Santa Coloma in ArgentinaEdit
The surnames "de Santa Coloma" and "Santa Coloma" of Argentina are equivalent, since de second was originated in "Tomás de Santa Coloma", who went to Argentina from the Basque country in ~1846.
Therefore, in Argentina there are two branches of this last name, which are also indirectly related at some point, one derived from the father of Gaspar de Santa Coloma y Sollano and the other derived form Tomás de Santa Coloma y Loyzaga, both with origin in Arceniega (Arciniega/Artziniega), Álava, Basque Country.
The first arriving to the Río de la Plata was Gaspar de Santa Coloma y Sollano, in 1768. He was born in Campijo, Arceniega, and baptized in the Church of Sancta Columba, in Santa Coloma, Arceniega. Then arrived his nephews, Juan Antonio de Santa Coloma y Santa Coloma, and Juan Domingo Julián Gutiérrez Santa Coloma.
Tomás de Santa Coloma y Loyzaga arrived later, around 1846; he was born in Baracaldo, Bilbao, in December 29th 1806. His grandfather, Francisco de Santa Coloma y San Pelayo, was born in Santa Coloma, Arceniega, in 1722, and was baptized in Santa Columba, that is, in the same church that was baptized Gaspar de Santa Coloma (b. 06.01.1742). It is not know yet if Francisco de Santa Coloma y San Pelayo and Gaspar de Santa Coloma y Sollano had a common origin in Arceniega; their family Arms are different (see Arms). In Argentina both branches are indirectly linked and exist at least another branch of this surname that arrived later, possible at the beginning of the 20th Century, also from the Basque Country.
Gaspar de Santa Coloma y SollanoEdit
Gaspar de Santa Coloma y Sollano arrived to "Río de la Plata" in 1768. He was originally from "Casería de la Campa" -today "Campijo"-, Arceniega, Álava, Basque Country, Spain. He married Flora de Azcuénaga y Basavilbaso, daughter of Vicente de Azcuénaga and granddaughter of Domingo de Basavilbaso, all from Basque origin.
Gaspar de Santa Coloma was one of the most important merchant of Buenos Aires. However, his most important work, probably unique in the Americas, its made by the register of his letters and memories. A very interesting description of the work, life and views of Gaspar de Santa Coloma can be found in “Buenos Aires Colonial”, by the Argentinean historian Enrique de Gandía , book based entirely in Gaspar´s memories. These memories were made available to Gandía by María Antonia Goycoechea Santa Coloma, granddaughter of Francisco de Santa Coloma y Azcuénaga, married to Federico Santa Coloma Brandsen (see section Tomás de Santa Coloma y Loyzaga). María Antonia belong the branch founded in Argentina by Gaspar de Santa Coloma y Sollano, and Federico Santa Coloma to the branch founded by Tomás de Santa Coloma y Loizaga. In Gaspar’s memories, important details regarding the life in the colonial Buenos Aires can be found. Also regarding the invasion of Buenos Aires by England, Invasiones inglesas, the important role of Martín de Álzaga in that events, and some references of the Mayo Revolution (ES), histories very well related in “Buenos Aires Colonial” de Enrique de Gandía . María Antonia gave later these memories (14 books) to Enrique Williams Álzaga (historian), who later donated them to the Nacional Musseum of History (ES) in Argentina.
Gaspar de Santa Coloma was married to Flora de Azcuénaga y Basavilbaso. Although there are not descendants with the last name Azcuénaga (known), we can found some of their legacy today in the Presidential Residence Quinta Presidencial de Olivos (ES), which survived since its was donated specifically to that use; in the two columns of the “Quinta “San Antonio”, in the train station of [[wikipedia:es:Vicente López (partido) |Vicente López (ES)]], Provine of Buenos Aires, that survived the pass of time since these two columns were located between the raiwail and the street, in a place that do not bother to much to the “civilization”. The history of the “Quinta Presidencial” has been published under the sponsorship of the Vicente López County.  Vicente de Azcuénaga and Manuel de Basavilbaso had two farms aside in what today is Vicente López, as can be seen in the map made by José Custodio de Saa y Faria (see ). In June 1794 Miguel de Basavilbaso passed away, leaving only debths and a single douther, Justa Rufina de Basavilbaso y Garfias, that was then protected by Gaspar de Santa Coloma. Soon, by influence of Gaspar, Justa Rufina married her cousin Miguel de Azcuénaga, brother of Flora de Azcuénaga and brother in law of Gaspar de Santa Coloma. The farm of Manuel de Basavilbaso was inherited by Justa Rufina and gave origin to the Quinta Presidencial. The farm of Vicente de Azcuénaga was inherited by Flora de Azcuénaga and gave origin to the Quinta San Antonio of Vicente López, between the streets Roca and San Martín, today gone, and only survived the two columns that belong to the entrance, and that are located towards the end of the train station of Vicente López, in the way towards San Isidro. Aparently the land belonged originally to the Viceroy Vértiz(see Anecdotes The two columns of the station of Vicente López, a window to the past of the “San Antonio” farm).
From the Azcuénaga nothing was inheritaged by the Santa Coloma's, except an old umbrella, enough broken, perhaps forgotten in San Antonio in a rainy day, that can certify that in those times of May Revolution the umbrellas actually exist, something that time to time was questioned; it even has a very sophisticated mechanism with springs. In its ivory grip can be read M. Azcuénaga de O.F, since it belonged to Manuela Azcuénaga, daughter of Miguel de Azcuénaga, married with her brother cousin, Jose Antonio de Olaguer Feliú y Azcuénaga, son of Ana de Azcuénaga and the Vicerroy Olaguer Feliú.  Manuela was the only one of four brothers with descendants.
