During the Northwest Indian War, Taylor served as a volunteer in the Kentucky militia under Major John Adair. He was injured in a disastrous 1792 battle with Indians under Little Turtle near Fort St. Clair, site of the present Eaton, Ohio.
By 1800, Taylor had enlarged "Springfield" to 700 acres (2.8 km2) by 1800. He remained active for the remainder of his life in Kentucky politics.  He donated 60 acres (240,000 m2) for the creation of Taylorsville, Kentucky, which was named in his honor.
Richard Taylor died in 1829 at the age of 85. He was buried in the family cemetery, now part of the Zachary Taylor National Cemetery.
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