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Santa Coloma (Surname and Family)Edit
The Santa Coloma SurnameEdit
There are several variants of the Santa Coloma surname, including:
- Santa Coloma (Argentina, Cuba, Spain)
- de Santa Coloma (Argentina, Spain)
- Santacoloma (Colombia, USA),
- Santa Colomba (Italy, Portugal),
- Santacolomba (Italy, USA),
- Columbus (one Columbus family is derived from the last name Santa Colomba of Italy, in USA),
- Sainte Colombe (France),
- a Sancta Columba (Portugal), and
- de Sancta Columba (antique form in Catalonia, England and France).
The name is probably in use in other countries of Latin-America, including Chile, Ecuador and México. We hope that others with knowledge of the family name in other contries will add to this article.
As a surname "de Santa Coloma" and its variants are thought to be derived from a town named before Saint Columba.. Whether the last name refers to Saint Columba of Sens or to Saint Columba of Cordoba has not been determined yet. Most likely it refers to Saint Columba of Sens (Sens is located in France), a Saint from the 3rd Century, since the Santa Coloma's, according to old documents from chroniclers, were present in the battle of Clavijo (844) a century before Santa Coloma of Cordoba was born.
The word "Columba" may be translated as "a white pigeon", the symbol of peace, and is probably the root source of Saint Columba's name, and hence of the surname. In this regard its worth noting that some branches of the Santa Coloma family incorporate a pigeon bearing an olive branch as a component of their coat of arms. . A white pigeon is used as a symbol of the veneration of the Holy spirit. With time, in some regions of Italy, this has led to confusion between the devotion to Saint Columba (Santa Colomba (IT)) and the veneration to the Holly Spirit.
It is thought that the name arose as a toponymic to indicate a family that came from a town bearing the name "Sancta Columba", viz:
- “de Santa Coloma”,
- "de Sainte Colombe",
- "a Sancta Columba",
- "de Sancta Columba",
- "di Santa Colomba", etc,
all meaning "from the place of Saint Columba". The actual town of origin is yet a controversial matter.
Place of Origin Edit
The surname "de Santa Coloma" and its variants may have arisen from a common ancestor or, alternatively, independently originated in several towns of southern France, northern Spain or England (the old Gascony reagions), bearing the name of "Sancta Columba" (Santa Coloma in Latin). There are about 30 such towns in France, and at least ten in Spain, all named after Sancta Columba, Sainte Colombe, Santa Colomba and similar names. Most researchers, however, believe the name has a single point of origin, and that most, if not all persons bearing the Santa Coloma name arose from a single ancestor, originated from the "Castell de Barberà", in Cataluña, Spain. The origen corresponded to the descendants of Odesind, grandfather of Bonfill Odesind and great-grandfather of Guillem Bonfill de Santa Columba (b. 1067), the first in using the last name "de Sancta Columba".
Therefore, the last name was initiated by Guillem Bonfill de Santa Coloma in the 11th century.
There are two surname variants in use in Italy, Santa Colomba (which line traces back to Gaspare di Santa Colomba, also named Gaspar de Santa Coloma, originaly from Barcelona) and Santacolomba (which line traces back to Arnaldo di Santacolomba or Arnaldo de Santa Coloma). Both Gaspar and Arnaldo are connected to families living in Catalonia prior to their immigration to Italy.
With regard to England as a possible point of origin for the surname, this is also considered so far unlikely since the earliest use of the name in England is found in the 12th Century obit book of Hereford Cathedral in England, and the last name in Cataluña was a century earlier. That document includes records for one "Ralph de Sancta Columba" and other members of the Sancta Columba family: Odo, Hugh, Osbert and another Ralph. Another very interesting record recently found was the one related to Thomas de Sancta Columba, ordered priest in April 26 of 1261, in Launceston, England. It seems likely that this family came to England during or after the Norman Conquest, started at the year 1066, which would indicate a French continental origin (Bordeaux area). In the UK, the towns named after the St. Columba were apparently originated in the 13th Century, later than the last name:.
- Collombe – see St Columb Major (*CRO, P170/12/12/1, 1691); Sancta Columba, c.1240; Saint Colombe the Over, c.1547; St Columbe, 1586; St Cullombe the higher, 1643; St Columb, 1645; Collombe, 1691; Saint Collombe Le higher, 1694; St Columb the higher, 1738; St Columb Major, 1789; St Columb, 1838; St Columb Major, 1884, 1988.
- Collombe Le higher, Saint – see St Columb Major (*CRO, GRA/225/4, 1694); Sancta Columba, c.1240; Saint Colombe the Over, c.1547; St Columbe, 1586; St Cullombe the higher, 1643; St Columb, 1645; Collombe, 1691; Saint Collombe Le higher, 1694; St Columb the higher, 1738; St Columb Major, 1789; St Columb, 1838; St Columb Major, 1884, 1988.