The son of Miguel de Azcuénaga, Miguel José, constructed the present building of what is today the Presinetial residence in Olivos (town that follows Vicente Lopez, in Buenos Aires). This building was the first work of Prilidiano Pueyrredón (ES). Miguel died old and without children, in Chile, and made a will in favor of his nephews the Olaguer Feliú Azcuénaga. Then, Antonio Justo Olaguer Feliú inherited the Quinta. He did not have descendants, reason why in 1903 inherited the Quinta its nephew, Carlos Villatte Olaguer. Finally, Carlos Villatte Olaguer (ES) donated it to the National State, with the condition to be always a residence for the President of Argentina. Gaspar de Santa Coloma, besides lodge and educate several nephews, he did the same with a great protagonist of our history, Martín de Álzaga, hero of the fight against the English invasions. Álzaga was sent to work and to be educated with Gaspar from very young. It was only 12 years old when he arrived from the Basque country, knowing only a few words of Castilian (he spoke only Basque language). There are not references on the reasons by which he was sent so young to Gaspar. But it was common at that time to send a boy to lern some office. The merchants usually chouse some that in the future could be a prospective sun in law, and teached everyting. Regarding Martin, it is only known that his uncle was the Captain of the ship that brought him, who probably made the adjustments with Gaspar, and it is also known that the economic situation of the Álzaga in the Basque country was not good; there are no many more data. Perhaps to send Martin to Gaspar as merchant apprentice was a solution for the future of the young Martin, as indeed it was. In fact, the life of these two Basques is full of mysteries, from the intrigue in the Royal Palace of Spain that forced the emigration of Gaspar de Santa Coloma to the virreinato, for which nobody was fearless enough to give details and therefore are lost forever, until the idea of Álzaga to restore a monarchy. Gaspar of Santa Coloma wrote in its memories, regarding the English invasions and the participation of Álzaga against them :
¡Ah Cabildo of Buenos Aires! Ah, don Martín de Álzaga, Mayor of First Vote, how much that night it was worked, how everything was arranged so that our enemies did not enter¡
Álzaga remained with Gaspar from the age of 12 to 22, when he became independent and with Gaspar’s help established his own commerce -Álzaga and Requena. According to Gaspar himself, Martín was much more efficient as a merchant. Martín de Álzaga had indeed a very important participation in the commerce of the Virreinato, arriving to be one of the richest men of that time. Martín, as spaniar and rich, was not well seen by the Mayo revolutionaries. He was order to die without a trial, and withouth a lawyer by [[wikipedia:es:Triunvirato de 1812|Triunvirato de 1812], formed by Bernardino Rivadavia, Juan Martin de Pueyrredón and Feliciano Chiclana. Gaspar of Santa Coloma, on the other hand, could save his life at the cost of its fortune, destroyed due to the continuous withdraw from the revolutionaries. We will never know with certainty the details of which it happened, since little they left writing from fear of retaliation. Martin de Álzaga managed to be save his life in one first opportunity at 1809, because it had a right trial, where Gaspar of Santa Coloma declared in his favor. Nevertheless, two years later, in 1812, Martin was detained under accusations and false witnesses, without allowing him a lawyer, and was shot that same day. Without a doubt, someone powerful as Álzaga was a threat for the Triunvirato. For that reason they did not leave any margin for defense or appeal and was shot immediately. Gaspar de Santa Coloma and his friend Jose Martinez de Hoz only dared to accompany his rest. Gaspar not only received in its house and educated as a son to Álzaga, but also to the father of Esteban Echeverria (ES), and to several nephews, among them Juan Antonio of Santa Coloma. Gaspar was also in charge of all the members of the Azcuénaga family, including Miguel de Azcuénaga, that had been orphaned from very young. The same did with his family in Spain and even helped his neighbors of Arceniega. He donated in its testament 60,000 reals to its nephew Vítores Gutiérrez Santa Coloma (about 100 pays of teacher of that time). Vítores lived in Arceniega, in Casería de la Campa (today Campijo), where Gaspar was born. Gaspar had ordered to Vítores the construction of a school, the repair of a Church and the maintenance of a teacher, Juan Antonio de Palacio (see section Anecdotes). Vítores fulfilled the order of Gaspar so well, that the teacher Palacio continued receiving its pay after 1880, that is to say, more than 65 years after the death of Gaspar! Its pay had increased of 700 reals to 1500 reals during that lapse. Towards 1880, apparently the teacher lost the memory and nobody knew in Arceniega or in the government of Álava, from where the legacy came. It is not know either what happened finally with the goods of Gaspar in Arceniega. Another important branch of the Santa Coloma’s in Argentina was originated in Vítores Gutiérrez Santa Coloma, that began with its son Juan Domingo Julian Gutiérrez Santa Coloma, nephew grandson of Gaspar of Santa Coloma (see section Juan Domingo Julian Gutiérrez Santa Coloma). After the May Revolution of 1810 (the origin of the Independence of Argentina from Spain) Gaspar lost his power and properties; his fortune was taken by the goberment in many opportunities. After being one of the most influent, powerful and reach personajes of that time, he die on January 31th 1815, living a few properties to his wife Flora and his only son Francisco.
Linage of Gaspar de Santa ColomaEdit
Gaspar de Santa Coloma and Flora de Azcuénaga had four children, but only Francisco de Santa Coloma y Azcuénaga survived and had descendants. His son Francisco de Asís de Santa Coloma y Azcuénaga was married with Rosa Pascuala de Azcuénaga y Núñez (brother cousin) and had to Francisco de Santa Coloma Azcuénaga (born in San Isidro, 01.11.1818; he was my great grandfather), married in Buenos Aires on 24.10.1851 to Antonia Armesto y Avellaneda. They had Flora Petrona Santa Coloma Armesto (b. in Buenos Aires 07.0601862), married with Miguel José Goycoechea Goycoechea (Buenos Aires, 07.06.1887), parents of María Antonia Goycoechea Santa Coloma (b. Buenos Aires 26.09.1891) and married (Buenos Aires 28.11.1918) to Federico Santa Coloma Brandsen (se section Tomás de Santa Coloma y Loyzaga). On the other hand, Isabel Armesto y Avellaneda, sister of Antonia Armesto y Avellaneda, was married with #Martín Isidoro de Santa Coloma y Lezica, Colonel of the Argentine Confederation (ES). Both sisters Armesto were doughther of José Manuel Armesto y Garay (b. in Córdoba, Argentina) and Antonina Avellaneda y García.
