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The region is the top tier of local government in New Zealand. There are 16 regions of New Zealand. Eleven are governed by an elected regional council, while five are governed by territorial authorities (the second tier of local government) which also perform the functions of a regional council and thus are known as unitary authorities. The Chatham Islands Council is similar to a unitary authority, but is authorised under its own enabling legislation.
History and statutory basisEdit
A regional council means one of the regional councils listed in Part 1 of Schedule 2 of the Local Government Act 2002. That schedule lists the regional councils of New Zealand and their Gazette notices following their establishment in 1989. The Local Government Act 2002 requires regional councils to promote sustainable development – the social, economic, environmental and cultural well-being of their communities.
Unitary authorities act as regional councils for the purposes of a wide range of Acts and Regulations.
The current regions and most of their councils came about in 1989, as a result of an amalgamation procedure carried out under the Local Government Act 1974. The regional councils replaced the more than 700 ad-hoc bodies which had been formed in the preceding century – roads boards, catchment boards, drainage boards, pest control boards, harbour boards, domain and reserve boards. In addition they took over some roles which had previously been performed by county councils. The unitary authority of the Auckland Council was formed in 2010, replacing the Auckland Regional Council.
The geographic extent of the regions was based largely on drainage basins, the regional boundaries being major drainage divides such as the Southern Alps. This anticipated the responsibilities of the Resource Management Act 1991. Some regional boundaries conform with territorial authority boundaries but there are many exceptions. An example is Taupo District, which is split between four regions, although most of its area falls within the Waikato Region.
Regional authorities are primarily responsible for environmental management, including water, contaminant discharge and coastal management, river and lake management including flood and drainage control, regional land management; regional transport (including public transport) and harbours, biosecurity or pest management; while territorial authorities are responsible for: local-level land use management (urban and rural planning); network utility services such as water, sewerage, stormwater and solid waste management; local roads; libraries; parks and reserves; and community development. Property rates (land taxes) are used to fund both regional and territorial government activities. There is often a high degree of co-operation between regional and territorial councils as they have complementary roles.
Resource management functionsEdit
Regional Councils have these specific functions under the Resource Management Act 1991.
- Planning for the integrated management of natural and physical resources 
- Planning for regionally significant land uses 
- Soil conservation, water quality and quantity, water ecosystems, natural hazards, hazardous substances 
- Controlling the coastal marine area 
- Controlling via resource consents the taking, use, damming or diverting of water 
- Controlling via resource consents the discharge of contaminants 
- Establishing of rules in a regional plan to allocate water 
- Controlling via resource consents the beds of waterbodies 
Regional councils also have responsibility for a number of other functions under other statutes;
- flood and river control under the Soil Conservation and Rivers Control Act 1941,
- reserves vested in regional councils under the Reserves Act 1977,
- civil defence under the Civil Defence Act 1990,
- regional pest management under the Biosecurity Act 1993,
- harbour and water navigation under the Maritime Transport Act 1994,
- hazardous waste under the HSNO Act 1996, and,
- public transport planning under the Land Transport Act 1998.
Regional councils were also given responsibilities for the supervision of the safety of dams in the Building Act 2004.
List of regionsEdit
Areas outside regional boundaries Edit
New Zealand has a number of outlying islands that are not included within regional boundaries. The Chatham Islands is not in a region, although its council has some of the powers of a regional council under the Resource Management Act. The Kermadecs and the sub-Antarctic islands are inhabited only by a small number of Department of Conservation staff. The Conservation Minister is empowered to act as a regional council for these islands.
Regional councils are popularly elected every three years in accordance with the Local Electoral Act 2001. Councils may use a first past the post or single transferable vote system. The chairperson of a regional council is selected by the elected council members.
Predecessors of current regional structureEdit
Auckland Regional CouncilEdit
Wellington had a regional council, and earlier the Wellington Regional Planning Authority.
In 1978, legislation was passed enabling the formation of regions with United Councils. 20 regions were designated, excluding the ARA and WRC areas. For most of the country this was the first regional level of government since the abolition of provinces in 1876. United Councils were not directly elected bodies - they consisted of appointed councillors from the various Territorial Local Authorities within the region.
