+tondo. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- ^ Zhang Xie. (1618) (in Chinese). Dong Xi Yang Kao [A Study of the Eastern and Western Oceans] Volume 5 (Template:Lang-zh). ISBN 7532515931. MID 00024687. Retrieved 2009-12-18.
- ^ Bascar, C.M. (n.d.). Sultanate of Sulu, "The Unconquered Kingdom". Retrieved 2009-12-19 from The Royal Hashemite Sultanate of Sulu & Sabah Official Website.
- ^ Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. p. 171. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.
- ^ U.S. Department of State. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. (June 2009). Background Note: Brunei. Retrieved 2009-12-18.
- ^ a b c Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1990). History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Garotech Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 971-8711-06-6.
- ^ a b McAmis, Robert Day (2002). Malay Muslims: The History and Challenge of Resurgent Islam in Southeast Asia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 18–24, 53–61. ISBN 0-8028-4945-8. http://books.google.com/?id=59PnSwurWj8C&pg=PA18. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- ^ Zaide, Gregorio F. and Sonia M. Zaide (2004). Philippine History and Government (6th ed.). All-Nations Publishing Company.
- ^ Kurlansky, Mark. (1999). The Basque History of the World. New York: Walker & Company. p. 64. ISBN 0-8027-1349-1.
- ^ a b Joaquin, Nick. (1988). Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming. Manila: Solar Publishing.
- ^ Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Education". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-12-20 from Country Studies US Website.
- ^ Halili, Maria Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore. pp. 119–120. ISBN 971-23-3934-3. http://books.google.com/?id=gUt5v8ET4QYC&pg=PA119&q=. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
- ^ De Borja, Marciano R. (2005). Basques in the Philippines. University of Nevada Press. pp. 81–83. ISBN 0-87417-590-9. http://books.google.com/?id=xXpiujH2uOwC&pg=PA81&q=. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
- ^ a b Nuguid, Nati. (1972). "The Cavite Mutiny". in Mary R. Tagle. 12 Events that Have Influenced Philippine History. [Manila]: National Media Production Center. Retrieved 2009-12-20 from StuartXchange Website.
- ^ a b Joaquin, Nick. A Question of Heroes.
- ^ a b Richardson, Jim. (January 2006). "Andrés Bonifacio Letter to Julio Nakpil, April 24, 1897". Documents of the Katipunan. http://kasaysayan-kkk.info/docs.ab.240497.jn.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-19.
- ^ Bautista, Veltisezar. (2002). "3. The Philippine Revolution (1896–1898)". The Filipino Americans (1763–present): Their History, Culture and Traditions (2nd ed.). Naperville, IL: Bookhaus Publishers. ISBN 0-931613-17-5. https://bookhaus2.securesites.net/philnewscentral/cgi-bin/redirect.cgi?url=philrev.html. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
- ^ Ocampo, Ambeth. (1999). Rizal Without the Overcoat (Expanded ed.). Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc. ISBN 971-27-0920-5.
- ^ Price, Michael G. (2002). Foreword. In A. B. Feuer, America at War: the Philippines, 1898–1913 (pp. xiii–xvi). Westport, CT: Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-96821-9.
- ^ Gates, John M. (November 2002). "The Pacification of the Philippines". The U.S. Army and Irregular Warfare. http://www3.wooster.edu/history/jgates/book-ch3.html. Retrieved 2010-02-20.
- ^ White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- ^ Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). World War 2 Pacific Island Guide – A Geo-Military Study. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 318. ISBN 0-313-31395-4.
- ^ a b Chandler, David P. and David Joel Steinberg (1987). In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History (Revised 2nd ed.). University of Hawaii Press. pp. 431–442. ISBN 0-8248-1110-0. http://books.google.com/?id=jzUz9lKn6PEC&pg=PA431&dq=#v=onepage&q=. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- ^ a b Osborne, Milton E. (2004). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History (9th ed.). Allen & Unwin. pp. 235–241. ISBN 1-74114-448-5. http://books.google.com/?id=uaFaDUyeCOcC&pg=PA235&dq=#v=onepage&q=. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- ^ Tarling, Nicholas (2000). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: From World War II to the Present, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. p. 293. ISBN 0-521-66372-5. http://books.google.com/?id=U0trzUvic-8C&pg=PA293&dq=#v=onepage&q=. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- ^ Aquino, Corazon (1996-10-11). Corazon Aquino Speaks to Fulbrighters (Speech). Washington, D.C.. Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20080626025305/http://www.fulbrightalumni.org/olc/pub/FBA/fulbright_prize/aquino_address.html. Retrieved 2010-08-13.