The only son of Gaspar was Francisco de Santa Coloma y Azcuénaga. Descendants of Francias are, among others, the following families: Santa Coloma-Señorans, Santa Coloma-Dubourg Cabrera, Bargalló Cirio-Santa Coloma, Santa Coloma-Casares, Speroni-Santa Coloma, Bravo Garay -Santa Coloma, Sacconi-Santa Coloma, Ranea Arias-Santa Coloma, Pinto-Santa Coloma, Gonzalez Silveyra-Santa Coloma, Mallea Gil-Santa Coloma, Astoul Bonorino-Bargalló, Bargalló-Benegas Ayerza, Christophersen-Bargalló, Bargalló-Rosa, Seco Pon-Bargalló, Oliden –Bargalló, Bargalló- Iglesias, Beck-Bargalló, Bargalló-Orsi, Miranda Naón-Bargalló, Penjerek-Bargalló, Rivero Haedo, Rivero Haedo-Krusting, Mackintach Calaza, Salas-Calaza, Calaza-Salas, Arana-Calaza, Reymundo Roberts, Gonzalez Chaves, Richardson Lavalle, Lavalle-Alcobendas, de la Riestra-Lavalle.
Flora de Azcuénaga, sister of Miguel de Azcuénaga y granddaughter of Domingo de Basavilbaso, was descendent of Felipe de Toledo, hidalgo, married to Catalina Rebollar, neibor funder of Concepción de Nuestra Señora del Bermejo, today in the land of the Provincia del Chaco (Argentina). Concepción del Bermejo was founded on April 14th 1585 by Alonso de Vera y Aragón (ES), nephew of Torres de Vera y Aragón (ES) –who also founded the city of Corrientes, on April 3rd 1588. 8 Concepción del Bermejo was an important town, similar in size to the Buenos Aires of that time. However, there were disputes regarding jurisdiction between Tucumán and Asunción that eventually made this city independent, something that was in its own detriment, since it became “land of noone” and fully unprotected. Constantly besieged by the natives from different tribes, the city finally abandon between 1631 and 1632, when 20.000 natives faith against 70 Spaniards; today, only its ruins remain. Those surviving were established in the city of Corrientes. In this city, a son of Felipe de Toledo, Gabriel de Toledo, married Ana Ramírez de Figueroa y Vozmediano, which according to Narciso Binayán Carmona,  could be great-grandson of María Ábalos de Mendoza, wife of Luis Ramírez, and therefore, descendent –daughter of granddaughter- of Gonzalo de Mendoza (ES) and Isabel de Irala, sister of Ursula de Irala. From the marriage with Ana Ramírez de Figueroa was son Gabriel de Toledo, lutenant governor of Corrientes between 1684 and 1691. Are descendents of Gabriel de Toledo: Manuel de Basavilbaso, Knight of Carlos III (ES) (1788); Miguel de Azcuénaga, his nefew, member of the first government of Argentina (Primera Junta (1810) and governor of Buenos Aires (1812-1814); Ana de Azcuénaga, his sister, married to Antonio de Olaguer Feliú, Viceroy of Río de la Plata (1797-1799); Flora de Azcuénaga, his other sister, married to Gaspar de Santa Coloma; José María Paz, (1791-1854), general of the independence, governor of Córdoba (1829-1831); José María Cantilo, Chancellor (Minister of Foreign Office) of Argentina (1938-1940); José Luis Cantilo, his cousin, governor of Buenos Aires (1922-1926), Mayor of Buenos Aires (1919-1921; 1928-1930); Delmira Cantilo, her sister, married to Ángel Gallardo (1867-1934), Chancellor (1922-1928), naturalist; María Celina Cantilo, her sister, married to Enrique Ruiz Guiñazú, historian, Chancellor (1941-1943); Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, President of Argentina (1971-1973), general; Francisco Ramos Mejía, (1773-1825); Marta Ramos Mejía, his daughter, married to Francisco Madero (1815-1896), Vice-president of Argentina (1880-1886); José María Ramos Mejía (1849-1914), his nephew, president of the National Council of Education, author of the system of “patriotic education”; Juan Lavalle (1797-1841), general of the independence, famous for its courage, governor of Buenos Aires (1828-1829); Luis Paz Baigorri, president of the Supreme Court of Bolivia; Víctor Paz Estensoro, grandson of his brother, president of Bolivia (1952-1956; 1960-1964; 1985-1989); Jaime Paz Zamora, his nephew in second degree, president of Bolivia (1989-1993); Adela Lavalle, married to Marcelino Ugarte, Chacellor (1867-1868); Marcelino Ugarte, hisson, governor of Buenos Aires (1902-1906; 1914-1916); Manuela Leal Lavalle, his cousin, married to Rufino de Elizalde (1822-1887), Chancellor (1862-1867; 1869; 1877-1878) .
Flora and Miguel de Azcuénaga where sons of Vicente de Azcuénaga, born in San Pedro de Dima, Biscay, and of Rosa de Basavilbaso, born in Buenos Aires, daughter of Domingo de Basavilbaso, born in Orozco, Basque Country, and of María Ignacia de Urtubia, born in Buenos Aires, daughter of José de Urtubia, born in Cascante, Navarra, Spain, and of María de Toledo, born in Buenos Aires, daughter of Manuel Ojeda, born in Triana, Sevilla, and of Ana de Guzmán y Toledo, born in Buenos Aires, daughter of Juan de Guzmán, spanish, and of María Ramírez de Toledo, born in Argentina, probably descendent of Irala. Thus, Flora y Miguel de Azcuénaga had nine generations in the Americas; therefore, the actual generations have at least fifteen generations in Argentina.
In the generation of María Ramírez de Toledo, fifth grandmother of Miguel de Azcuénaga, there were 64 relatives, and only her was Creole (born in Argentina). From them, 59 were form the Basque Country, two from Andalucái, and one from the Iberian Península but its origin unknown . As Binayán Carmona stays , this is a clear example of surname renovation inside a family. The surnames in a family hardly survive more than 200 years. Curiously, since the surnames are transmitted form father to son, this is transmitted in the same way as de Y-chromosomes are.