- Collombe Le Lower, Saint – see St Columb Minor (*CRO, GRA/225/4, 1694); Sancta Columba Minor, 1284; Colombe the nether, 1549; Sent Columb minoris, 1558; St Colomb the neither, 1577; St Columb loer, c.1590s; Saint Collombe Le Lower, 1694; St Columb the lower, 1738; Lower St Columb, 1770, 1832; St Columb Minor, 1832; Saint Columb Minor, 1842; St Columb Minor, 1884, 1988.
Therefore, the earliest registry for these towns was Sancta Columba in 1240 and Sancta Columba Minor, in 1284, in Scotland. These are similar dates compared to the regitry for Thomas de Sancta Columba, in 1261, in the South of England. Thus, Thomas de Sancta Columba (by the way, this is also my name in Latin) was born before these towns and is geographically very distant. Therefore, the last name does not seem to be originated in England. It should probably originated in the South of France, and previously in Barberà.
Whether or not that ancient "de Sancta Columba" family had descendants in the UK is unknown. It is also unknown if the last name was changed in the UK with the pass of the centuries to some other form (Pigeon, Columbus, St. Columba, McCollum, McColam, etc.) or just disappeared.
It is perhaps noteworthy that many of the towns named after Saint Columba lie along the mideval pilgrimage route known as The Way of St. James. This route stretches from southern France, through the Basque County, and into Santiago de Copostela in Galicia, in northwestern Spain. Along the way it passes through the town of Najera in Basque Country where some of the relics of Saint Columba are venerated.
As mentioned above, some genealogists believe that most if not all the families using this surname have a common Catalan origin. Some support for this can be obtained by examining differences and similarities in the coat of arms borne by different family lines. For example, the Coat of Arms of Gaspar de Santa Coloma, from Arceniega, suggests that his family arose in Catalonia and migated to the Basque country during the "Reconquista". This is supported by the following:
- The coat of arms of Santa Caloma of Catalonia show either a silver pigeon, (as Francesc de Santa Coloma1), or three pigeons, (as the Marquess Gaspar de Santa Coloma).
- The Santa Coloma from the Valley of Mena (Arceniega, Basque Country), are distinguished by a coat of arms containing a solitary encina tree (an evergreen white oak, also known as the holly oak, the Holm Oak, or more properly Quercus ilex) and two wild boars.
- The Santa Caloma from the Biscayne display a coat of arms bearing a solitary (see oak tree) and a solitary bear (see Arms for details).
- The Coat of Arms of Gaspar de Santa Coloma (ES), born in Arceniega (ES) in the 18th Century, combines both the Catalan and Biscayne components. This COA shows three pigeons on the "dexter" (the right side of a shield to the bearer or the left side to an observer), while a bear and a oak tree appear on the "sinister" (the left side). Thus the dexter side of the COA includes the emblems characteristic of the Santa Caloma from Catalonia, while the sinister side shows the emblems characteristic of the Biscayne branch.
Significantly, despite the fact that Gaspar was born in Arceniega, his coat of arms does not show any of the components borne by Santa Caloma from the Valley of Mena, Arceniega, Basque Country. This is taken to indicate that Gaspar's family probably originated in the Catalan (the three pigeons) and Biscayne regions (the bear and the oak tree), before finally settling in Arceniega. It is not clear why he retained the Catalan/Biscayne elements, while other Santa Caloma in the Valley of Mena adopted the holly oak and two wild boar components.
There are more than twenty eight towns and cities in France named "Sainte Colombe", and some were known in the past as "Sancta Columba". In Spain we can find around ten towns and cities (much less than in France). This seems to correlate to the extent of the devotion to Sancta Columba of Sens in France and Spain, the most antique of the Columba's Saints. Thus, the same "Way of St. James" that follow the expansion of the devotion to Saint Columba (Sancta Columba), during several centuries, could also parallel the expansion of the towns and last name Santa Coloma in the North of the Iberian Peninsula.
By comparing the dates of birth of the Santa Coloma of France, Catalonia, Basque Country, Portugal and England, a more clear picture could be obtained regarding the most ancient branch.
Interestingly, there is also a branch in Portugal, corresponding to Pedro de Santa Colomba ("Petrus a Sancta-Columba") of 1650. We have little information about his origins, but it is possible that Petrus a Sancta Columba represents the end of the expansion of this last name in the Iberian peninsula. Interestingly, Petrus conserved the last name as it was originally: de Sancta Columba. However, clearly 1650 cannot be the origin of the last name, but most likely the end of the expansion in the peninsula.
It should be taking into account that theTemplars had a special devotion to Sancta Columba (also to “Our Lady of the Oak” or “Nuestra Señora de la Encina”), and that the Templars where not persecuted in Portugal (they only change the name to "Ordem Militar de Christo" or "Order of Christ") and therefore the devotion to Sancta Columba of Sens probably survive in Portugal (in Spain it was eventually replaced by the devotion to Sancta Columba of Córdoba), together with the homonymous towns, which might be the origin of the last name in Portugal if they were toponymic. However, a simplest explanation for the presence of the surname in Portugal could be the migration to Portugal of some members of the "de Sancta Columba" family from Catalugna or from the Basque Country, following the way of St. James.