- ^ a b Gargan, Edward A. (December 11, 1997). "Last Laugh for the Philippines; Onetime Joke Economy Avoids Much of Asia's Turmoil". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/12/11/business/last-laugh-for-philippines-onetime-joke-economy-avoids-much-asia-s-turmoil.html. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
- ^ Tulfo, Ramon (23 September 2011). "Arroyo the most corrupt president". Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/64131/arroyo-the-most-corrupt-president. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
- ^ Dizon, David. "Corruption was Gloria's biggest mistake: survey". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/nation/08/04/10/corruption-was-glorias-biggest-mistake-survey. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
- ^ Press, Associated (18 November 2011). "Philippines charges Gloria Arroyo with corruption". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/18/philippines-asia-pacific. Retrieved 15 April 2012. "Former president is formally accused of electoral fraud after government rushed to court as she tried to leave country"
- ^ "Country description". US State Department Website. US State Department Website. January 2012. http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_999.html#country. Retrieved 2012-01-24. "The Philippines is an emerging economy with a democratic system of government."
- ^ Robles, Alan C. (July/August 2008). "Civil service reform: Whose service?". D+C 49: 285–289. Retrieved on 2008-11-30.
- ^ Bigornia, Amante. (1997-09-17). "The 'consultations' on Charter change". The Manila Standard. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=no8VAAAAIBAJ&sjid=bQsEAAAAIBAJ&pg=4208,1807319&dq=. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- ^ "Guide to the Philippines conflict". (2007-08-10). BBC News. Retrieved 2009-12-16.
- ^ World Bank. Conflict Prevention & Reconstruction Unit. (February 2005). The Mindanao Conflict in the Philippines: Roots, Costs, and Potential Peace Dividend by Salvatore Schiavo-Campo and Mary Judd. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. (Social Development Paper No. 24). Retrieved 2009-12-16.
- ^ Liefer, Michael. (2005). Michael Liefer – Selected Works on Southeast Asia (Chin, Kin-Wah & Leo Suryadinata, Eds.). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-230-270-0.
- ^ The White House. (2003-03-27). "Coalition Members". http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030327-10.html. Retrieved 2009-12-18.
- ^ a b c d e f g U.S. Department of State. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. (October 2009). "Background Note: Philippines". http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2794.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-18.
- ^ Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. [c. 2008]. About Us. Retrieved 2010-08-13.
- ^ Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. [c. 2008]. The Philippines and the UN Security Council. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
- ^ United Nations Human Rights Council. [c. 2009]. Membership by regional groups from 19 June 2006–18 June 2007. Retrieved 2010-03-21.
- ^ United Nations Security Council. (1999-10-25). Resolution 1272 [S-RES-1272(1999)]. Retrieved 2010-03-21.
- ^ Bangkok Declaration. (1967-08-08). Retrieved 2009-12-20 from Wikisource.
- ^ "ASEAN Primer". (1999). 3rd ASEAN Informal Summit. Archived from the original on 2007-12-17. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- ^ Chua, Yvonne T. and Ellen Tordesillas. (2008-03-09). "6 Philippine-occupied islands covered in Spratly agreements". GMA News. http://www.gmanews.tv/story/84023/6-Philippine-occupied-islands-covered-in-Spratly-agreements. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
- ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. [c. 2009]. "Japan's ODA Data by Country – Philippines". http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda/data/pdfs/philippines.pdf. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- ^ a b Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Relations with Asian Neighbors". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 2010-01-05 from Country Studies US Website.