On the other hand, the extend family of the descendants of Domingo de Basavilbaso includes those of surname Santa Coloma, Basavilbaso , Rivero Haedo, Reimundo Roberts, Urien, Ugarte and others. It is difficult to follow the branch to actual days of all of them. However, some names has been registered for those living in the 60’s, thanks to a series of letters sent to the Bishop Caggiano by María Antonia Goycoechea Santa Coloma de Santa Coloma Brandsen (descendant of Gaspar de Santa Coloma) between 1959 and 1961, asking for the Pontifical Coronation of the Saint Christ of Buenos Aires. This Christ was under the custody of Domingo de Basavilbaso, then the Azcuénaga’s and finally de descendants of Gaspar de Santa Coloma. Those descendants of Domingo de Basavilbaso signing the letter were (in the actual order): Fernanda Basavilbaso de Urdinarraín, José María Calaza Santa Coloma, Florencio Villegas Basavilbaso, Emilio Basavilbaso, Clara Calaza Santa Coloma de Makintach, María Antonia Goycoechea de Santa Coloma, Fernanda Urdinarraín de de la Torre, María Rosa Rivero Haedo de Reymundo Roberts, Carlos de la Riestra, Adelina Cané de la Riestra, Carlos Casares Basavilbaso, Juan C. Villegas Basavilbaso, Emilio Diana Lavalle, Sarah Calaza Santa Coloma de Makintach, Blanca Diana Lavalle de Jordan, Julio César Corvalán Mendilaharzú, María Elena Girado Miguens de Patiño Mayer, María Ercilia Goyena, Zulema Urdinarraín de Castaño, Eugenio Blanco Colman, Tomás R. Makintach Calaza, Juan Carlos Reymundo Roberts, Dionisia Saenz Valiente de Etcheverrry Boneo, Horacio Villegas Basavilbaso, Noemí Rebaudi Basavilbaso Uriarte, Clara Makintach de Acevedo, N. Basalvibaso Cárcano, María Angélica Miguens de Cuyen, Evangelina Goycoechea Santa Coloma (“Monona”), Clara Antonina Goycoechea Santa Coloma (“Tonina”), Sarah Makintach Calaza, Celia Reguera Azcuénaga de Katzeistein, Jorge Obarrio, Clara Calaza Salas de Tróppoli, María Rosa Basavilbaso de López, Esther Chapital Basavilbaso, María Luisa Benci de Makintach, Ana Chapital Basavilbaso, María Magdalena Foster de Pasman, Federico Santa Coloma, María Isabel Obarrio de Martínez, Ana M. Reymundo Roberts de Gonzalez Chaves, María Esther Oliverio de Gorostiza, Héctor de Basavilbaso, María Esther Villegas Basavilbaso, Esther Teresa Basavilbaso de Ferrani, Beatriz Diana Lavalle, Fernanda Basavilbaso de Beláustegui, Justa Bustillo de Cané, José C. Miguens, Alicia Richard Lavalle de Land, Beatriz Diana Lavalle de Neuhaus, Roberto Vazquez Mansilla, Flora Dávila Miranda de Cicardi, José María Salas Calaza, María Esther Girado Miguens de Tissone, María Clara Lavalle, María Eliza Reymundo Roberts de Requena Sastre, María Carmen Reymundo Roberts, María O. de Obligado, Rosa Esther Santa Coloma de Bargalló Cirio, Laura Arana Calaza, Esther Arnedo Espinosa de Villegas Basavilbaso, Marta L. de Achaval, Adela Miguens de Del Sel, María Luisa Casares Saenz Valiente, Ema Benitez de Arduino, Elena Obligado de Oliver, María A. Makintach de Casás, María Laura Reymundo Roberts, Enrique Iriarte, Bernardo Reymundo Roberts, Carlos María Reymundo Roberts, Susana Basavilbaso del Marcó del Pont, Sara de la Colina de Corvalán, José María Calaza Salas, Ana María Lauché Basavilbaso de Ferrari, María Rosa Reymundo Roberts, María Celina Reymundo Roberts, Marta C. Miguens López Osornio, Blanca Jordan Diana, J.M. Jordan, Clara Jordan Diana, Pedro Reymundo Roberts, Enrique Urien, Adolfo Gonzalez Chaves, Sara Calaza Salas, Emma Obligado de Davel, Margarita Girado Miguens de Pearson, Tomás A. Santa Coloma, Helena Señorans de Santa Coloma, Evangelina Davel Obligado, Ilda Miguens López Osornio, Horacio Benitez, María Teresa Makintach Calaza, Lia M. Miguens de Ross, Clara Acevedo Makintoch de González, Ercilia Davel Obligado de Días Valdez, Fanny Dubourg Cabrera de Santa Coloma, José Requera Sastre, Dolores L. Basavilbaso, Amelia Saenz Valiente de Moyano, María M. Videla de Villegas Basavilbaso, María J.R.R. de Castro Videla, Mariano González Chaves, Beatriz N. Neuhaus, Lia Uriarte Rebaudi Basavilbaso, Laura Miguens López Osornio de Rodríguez, Fernanda Beláustegui de González Chaves, Carlos Valiente Noalles, Jorge Bargalló Cirio, Julia Acevedo Makintach de Casafuz, Ana María G.C. de Suarez Hearne, Ernesto Tissone, Julio Corvalán de la Colina, Amalia Busico Lavalle de Martínez Burzaco, Margarita Villegas, Amalia Belgrano Lavalle, Dominga Saenz Valiente de Tissone, Jorge Basavilbaso Arocena, María de las Mercedes Busico Bares, Lia N. Labougle, Pedro González Chaves, Rodolfo Patiño Mayer, Sofía Beláustegui Basavilbaso, Juan Eduardo Makintach Alvarez, José Osvaldo Casás, Eduardo Casás, Juan Alberto Casás, María Esther Gonzalez Chaves, María del Carmen Acevedo Makintach, Jorge Bargalló Cirio Santa Coloma, Alberto Castro Videla, María J. González Chaves, María R. Castro Videla, Alejandra Makintach Alvarez, Rosa Esther Bargalló (mi prima), Martín Jordan, Benigno Acevedo Makintach, Marcelo Grijera Jordán, Tomás Antonio Snta Coloma Señorans, María Jordán, César Acevedo Makintach, Elena Beatriz Santa Coloma Señorans, Fanny María Santa Coloma Dubourg (mi prima), Gaspar Santa Coloma Señorans, Eliseo González Acevedo, María Laura Casafuz, Bernardo González Acevedo – Buenos Aires, December 1th 1959. 9 Some of those signing this latter were relatives in law, but today, of course, their descendants are cousins. Without a doubt, there are still many that did not sign the letters.
