|Rebecca Towne ‡|
|Birth:||21 February 1621 Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England, United Kingdom|
|Death:||19 July 1692 Salem, Massachusetts, United States|
|Father:||William Towne (1599-1685)|
|Spouse:||Francis Nurse (1618-1695)|
|Wedding:||24 August 1644 Salem, Massachusetts, United States|
As a result of the infamous Salem Witch Trials, Rebecca Towne Nurse (1621-1692) and her sister, Mary Towne Eastey, were both hanged on July 19, 1692. A third sister, Sarah Towne Cloyes, was accused but eventually released.
There are various spellings of the Nurse surname, the most common of which being "Nourse." It appears the name changed back and forth several times. Nurse is an occupational name, such as "Baker", "Carpenter" or "Cook".
What was then known as Salem Village is now Danvers, MA.
- Daughter of William Towne (1599-1685) and Joanna Blessing (1595-1682)
- 1621-Feb-21 : Birth in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England -
- 1637-April : Immigration (age 16) to America with parents on Rose of Yarmouth.
- 1644-Aug-24 : Marriage to Francis Nurse (1612-1695) at Salem Village, Massachusetts Colony
- 1692-Jul-19: Death by hanging - Salem Witch Trials - age 71.
William's daughter, Joanna Blessing (1595-1682) married William Towne and they were Rebecca's parents. Joanna was born in Great Yarmouth and died in Topsfield, Essex county, Massachusetts. The couple had eight children, Rebecca, Edmond, Jacob, Joseph, Mary, Sarah, John and Susannah.
Immigration to America
All but Sarah and Joseph were born in England. William Towne and Joanna Blessing possibly left England on the ship "Rose of Yarmouth" in April 1637. The exact date they left England and name of the ship used is not known for sure. He was a puritan and apparently left England because of religious persecution like most of the people who left England for Massachusetts at that time.
There is much less information on Rebecca's husband Francis Nurse. He was born January 18, 1618 in England and died November 22, 1695 in Salem Village. He and Rebecca married August 24, 1644 at Salem. Francis had appeared in Salem in about 1640 at about the age of 19. He was described as "a youth," possibly an indentured servant. The first mention of him in Salem, lightly crossed out in court records, (probably by a sensitive descendant), is the presentment on March 31, 1640, of "Francis Nurse a youth for stealing of victualls (food) and for suspicion of breaking (into) a house."After Francis and Rebecca married, they lived for the next 30 years in the more thickly settled part of Salem, "near Skerry's" not far from where the bridge now crosses to Beverley. By trade he was a tray maker and artisan and in addition, he worked a small farm.
Around 1645, she married Francis Nurse, who had also been born in England, some time between 1618 and 1620. Her husband was a "tray maker" by trade, who likely made many other wooden household items. Due to the rarity of such household goods, artisans of that medium were considered esteemed. In 1672, Francis served as Salem's Constable. Together the couple had eight children, four daughters and four sons. Nurse frequently attended church and her family was well respected in Salem Village. It was later written that she had "acquired a reputation for exemplary piety that was virtually unchallenged in the community," making her one of the first "unlikely" witches to be accused.
Salem Witch Trials
Rebecca Towne Nurse and her sister, Mary Towne Eastey, were both hanged on July 19, 1692. A third sister, Sarah Towne Cloyes, was accused but eventually released.
Nurse and her family lived on a vast homestead which was part of a 300-acre grant given to Townsend Bishop in 1636. The family had been involved in a number of acrimonious land disputes with the Putnam family. On March 23 a warrant was issued for her arrest based upon accusations made by Edward and John Putnam. Upon hearing of the accusations the frail 70-year-old, who is often described as an invalid, said, "I am as the child unborn, but surely, what sin hath God found out in me unrepented of, that He should lay such an affliction on me in my old age."