- ^ "DFA: 'Technicalities' blocking RP bid for OIC observer status". (2009-05-26). GMA News. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- ^ Balana, Cynthia. (May 26, 2009). "RP nears observer status in OIC – DFA". The Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://globalnation.inquirer.net/news/news/view/20090526-207265/RP-nears-observer-status-in-OIC----DFA. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- ^ Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. "List of Regions". (March 2010). Retrieved 2010-05-21.
- ^ a b Republic Act No. 5446 – An Act to Amend Section One of Republic Act Numbered Thirty Hundred and Forty-Six, Entitled "An Act to Define the Baselines of the Territorial Sea of the Philippines". Republic of the Philippines. (September 18, 1968). Retrieved 2009-11-21 from the Chan Robles Virtual Law Library.
- ^ "RDC chooses Zamboanga City as regional center of Region 9". Zambotimes.com. March 4, 2011. http://www.zambotimes.com/archives/28568-RDC-chooses-Zamboanga-City-as-regional-center-of-Region-9.html. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
- ^ "A Resolution Endorsing Zamboanga City as the location of Regional Center of Region IX". Regional Development Council IX. March 3, 2011. http://neda9.net/attachments/category/101/Resolution%20No.%20IX-008-11.pdf. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
- ^ Central Intelligence Agency. (2009). "Field Listing :: Coastline". Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
- ^ Republic of the Philippines. Department of Tourism. [c. 2008]. Leyte is Famous For.... Retrieved 2010-03-21 from www.travelmart.net. Archived from the original.
- ^ "Submissions, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, pursuant to article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982". United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. 28 May 2009. http://www.un.org/Depts/los/clcs_new/commission_submissions.htm. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- ^ La Putt, Juny P. [c. 2003]. The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake. Retrieved 2009-12-20 from The City of Baguio Website.
- ^ Newhall, Chris, James W. Hendley II, and Peter H. Stauffer. (2005-02-28). "The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines (U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 113-97)". U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/1997/fs113-97/. Retrieved 2007-04-09.
- ^ Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park - UNESCO World Heritage Centre
- ^ a b Greenlees, Donald. (May 14, 2008). "Miners shun mineral wealth of the Philippines". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/14/business/worldbusiness/14iht-mine.1.12876764.html. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
- ^ Davies, Ed and Karen Lema. (2008-06-29). "Pricey oil makes geothermal projects more attractive for Indonesia and the Philippines". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/29/business/worldbusiness/29iht-energy.1.14068397.html. Retrieved 2009-12-18.
- ^ a b c "Natural Resources and Environment in the Philippines". (n.d.). eTravel Pilipinas. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- ^ Chanco, Boo. (1998-12-07). "The Philippines Environment: A Warning". The Philippine Star. http://gbgm-umc.org/asia-pacific/philippines/ecophil.html. Retrieved 2010-02-15 from gbgm-umc.org.
- ^ Williams, Jann, Cassia Read, Tony Norton, Steve Dovers, Mark Burgman, Wendy Proctor, and Heather Anderson. (2001). "Biodiversity Theme Report". Retrieved on 2009-11-06.
- ^ Carpenter, Kent E. and Victor G. Springer. (April 2005). "The center of the center of marine shore fish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands". Environmental Biology of Fishes 74 (2): 467–480. DOI:10.1007/s10641-004-3154-4.
- ^ a b c Rowthorn, Chris and Greg Bloom. (2006). Philippines (9th ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 52. ISBN 1-74104-289-5. http://books.google.com/?id=aaUR07G0yAcC. Retrieved 2009-12-10.
- ^ Regalado, Jacinto C. Jr. and Lawrence R. Heaney. (1998). "Vanishing Treasures". In Lawrence R. Heaney, Vanishing Treasures of the Philippine Rain Forest. Chicago: Field Museum. (archived from the original on 2009-03-18).
- ^ Biological diversity in the Philippines
- ^ The Largest Eagles in the World, Data Comparison http://www.haribon.org.ph/index.php?view=article&id=223%3Athe-largest-eagle-in-the-world&option=com_content&Itemid=119
- ^ Template:IUCN2006
- ^ Guinness says Philippine croc world's largest. AFP via News.yahoo.com (2012-07-02). Retrieved on 2012-07-04.