Juan Antonio de Santa Coloma y Santa ColomaEdit
Juan Antonio of Santa Coloma, nephew of Gaspar of Santa Coloma, came from Arceniega to work with Gaspar and to learn of his experience as a merchant. Shortly after his arrival to Buenos Aires, Juan Antonio married Ana Maria de Lezica y de la Torre, with whom he had 13 children. Juan Antonio constructed a villa in [[wikipedia:es:Quilmes (Buenos Aires) |Quilmes (ES)]], Province of Buenos Aires, that still lasts and is today historical monument of Quilmes. In this villa, two slaves of Juan Antonio weere the first in sighting the English army during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata in June 25th of 1806, and apparently, Juan Antonio was the first in opening fire against the English Army. According to the legend, the marks of the shots that crossed the door of the villa of Quilmes can be still observed.
The villa in Quilmes has left as a legacy the history of the treasure of Santa Coloma. The tresure was buried by a slave of name Damian, a person to whom Juan Antonio had great confidence and esteem. But the poor Damian appeared died by the English and the treasure that he had burried never was recovered. Perhaps for that reason in London was a great news the treasures taken by the English army ([see the section Anecdotes for the entire history [#The villa of Quilmes and the lost treasure of Santa Coloma|The villa of Quilmes and the lost treasure of Santa Coloma]]). After a time with Gaspar, Juan Antonio became independent. Among the 13 children of Juan Antonio, it can be mentioned Martin de Santa Coloma(Colonel of the Confederación Argentina (ES)), Magdalena de Santa Coloma, married with Jose Francisco Acosta Soto (parents of Mariano Acosta ), and Eugene de Santa Coloma. Eugene was Consul in France, appointed first by the President Rivadavia and soon by Juan Manuel de Rosas. In France he married Jeanne Virgine Gazagne, around 1826. They had five children, two with descendants. When the Brigadier Rosas was overthrown and the brother of Eugene, Martín de Santa Coloma (ES), behaded by the General Justo José de Urquiza, without any trial, Eugene had to remain in France and never returned. After two generations, a grandson of Eugene de Santa Coloma, Carlos Cipriano de Santa Coloma Canut, decided to return to Argentina. Carlos married Gerónima Cramer Lezica (descending of the soldier of independence, Colonel Ambrosio Cramer, born in Paris, France, 07-02-1792) and his son, Luis Maria de Santa Coloma, married Felisa Maria de Alvear Ortiz Basualdo. They had three children: Federico, Fernán and Luz de Santa Coloma.
One son from Eugene returned to Argentina, Manuel of Santa Coloma, who was the first Argentinean in abroad being born in a national diplomatic delegation. He was also the escultor of the horse of the monument to Manuel Belgrano, located in Plaza de Mayo. This is the first monument of an Argentine escultor and was inaugurated by the President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento in 1876. Ironically, Sarmiento was the person signaling Martin de Santa Coloma to the General Urquiza, after the battle of Caseros ([[wikipedia:Battle of Caseros |Battle of Caseros]], for his inmediate execution, without any trial. Martín was Manuel´s uncle.
From Juan Antonio de Santa Coloma, among others, the following families are descendants: Santa Coloma-Alvear, Santa Coloma-Dedoyard, Santa Coloma-de Forges, Braun Menéndez-Santa Coloma, Acosta-Madero, Acosta-Miguens, Acosta-Grondona, Gowland-Acosta.
Colonel Martín Isidoro de Santa Coloma y Lezica Edit
On the Colonel Martín de Santa Coloma y Lezica (ES) there are not many antecedents, because in general the winners tell the history; in this case the winners of the Battle of Caseros. Still, it is possible to said with certainty that Santa Coloma was one of the heroes of the Batalla de Quebracho (ES), against the British-French blockage.
Also we know that he died in the Battle of Caseros, apparently beheaded after the battle, without any trial. The Colonel Sarmiento (later President of Argentina) was the one who claim to the General Urquiza for his execution. The executions of Martín de Santa Coloma (ES), Martiniano Chilavert, and years earlier of Manuel Dorrego, among others, is a clear example that the barbarism of those times was not exclusive of the members of the Argentine Confederation 10.
The possible participation of Martín de Santa Coloma in the Battle of Arroyo Grande, under the command of General Manuel Oribe, could have inspired to William Henry Hudson when he personified the General Santa Coloma, one of the two protagonists of The Purple Land (for details see the sections Anecdotes: The Colonel Martín de Santa Coloma and the Purple Land of Hudson).
Juan Domingo Julián Gutiérrez Santa ColomaEdit
Juan Domingo Julian Gutiérrez Santa Coloma (b. Arceniega 16.02.1789) was son of Vítores Gutiérrez Santa Coloma, nephew of Gaspar de Santa Coloma y Sollano, who entrusted the construction of a school and the maintenance of a teacher in Arceniega, Álava, Basque Country. Juan Domingo arrived to Buenos Aires at the beginning of the 19th Century and settled down in the Tucumán, where in 1829 married Josefa Estebes y Rentería. They had Isaac Santa Coloma Estebes (b. ~ 1830), married in Andalgalá, Catamarca, Argentina, on 19.03.1851 with Maria Encarnación Cisneros. They had Francisco Santa Coloma Cisneros (b. Andalgalá 04.10.1887), Judge, married in Lomas de Zamora, Buenos AIres, on 30.10.1918 with Sara Pellerano Lüchter, parents of Francisco, Fernando and Carlos Santa Coloma Pellerano, all with descendants. Descend from Juan Domingo Julian Gutiérrez Santa Coloma, among others, the following families: Santa Coloma-Bonorino, Santa Coloma-Kreutzer, Olivera-Santa Coloma, Santa Coloma-Gayán, Brea-Santa Coloma, Tombeur-Santa Coloma, Tyrrell-Santa Coloma, Bourdieu-Santa Coloma.
Tomás de Santa Coloma y LoyzagaEdit
Tomás de Santa Coloma y Loyzaga (b. Baracaldo, Bilbao, Basque Country, on 29.12.1806) arrived to Buenos Aires around 1848. He was son of Manuel de Santa Coloma y Goicoechea (b. 1770, married in San Salvador del Valleon 17.12.1798 with Josefa Casimira de Loyzaga y Allende. He was gransond of Francisco de Santa Coloma y San Pelayo (b. in Santa Coloma, Arceniega, in 1772) and of Manuela de Goicoechea y Sarria (married at S.S. del Valle on 06.09.1752).