The only responsibilities mandated by the legislation were coordination of civil defence and development of a regional plan, although the constituent TLAs could agree on additional responsibilities at the point of formation of each United Council. For example, in a number of cases the United Council took responsibility for the allocation of revenue from regional petrol taxes.
The United Councils were based in the facilities of the largest TLA in the region and largely dependent on the TLAs for resources. They were allowed to levy rates but in most cases had minimal operating budgets (below $100,000 per annum). The notable exception was Canterbury, where the United Council had a number of responsibilities. Only one united council undertook any direct operational activity - a forestry project in Wanganui.
List of United CouncilsEdit
|Region||United Council formed||Rates Levy (1982/83)|
|Thames Valley||July 1980||$46,000|
|Bay of Plenty||August 1979||$17,000|
|East Cape||August 1979||$16,000|
|Hawkes Bay||December 1983||–|
|Nelson Bays||November 1978||$84,000|
|West Coast||November 1978||$32,000|
|Coastal / North Otago||April 1983||–|
|Clutha / Central Otago||November 1980||$33,000|
Source: Summary of the Functions and Activities of United Councils Dept of Internal Affairs, 1984.
- Provinces of New Zealand
- Territorial authorities of New Zealand
- Local Government New Zealand
- List of towns in New Zealand
- ^ Chatham Islands Council Act 1995, Parliament of New Zealand, 1995, Statute No 041, Commenced: 1 November 1995, retrieved 4 February 2008.
- ^ "Local Government Act 2002 No 84 - Interpretation". http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2002/0084/latest/DLM170881.html. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- ^ "Local Government Act 2002 No 84 - Part 1, Schedule 2". http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2002/0084/latest/DLM174258.html. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- ^ Relationship between the Local Government Act and the RMA Quality Planning The RMA Resource, retrieved 11 October 2007.
- ^ a b Bush, Graham (1995). Local Government & Politics in New Zealand (2nd ed.). Auckland University Press. ISBN 1869401263.
- ^ New Zealand Historical Atlas – McKinnon, Malcolm (Editor); David Bateman, 1997, Plate 98
- ^ Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(a)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
- ^ Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(b)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
- ^ Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(c)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
- ^ Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(d)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
- ^ Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(e)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
- ^ Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(f)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
- ^ Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(fa)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991. NB this is a new paragraph added in 2005.
- ^ Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(g)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
- ^ Harris, R. (2004) 'Local government and development legislation', Chapter 3G, Handbook of Environmental Law, Editor Harris, R., ISBN 0-9597851-8-3, Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society of New Zealand, Wellington 2004, page 130.
- ^ Sections 135, 142, 150, and 154 Building Act 2004, Parliament of New Zealand.
- ^ Living Density: Table 1, Housing Statistics, Statistics New Zealand. Accessed 25 January 2009. Areas are based on 2001 boundaries. Water bodies greater than 15 hectares are excluded.
- ^ "Subnational population estimates at 30 June 2012". Statistics New Zealand. 23 October 2012. http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/population/estimates_and_projections/subnational-pop-estimates-tables.aspx. Retrieved 23 October 2012. Also "Infoshare; Group: Population Estimates - DPE; Table: Estimated Resident Population for Urban Areas, at 30 June (1996+) (Annual-Jun)". Statistics New Zealand. 19 December 2012. http://www.stats.govt.nz/infoshare/SelectVariables.aspx?pxID=2f5a6aa2-7aeb-4792-a34a-d5567eb8082f. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- ^ Local Government Act 2002, s41(1)(a), Parliament of New Zealand.
- ^ Local Government Act 2002, s41(1)(b), Parliament of New Zealand.
|Supranational level||Realm of New Zealand|
|National level||New Zealand||Tokelau||Cook Islands||Niue||Ross Dependency|
|Regions||12 non-unitary regions||4 unitary regions||Chatham Islands||Kermadec Islands||sub-Antarctic islands|
|Territorial authorities||16 cities and 57 districts|
|Notes||Some districts lie in more than one region||These combine the regional and the territorial authority levels in one||Special territorial authority||Areas outside regional authority; these, plus the Chatham Islands and the Solander Islands, form the New Zealand outlying islands||State administered by New Zealand||States in free association with New Zealand||Claimed by New Zealand, but claim frozen by the Antarctic Treaty|
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