| Principality of Tmutarakan |
Kievian Rus' (1015-1113)
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
the Principality of Tmutarakan was a Russian principality that existed in the 10th - 12th centuries on the Taman Peninsula, with its center in Tmutarakan. The territory of the Principality covered Eastern Crimea, the Taman Peninsula and, possibly, the lower part of the Kuban region. Tmutarakan principality diversity of different ethnic composition. It was inhabited Kasogs, Alans , Russ, Khazars, Greeks, Abazins and Armenians.
The exact time of the conquest of the territory of the principality by the Kievan Rus' is not known. It is believed that it occurred during the Eastern campaign of Svyatoslav I of Kiev in 960, or during the a campaign of Vladimir I against Chersonesus (Crimea) (Korsun), in 988 . Previously, this area had been part of the Khazar Khaganate , and before that was part of the Byzantine Empire.
From 988 to 1036 the principality was ruled by Mstislav Vladimirovich who died in 1036. In 1022 Mstislav defeated the Kasogs, killing their Rededya in a duel. Mstislav built in Tmutarakan the Church of Our Lady, and later, established of the Diocese of Tmutarakan. In 1024 after the Battle of Listven, the importance of the principality of Tmutarakan diminished. Mstislav made several trips with the Alans to Shirvan in 1030, in 1032 and 1033 in order to forge regional alliances. These attempts were unsuccessful.
Starting from 1054 the Principality of Tmutarakan was included in the possessions of the Prince of Chernigov Svyatoslav Yaroslavich. In the 2nd half of the 11th century the principality was ruled by his sons, Gleb, Roman and Oleg Svyatoslavich. Towards the end of the 11th century, Cuman nomads cut off Tmutarakan from Russia. In 1083 with the help of a Byzantine fleet, Oleg Svyatoslavich regains control of Tmutarakan.
The principality of Tmutarakan was last mentioned in Russian chronicles in 1094. Later the principality was under the sovereignty of the Byzantine Empire. According to S.A. Pletnev, in the XII century, Tmutarakan was ruled by the Cumans. According to another version, it was ruled by kasog princes, who had dynastic ties with the Russians.
The economy of the principality of all the years of its existence has been the slave trade and the salt produced in the lake Sivash.
- Насонов А. Н., Тмуторокань в истории Восточной Европы Х в., в сборнике: Исторические записки, в. 6, М., 1940;
- Монгайт А. Л., О границах Тмутараканского княжества в XI в., в кн.: Проблемы общественно-политической истории России и славянских стран. Сб. статей к 70-летию академика М. Н. Тихомирова, М., 1963.
- Тмутараканское княжество
- ТМУТАРАКАНСКОЕ КНЯЖЕСТВО, ТМУТАРАКАНЬ
- ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ ТМУТАРАКАНСКОГО КНЯЖЕСТВА И ЕГО ВЗАИМООТНОШЕНИЯ С НАРОДАМИ СЕВЕРНОГО КАВКАЗА ВО ВТОРОЙ ПОЛОВИНЕ X –НАЧАЛЕ XI ВВ.
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