Information related to the Santa Coloma of the Ayala Valley and Mena's Valley is provided in the "Royal Decree of heraldry and blazons" for Don Juan Tomás de Gandarias y Durañona (ES), grandson of Magdalena de Santa Coloma y Loyzaga. The history was written in the Royal Decree by Don Francisco Zazo y Rosillo, Chronicler and King of Arms of Don Felipe V, as follows:
"In the Volume IV, folio 330 of his original drafts the chronicler 18 tells us that:
They founded their ancient and noble house at Santa Coloma, in the land of Ayala, within the lordship of Biscay. Their children fought against the invaders from the beginning of this Monarchy, especially in the Battle of Clavijo and in the Battle of "del Salado", year 1340".3
When the French surrounded Fuenterrabia, sixty thousand men joined the Biscaynes, which under Anselmo Yturrigoitia, Bernardo Santa Coloma and others, obtained a great victory, taking twelve pieces of artillery that were the used in the defense of that place....
"In this way was written in the mentioned draft by the chronicler, and it is confirmed by Don Jorge de Montemayor, Volume 15, folio 54, and Don Gerónimo de Villa, Volume 19, folio 268 reverse, mentioning to Don Pedro de Santa Coloma y Salazar, neighbor of the Arceniega village at Villareal de Mena, and Patron of the convent of monks in that village".
"Don Juan Francisco de Maniaca Mujica and Don Esteban de Lariz y Munrabe, Knight and monk of the Order of Santiago in the registry of Don Pedro of Santa Coloma, applicant to the habit of the same Order, in the year of 1688, tells us that family home in Santa Coloma was near the parochial Church but distant from other houses, that it was a square tower, with corners, doors and windows of ashlar masonry stone, with a balcony of iron, and the family coat of arms placed over the entrance door. 4 This house belonged to his uncle, Don Juan of Santa Coloma Ortiz de Iturrizar, a Knight of this Order of Santiago beginning in 1668...".
The battle of Fuentarrabia, in which Bernardo de Santa Coloma was involved, was in the year of 1638.
Therefore, these Santa Coloma family was also originaly from Santa Coloma (Arceniega), although in the middle of the 19th Century they already resided in the port of Baracaldo, in Bilbao and previously in San Salvador del Valle. Francisco de Santa Coloma y San Pelayo was baptized in same Church that Gaspar de Santa Coloma y Sollano, Church of Santa Columba in Santa Coloma, as he appears in the original book of the baptismal registries that are in Vitoria - Capital of the Basque Country, in the diocesano file. A bond between the families of Gaspar de Santa Coloma y Sollano and Tomás de Santa Coloma y Loyzaga, both was original of Arceniega, could not be found yet. Tomás de Santa Coloma y Loyzaga married in Buenos Aires with Manuela Morón. They had several children, but with descendants only Cleto Santa Coloma Morón and Tomás Santa Coloma Morón.
Cleto Santa Coloma MorónEdit
Cleto Santa Coloma Morón was married to Dolores Quiñónez and had a son with descendants, Cleto Santa Coloma, physician, doctor in medicine (1917), married to María Elena Bartolomé, and a daughter, Dolores Santa Coloma Quiñónez. Cleto and María Helena had one child with descendants, Cleto Santa Coloma Bartolomé (b. 1921), Captain of the Argentina Navy, married in Buenos Aires on 21.06.1944 to Enriqueta Ciarlotti Castelli (b. Buenos Aires 1926; daughter of Orestes Ciarlotti, Argentine retailer and of Rosa Luisa Castelli). They had two children, Cleto Santa Coloma Ciarlotti (b. in Puerto Belgrano, 23.01.46), physician, psychoanalyst (Universty of Buenos Aires 1973) and Patricio Santa Coloma Ciarlotti (b. in Puerto Belgrano, 01.09.1950), merchant sailor. Patricio married to Maria Inés Piñero (1978) and they had three children, Ezequiel (b.13.03.1979), physician (University of Buenos Aires 2002), Luz María y María Eugenia.
Tomás Santa Coloma MorónEdit
Tomás Santa Coloma was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 27.11.1856. He was National Deputy (Representative), founder of the Unión Cívica (one of the oldest political associations of Argentina) , "Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima", "Tiro Federal Argentino", "Liga Argentina contra la Tuberculosis" and the Industrial Union of Argentina. Founder of a number of companies –among them of an oil company located on what today is the Alto Palermo Mall- and was co-founder and President of the Argentine Boy Scouts, together with his political cousin Francisco Pascasio Moreno. Tomás was President of the "Círculo de la Guardia Nacional", and initiated the battle against the demolition of the Buenos Aires Cabildo, fight that continued his son, Federico Santa Coloma Brandsen. Today are named after him a Boy Scout association of "Tres Arroyos" (Buenos Aires, Argentina), with 89 years of existence, and the School No. 2 of the Federal District, in Parque Chacabuco (ES). En 1923 Tomás Santa Coloma died. The Journal The Scout said: "Man of work and progress, was involved in politics since a child, motivated by the most absolute economical disinterest". Tomás had several children, but only one, Federico Santa Coloma Brandsen, had descendants.