In March 1692, Rebecca and two of her sisters were arrested and jailed based on accusations by the Putnam girls that claimed Rebecca's specter had attacked them. At age 71, she was one of the oldest accused. Her ordeal is often credited as the impetus for a shift in public opinion about the validity of the witch trials. On March 19th, Abigail Williams started the first claim against Rebecca and shortly afterwards, the other afflicted girls joined in. On March 24th she was arrested and brought to the village meetinghouse for questioning.
There was a public outcry over the accusations made against her, as she was considered to be of very pious character. Thirty-nine of the most prominent members of the community signed a petition on Nurse's behalf. Her trial began on June 29, 1692. A widow accused her of killer her husband three years earlier by casting a spell on him. Another woman testified that Nurse's specter was sticking her with pins right in court. She had a bloody knee to prove it. However, the woman had been seen jabbing herself with pins.
At one point in the proceedings, Rebecca's sister, Sarah Cloyse, stormed out of church one day in protest. She too was accused and arrested for witchcraft.
By dint of her respectability, some testified on her behalf including her family members. However, the young Ann Putnam and her siblings would break into fits and claim Nurse was tormenting them. In response to their outbursts Nurse stated, "I have got nobody to look to but God." Many of the other afflicted were hesitant to accuse Nurse.
In the end, the jury ruled Nurse not guilty, probably because of the petition and her strong Christian repucation. Great public outcry and renewed fits and spasms by the afflicted girls when the not guilty verdict was announced. This uproar surprised and startled the magistrates who asked that the verdict be reconsidered. At issue was the statement of another prisoner "she was one of us" to which Nurse did not reply, probably because of her loss of hearing. Also when the innocent The jury took this as a sign of guilt and changed their verdict.
Governor Phipps granted her a reprieve, but public outcry scared him into recalling it and Nurse was hanged on July 19 along with Sarah Good, Sarah Wilds, Elizabeth Howe and Susannah Martin.
Sample trial testimony
The following is taken from the transcript for March 24, 1692:
Hathorne: Tell us, have you not had invisible appearances more than what is common in nature?
Nurse: I have none, nor never had in my life.
Hathorne: Do you think these afflicted girls suffer voluntarily or involuntarily?
Nurse: I cannot tell.
Hathorne: That is strange. Everyone can judge.
Nurse: I must be silent.
Hathorne: They accuse you of hurting them, and if you think it is not unwillingly, but by design, you must look upon them as murderers.
Nurse: I cannot tell what to think of it.
Hathorne: Do you think these suffer against their wills or not?
Nurse: I do not think they suffer against their wills.
Rebecca Nurse and four others were sent to the gallows in Salem town on July 19, 1692. There a minister urged Nurse to admit her guilt. "You are a liar!" Nurse shot back. "I am no more a witch than you are a wizard!". Minutes later she and the others were dead from hanging. Many people labeled Nurse as "a of Christian behavior", due to her dignified behavior on the gallows. As was the custom, after hanging Nurse's body was buried in a shallow grave near the gallows, along with other convicted witches, who were considered unfit for a Christian burial. Nurse's family secretly returned after dark and dug up her body which they interred properly on their family homestead. In July 1885, her descendants erected a tall granite memorial over her grave in what is now called the Rebecca Nurse Homestead cemetery in Danvers (formerly Salem Village), Massachusetts. The inscription on the monument reads:In 1892 a second additional monument was erected nearby recognizing the 40 neighbors who took the risk of publicly supporting Nurse by signing a petition to the court in 1692.
One of Rebecca's sisters, Mary (Towne) Estey, was also hung on charges of being a witch. The last of the s in Salem took place in September 1692. In all, 20 people were put to (including five men), and eight others died in jail. The trials ended perhaps because too many people of good reputation had been accused. By 1703 the General Court made payments to the heirs of the victims and 25 pounds was paid to the heirs of Rebecca Nurse. In 1706, Ann Putnam, one of the original four hysterical young women, made a written statement of remorse. She said that the devil had deceived her into accusing people and mentioned "Goodwife Nurse" in particular. In 1712 the pastor who had cast Rebecca out of the church formally cancelled the excommunication.