- ^ a b Conservation International. Center for Applied Biodiversity Science. [c. 2007]. "Philippines". In Biodiversity Hotspots. Retrieved 2009-12-20.
- ^ Taguinod, Fioro. (2008-11-20). "Rare flower species found only in northern Philippines". GMA News. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
- ^ WWF-Philippines. (2008-09-02). Apo Reef Set to Reclaim Old Glory: park opens for tourism, closes for fishing. Retrieved 2010-04-26 from the WWF-Philippines Website.
- ^ "About the Philippines". (2009-10-17). Retrieved 2009-12-20 from the Philippine History Website.
- ^ Peralta, Eleno O. (2005). "21. Forests for poverty alleviation: the response of academic institutions in the Philippines". In Sim, Appanah, and Hooda (Eds.). Proceedings of the workshop on forests for poverty reduction: changing role for research, development and training institutions (RAP Publication). Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Retrieved 2009-12-20.
- ^ Heaney, Lawrence R. [c. 2002]. "The Causes and Effects of Deforestation". Field Museum of Natural History. (archived from the original on 2009-03-17).
- ^ Kirby, Alex. (2003-07-23). SE Asia faces 'catastrophic' extinction rate. BBC News. Retrieved 2009-12-20.
- ^ a b c Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. (n.d.). "Climate of the Philippines". http://kidlat.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/cab/cab.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
- ^ Lonely Planet. (n.d.). Philippines: When to go & weather. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
- ^ a b c Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. (March 2006). Country Profile: Philippines. Retrieved 2009-12-17.
- ^ Chong, Kee-Chai, Ian R. Smith, and Maura S. Lizarondo. (1982). "III. The transformation sub-system: cultivation to market size in fishponds". Economics of the Philippine Milkfish Resource System. The United Nations University. ISBN 92-808-0346-8. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. http://wayback.archive.org/web/*/http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/80346e/80346E06.htmhtm. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
- ^ Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA). (January 2009). "Member Report to the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee, 41st Session". Retrieved on 2009-12-17.
- ^ Monthly Typhoon Tracking Charts. (2010). Retrieved 2010-04-24 from the National Institute of Informatics, Kitamoto Laboratory, Digital Typhoon Website.
- ^ a b Glossary of Meteorology. Baguio. Retrieved on 2008-06-11.
- ^ Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. "Third Quarter 2009 Gross National Product and Gross Domestic Product by Industrial Origin". http://www.nscb.gov.ph/sna/2009/3rdQ2009/2009gnpi3.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
- ^ a b c d e Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office. (October 2009). "Quickstat" (PDF). http://www.census.gov.ph/data/quickstat/qs0909tb.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
- ^ Denis Somoso. (2011-11-04). "$75.174 Billion – Philippines GIR now Rank 26th World's highest International Reserves". Hikot Global Pinoy. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
- ^ The Filipina sisterhood. (2001-12-20). The Economist. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- ^ a b c Ure, John (2008). Telecommunications Development in Asia. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 301–302. ISBN 978-962-209-903-6. http://books.google.com/?id=rujyOiFMl0MC&printsec=frontcover. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- ^ "Philippines". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=36&pr.y=14&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=566&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2012-04-20.
- ^ Felix, Rocel. (2008-01-25). 2007 GDP seen growing at fastest rate in 30 years. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2010-05-29.
- ^ Philippines Aims to Boost Growth by 2009. (2007-02-20). Forbes. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2007-02-22. Retrieved 2008-01-09.
- ^ a b United Nations Development Programme. (2009). "Table G: Human development and index trends, Table I: Human and income poverty". Human Development Report 2009 – Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development.
- ^ Reddel, Paul (2009-05-27). Infrastructure & Public-Private Partnerships in East Asia and the Philippines [PowerPoint slides]. Presentation in Manila to the American Foreign Chambers of Commerce of the Philippines. Retrieved 2010-02-13 from the Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) Website.
- ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. 2006-09-14. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=37&pr.y=3&sy=2005&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=subject&ds=.&br=1&c=566%2C536%2C578%2C548&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
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