Federico Santa Coloma BrandsenEdit
Federico Santa Coloma was the second director of the Argentine National Museum of History. He was recognized for his indefatigable fight to save from demolition the Buenos Aires Cabildo, company in which obvious was successful. The Argentine historian Enrique de Gandía said:
“Was Don Federico a great gentleman by its education and its culture, its figure elegant and distinguished, and its historical and social tradition. Admirable and enthusiastic connoisseur of our loving past and of our antiques, had been named Director of the National Historical Museum by the unanimous recognition of his authority and its amplest knowledge. He was a constant investigator of the Archivo General de la Nación. Untiring reader, always in a conversational mood, wonderfully informed… Today the Buenos Aires Cabildo (the Town hall) is a pride in Argentina. It is the House of the Argentineans. The magnificent grandfather of our country. The building was not demolished thanks to the efforts of these gentleman, Tomás Santa Coloma and his son Federico Santa Coloma. The Argentineans should not forget this. We should not either to forget the names of those who accompanied them in their fight by the salvation by the Cabildo. All their names, beginning by those of Tomás and Federico Santa Coloma, would have to appear in bronze letters in the room of entrance of the illustrious building, so that the coming generations remember them, and as the only compensations of Argentina to those who have saved the House of the Freedom, the oldest and reverenced relic of our history.” (Enrique de Gandía, 1972) 
Federico Santa Coloma Brandsen (descendant of the iniciator of the linage Tomás de Santa Coloma) married with Maria Antonia Goycoechea Santa Coloma (descendant of the iniciator of the linage of Gaspar de Santa Coloma). She was daughter of Miguel Jose Goycoechea y Goycoechea and Flora de Santa Coloma Armesto, daughter of Francisco de Santa Coloma y Azcuénaga and Antonia de Armesto y Avellaneda, son of Francisco de Santa Coloma y Azcuénaga, married with Rosa Pacuala de Azcuénaga y Núñez, son of Gaspar de Santa Coloma and Flora de Azcuénaga y Basavilbaso. Federico was cousin of the Varela Wright (among them of Manucho Mujica Láinez and of Francisca Varela Wright, married with Francisco Moreno), since Josefa Wright Jaúregui (Pepa) was daughter of the second marriage of Rosa Jáuregui, married with Agustín Wright after the death of Coronel Brandsen (ES).
Federico Santa Coloma Brandsen and Maria Antonia Goycoechea Santa Coloma had three children: Federico Miguel (educational, filántropo, historian, numismatist, and President of the Academy of History of Vicente Lopez) married with Fanny Dubourg Cabrera; Rosa Esther, married with Jorge Bargalló Cirio (Judge); and Tomás Antonio Santa Coloma Goycoechea (public auctioneer), married with Helena Señorans Rochaix. Federico Santa Coloma Goycoechea had eight children: Fanny Maria, Federico Miguel, Maria Teresa, Maria Clara, Maria Antonia, Maria Silvina, Maria Elena and Maria Florencia Santa Coloma Dubourg. Rosa Esther had twelfe children: Rosa, Jorge, Miguel Federico, Maria Antonia, Maria del Rosario, Alberto, Juan Manuel, Martin and Carmen (twins), Carola, María de Los Angeles, and María Montserrat Bargalló Santa Coloma. And Tomás had 3 children: Helena Beatriz (married to Marío Speroni -now divorced- with whom she had Miguel Angel, Mario Pedro, and Sivina Helena Speroni), Tomás Antonio and Gaspar Pedro Santa Coloma Señorans. Gaspar Santa Coloma was married wtih Claudia Casares and has one child, Federico Santa Coloma Casares.
Tomás Antonio Santa Coloma GoycoecheaEdit
He was public auctioneer and Secretary of Government, Secretary of Tourism and Director of Municipal Affairs of the Province of Corrientes, Argentina, during the years 1966-1968. Married in 1950 with Helena Beatriz Señorans Rochaix, they had three children: Tomás Antonio (Doctor in Chemical Sciences, member of the Institute of Biochemical Investigations Campomar Foundation, created by Luis F. Leloir, Professor of Buenos Aires University and researcher from the National Research Council), Helena Beatriz (resident in Paso de la Patria, Corrientes, Argentina; her daughter, Silvina Speroni Santa Coloma, sister of Mario and Miguel Speroni Santa Coloma, is married with Frederic Bernadet, French, now resident in Lyon, France, along with her two children, Ines and Valentin) and Gaspar Pedro Santa Coloma Señoráns, married with Claudia Casares (they have a son, Federico Gaspar Santa Coloma Casares). Helena Beatriz Señoráns was daughter of Anibal Jose Señorans Lasso de la Vega (physician), brother of General Eduardo A. Señorans and of Colonel Julio A. Señorans. Both were children of general Jorge Señorans and Rosario Lasso de la Vega, daughter of Andrés Lasso de la Vega (Spanish, named in 1877 “Comendador Ordinario” of the Real Orden de Isabel la Católica (ES) by the King Felipe XII: “Inasmuch as wanting to give you a demonstration of my Real esteem to you, Don Andrés Lasso de la Vega,… I the King”, 5-4-1877) and of Gabriela Ríos (Argentine), married in Province of Chaco at the beginning of 20th Century. General Jorge Señorans was nephew of the Dr. Adolfo Señorans - hero in the epidemic of yellow fever, and cousin of Juan Bautista Señorans, pioneer of the experimental medicine in Argentina.
Other significant members of the Santa Coloma Señorans FamilyEdit
Juan Bautista SeñoransEdit
Tomás Santa Coloma Goycoechea was married to Helena B. Señorans, daughter of Dr. Aníbal José Señorans Lasso de la Vega. The Dr. Juan Bautista Señorans (1859-1933), second uncle of Aníbal, was son of Juan Bautista Señorans Martinez Zabala. The Martinez Zabala were originary from San Julian de Musques (Muskiz in Basque; municipality of the province of Biscay, Basque Country, Spain). Juan Bautista was a physiologist and gastroenterologist; this last specialty was also followed by Dr. Aníbal Señorans, son of General Jorge Señorans and Rosario Lasso de la Vega. Both invented sophisticated apparatuses to extract gastric juice and to analyze them, that was worth their recognition to them in Europe. Nevertheless, something that has been forgotten, is that the Dr Juan B. Señorans was the initiator of the school of experimental physiology in Argentina, as it were documented in the recognition that Dr. Bernardo Houssay had to him in a speech of year 1921:
“Gentlemen: Professor Señorans has been the initiator of the Experimental Physiology in our country and I am pleased in saying that all the most serious work than has been made later, descends spiritually from the initial impulse that he gave. As professor was an example, simultaneously solemn and familiar, always kind, constantly suggesting and encouraging. As man was the prototype of the gentleman to the old way. Men who amalgamate the deep erudition, simplicity, the distinction of word, modals and actions so well are not commonly formed in our times. The researchers of the country considered him our true teacher. The present and coming generations will be able to take his life like an example of rectitud and purified virtues.” B.A. Houssay , 
Bernardo Houssay learned the experimental model that he used in its works from Juan B. Señorans. The Dr Virgilio Foglia, who lead the Institute of Biology and Experimental Medicine, after death of Houssay, in an informal conversation with Tomás A. Santa Coloma Señorans, at that time performing his studies of doctorate in that Institute, related that in addition Juan B. Señorans had implemented for the first time in Argentina the use of dogs as experimentation model, model that he learned in France, during one stay at the Society of Biology of Paris. In effect, Houssay, in a work published in Annals of the Argentine Medical Circle, describes to the experiences of Señorans in the Society of Biology of Paris.. This was also documented in various work of Houssay.