The family of Rebecca Nurse and other victims forced Reverend Samuel Parris to leave Salem in 1697.
- John Nurse (1645-1719) - Married Elizabeth Smith - Salem Village
- Rebecca Nurse (1648-1719) - Married Thomas Preston - Salem Village
- Samuel Nurse (1649-1715) - Salem Village
- Michael Nurse (1651-?) -
- Sarah Nurse (1652-1699) - Married Michael Bowden - Salem Village
- Mary Nurse (1659-1749) - Married John Tarbell - Salem Village
- Francis Nurse (1661-1715) - Married Sarah Cragen - Salem Village
- Benjamin Nurse (1666-1757) - Married Thomasin Smith at Salem Village
- http://www.peraugust.com/nurse_witch_project.htm - Nurse Witch Project
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salem_witch_trials - Wikipedia Article for Salem Witch Trials -
- wikipedia:en:Rebecca Nurse - Wikipedia Biography of Rebecca Towne Nurse
- http://www.rebeccanurse.org/RNH/nursehomestead.htm - Rebecca Nurse Homestead
- http://www.townefolk.com/ - The Towne Family Association
Warrant for Arrest of Rebecca Nurse
To the Marshall of Essex or his deputie
There Being Complaint this day made before us by Edward Putnam and Jonathan Putnam Yeomen both of Salem Village, Against Rebeca Nurce the wife of Franc's Nurce of Salme Village for vehement Suspition, of haveing Committed Sundry acts of Witchcraft and thereby haveing donne Much hurt and Injury to the Bodys of Ann putnam the wife of Thomas putnam of Salem Village Anne putnam the dauter of Said Thomas putnam and Abigail Williams &c.
You are therefore in theire Majesties names hereby required to apprehend and bring before us Rebeca Nurce the wife of Franc's Nurce of Salem Village, to morrow aboute Eight of the Clock in the forenoon at the house of Lt Nathaniell Ingersoll in Salme Village in order to her Examination Relateing to the aboves'd premises and hereof you are not to faile Salem March 23rd 1692.
Response by Marshall:
March 24th 1692 I have apprehended the body of Rebeca Nurse and brought her to the house of Le't Na'th. Ingersoll where she is in Custody. George Herrick Marshall of Essex.
Petition of Rebecca Nurse to the Court
To the Honour'd Court of Oryr and Terminer now Sitting in Salem, this 28 of June An'l 1692.
That whareas sum Women did sarch your Petissioner at salem, as I did then Conceive for Sum Supernaturall Marke, and then one of the s'd women which known to be, the Moaste Antient Skillfull prudent person of them all as to Any such Concernd. Did express hirselfe to be of A contrary opinion from the Rest and did then Declare, that shee saw nothing in or Aboute yo'r Honors poare pettissioner bu what might Arise from a naturall cause. And I then Rendered the said persons asuficient knowne Reason as to My self of the Moveing Cause thereof: which was by Exceeding weaknesses; descending partly from an overture of Nature and difficult Exigences that hath befallen me in the times of my Travells: And therefore yo'r pettissioner Humbley prayes that you Honours would be pleased to Admitt of sum other women to Enquire Into this Great Concerne, those that are Moast Grand wide and Skillful. Namely Ms Higginson sen'r Ms Buckstone, Ms Woodbery two of them being midwives. Ms Porter Together with such others may be Choasen on that Account: Before I am Brought to my triall; All which I hope your Honours will take into your prudent Consideration, And find it requisite soe to doe. for my Lyfe Lyes Now In your Hands under God; And Being Concious of my own innocency - I humbley begg that I may have liberty to manifest it to the wourld partly by the Meanes Above said. And your poare pettissioner shall Evermore pray as in duty bound. Rebecca Nurse. Her Mark. Peabody Es , Salem MA.