All reigning monarchs of Europe descend from Marie Luise von Hessen-Kassel (1688-1765) and Johan Willem Friso van Nassau-Dietz (1687-1711), and hence from Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Hugh Capet and William the Conqueror. JWF and ML are the most recent common ancestors of today's European monarchs.

The list also includes a number of people who lost their thrones. This list is not complete. Furthermore, there are ex-royals who do not descend from JWF, such as the pretenders of Brazil, France, Germany, and Portugal.

Note that Marie Luise is a fourth cousin, three times removed of Louis XIII, King of France; both descend from Jean VIII de Vendôme (1428-1478); the monarchs of Brazil, France and Portugal descend from Louis XIII. William I, German Emperor is a 10th-great-grandson of Jean VIII.

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