Thus, famous “dogs of Houssay”, from which he made the work that worth to him the NobelPrize of Physiology and Medicine in 1947, constituted a model of experimentation originated in the lessons of Juan Bautista Señorans. In fact, the use of dogs in experimentation was initiated by Claude Bernard in the middle of 19th Century, in Paris, working in hepatic metabolism. At that times the albino rats did not existed as experimental model and were used only Guinea pigs or dogs. Therefore, it is not coincidental that Houssay had described the hepatic glicogenesis in dogs fed with proteins and sugars, and that Houssay has obtained the Nobel prize worked in the role of the hypophysis in the regulation of the metabolism of carbohydrates, using the same model system. It is not either by chance that the work of Luis Federico Leloir, disciple of Houssay awarded with the Nobel Prize of chemistry in 1970, has been also in the study of the metabolism of carbohydrates. These studies were inspired by the original works of Claude Bernard in liver, whose experimental line was transmitted to Houssay by Juan B. Señorans, and from Houssay to Luis F. Leloir. So that the school of experimental physiology that Juan B. Señorans created has been without a doubt shaped in the history of Argentine science, awarded this specialty with two Nobel prizes.
Coronel Carlos Luis Federico de BrandsenEdit
Tomás de Santa Coloma (born on November 27th of 1856) married on June 11th of 1874 with Rosa Brandsen, granddaughter of the Colonel Federico de Brandsen (ES), hero of Batalla de Ituzaingó (ES). Colonel Brandsen was born in Paris on November 28th of 1785 and died in Ituzaingó, on February 20th of 1827. He was son of a Dutch physician. Colonel Brandsen, of recognized value, was Captain of Cavalry of the First French Empire, Knight of the Legion of Honor of France, Knight of the Real Italian Order of Corona de Hierro, Colonel of Cavalry of the Argentine Republic, Captain of Cavalry of Chile, Commander of the Peruvian Legion of the Húsares of the Guard, Brigadier General of Peru, Commander-in-chief of the Cavalry and Head of the Vanguard of the troops of Peru, Commander-in-chief of the Cavalry and Head of the Vanguard of the troops of Peru, Meritorious of the Order of the Sun (of Peru), decorated with the Legion of Merit of Chile, with Cords and Medal of Maipú and with the gold medal with brilliants of the Army of liberation of Peru. 
The general Tomás de Iriarte maked a detailed story of the death of Colonel Brandsen in its memories, selected and commented by the hsitorian Enrique de Gandía. 
Colonel Brandsen married in Huaura, Perú, with Rosa Jáuregui, granddaughter of the Virrey Agustín de Jáuregui. The padrino of this wedding was the Liberator José de San Martin, a close friend of Colonel Brandsen. The letters sent by Brandsen to his wife, from 1821 to 1825, show the enormous love that Brandsen had to his wife and children and describe the life of this family in Perú, during the war for the independence.  (for more information see Federico de Brandsen (ES))
Other branches of Santa Coloma in ArgentinaEdit
A detailed genealogy of almost all the branches of the Santa Coloma family in Argentina has been meticulously elaborated by Diego Herrera Vegas, still unpublished. 
There are also other Santa Coloma's that arrived to Argentina at the begining of the 20th Century. It will correspond to the all of them the future description and extension of each family and her personages.
- ^ a b c de Gandía, E. (1957) "Buenos Aires Colonial". Buenos Aires: Editorial Claridad S.A.
- ^ a b Edelstein, O. and col., Una historia de la Quinta Presidencial. 2000, Vicente López, Provincia de Buenos Aires.: Municipalidad de Vicente López.
- ^ a b c d e f Binayán Carmona, N., (1999) Historia Genealógica de Argentina, p. 202-204. Buenos Aires: Emecé
- ^ Concepción del Bermejo was near the national route Nº 95, that connect the city of Sáenz Peña with Fortín Lavalle, at Km 75 of this route
- ^ D'aloia Criado, W., Anita de Azcuénaga - La primera Virreina Criolla. 2003, Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Armerías.
- ^ Letemendía, J.I. and col., Los vascos en la Argentina -Familias y protagonismo. Segunda Edición ed. 2000, Buenos Aires: Fundación Vasco Argentina "Juan de Garay"
- ^ See Mariano Acosta (ES)
- ^ Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- ^ Ramos Mejía, F. and F.A. Barroetaveña, Union Cívica, ed. J.W. Landenberger and F.M. Conte. 1890, Buenos Aires.
- ^ Enrique de Gandía, (1972) "Federico Santa Coloma Brandsen y la Batalla por el Cabildo" Boletín del Museo Social Argentino. pág. 193-204.
- ^ a b Houssay, B.A. (1921) "Las experiencias fisiológicas del doctor Señoráns ante la Sociedad de Biología de París, 1892". Anales del Círculo Médico Argentino 15:577-578.
- ^ a b Houssay, B.A., Discurso en la demostración ofrecida en el Laboratorio de Toxicología de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas el 17 de noviembre de 1921. Semana Médica. 20, Nro. 46, 689 690; Revista del Círculo Médico Argentino y Centro de Estudiantes de Medicina. 21, Nro. 244, 1343 1345; Prensa Médica Argentina, 8, Nro. 17, 211, 1921 ; en Bernardo A. Houssay y Alfredo Buzzo, Juan B. Señorans iniciador de la medicina experimental, 77-81, Coni. 1937. 1921.
- ^ Salas, C.I., Bibliography of Colonel Brandsen 1785-1827. 1909: Banknote American Sud company the -28 of August of 1909
- ^ de Gandía, E. (1962). “Memories of General Iriarte - Fundamental Texts”. Buenos Aires: General company Fabril Editora.
- ^ Letters conserved by the family Santa Coloma Brandsen
- ^ Herrera Fertile valleys, D., Geneaología of Santa Coloma. 2004, Buenos Aires: still unpublished work, done by request of Carlos Olivera.