Regarding the Templars, it is know that Bernardo de Santa Coloma and his wife Saurina donated the place of Ollers, in the Count of Barcelona, to the Templers. . In addition, Bonfill Guillem de Santa Coloma gave in his testament the best horse and arms to the Templars
Our understanding of the origin of the Santa Coloma surname is greatly hindered by the limited historical accounts among the Basque. An exception to this are the memoirs of Gaspar de Santa Coloma, in Argentina. This 14 volume work written between the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th Centuries, constitutes the most important reference for the history of the colonial Buenos Aires. This work is available at the National Historic Museum of Argentina (ES) of Argentina.
Finally, some members of the Santa Coloma family were Knights of St. James and Knights of Malta, and the corresponding archives might contribute important data regarding their history and origin, yet to be investigated. Recently I found a record regarding Malta and it is related to Franciscus Johannes de Sancta Columba: Catania, 27 January 1402: "Further to the preceding letter, King Martin writes to all officials and people of Malta and Gozo to accept and obey Franciscus Johannes de Sancta Columba..." .
With the recent development of Y-DNA tests (such as FTDNA), many of these uncertainties might be solved. To do so, I encourage people with last names de Sancta Columba, de Santa Coloma, de Sainte Colomb, de Santa Coloma, Santa Coloma, Santa Colomba, Santacolomba and alike, Colomb, de Colomb, Columbus, Coloma, Colom, Colón, and similar, to join the group "de Sancta Columba", that I recently created in FTDNA, and perform a 67 markers Y-DNA test. Only the 67 markers test will give us enough information to make sure of relatively close affiliations; a 12 markers would give us only a very extended time frame for the most recently common ancestor (around 1000-2000 years), something with too much uncertainty (not very useful). These 67 markers tests will help in tracking our family history and migration profiles, and know if we are all related or not (these tests can be done in many other similar services; FTDNA  is simply the one I joined and recommend, only to have all the information together, in one place, --Tasc 20:08, May 16, 2010 (UTC)).
Information related to the Santa Coloma of the Ayala Valley and Mena's Valley is provided in the "Royal Decree of heraldry and blazons" for Don Juan Tomás de Gandarias y Durañona (ES), grandson of Magdalena de Santa Coloma y Loyzaga. The history was written in the Royal Decree by Don Francisco Zazo y Rosillo, Chronicler and King of Arms of Don Felipe V, as follows:
"In the Volume IV, folio 330 of his original drafts the chronicler 18 tells us that:
They founded their ancient and noble house at Santa Coloma, in the land of Ayala, within the lordship of Biscay. Their children fought against the invaders from the beginning of this Monarchy, especially in the Battle of Clavijo and in the Battle of "del Salado", year 1340".3
When the French surrounded Fuenterrabia, sixty thousand men joined the Biscaynes, which under Anselmo Yturrigoitia, Bernardo Santa Coloma and others, obtained a great victory, taking twelve pieces of artillery that were the used in the defense of that place....
"In this way was written in the mentioned draft by the chronicler, and it is confirmed by Don Jorge de Montemayor, Volume 15, folio 54, and Don Gerónimo de Villa, Volume 19, folio 268 reverse, mentioning to Don Pedro de Santa Coloma y Salazar, neighbor of the Arceniega village at Villareal de Mena, and Patron of the convent of monks in that village".
"Don Juan Francisco de Maniaca Mujica and Don Esteban de Lariz y Munrabe, Knight and monk of the Order of Santiago in the registry of Don Pedro of Santa Coloma, applicant to the habit of the same Order, in the year of 1688, tells us that family home in Santa Coloma was near the parochial Church but distant from other houses, that it was a square tower, with corners, doors and windows of ashlar masonry stone, with a balcony of iron, and the family coat of arms placed over the entrance door. 4 This house belonged to his uncle, Don Juan of Santa Coloma Ortiz de Iturrizar, a Knight of this Order of Santiago beginning in 1668...".
The battle of Fuentarrabia, in which Bernardo de Santa Coloma was involved, was in the year 1638.
[Information on the history of this surname and family in Catalonia, France, Italy, England, Portugal and America in general will be provided as it becomes available.]
Derived surnames Edit
The Santa Coloma surname takes a variety of forms. Most, such as "Santacoloma" or "Santa Colomba" are readily recognizable as toponymics related to "Santa Coloma". An additional variant, "McCollum", or more commonly "MacCollum" is in common use in Scotland. However, its use there seems to be derived as a patronymic instead of a toponymic, meaning 'son of the servant of St. Columba' (Gaelic/Latin)
Other forms of this surname, some of clear Catalan origin, are Santacoloma -in Colombia and USA- and Santa Colomba (IT) or Santacolomba (IT) -in Sicilia an other regions of Italy- almost stinghished. In Sicily at least one family Santa Colomba and three families Santacolomba remain. There are also two families in the rest of Italy (see "La mappa dei cognomi").
Many times the derived-surnames were used to distinguish two members of the same family, or they were modified to be adapted to the local language, as it was the case of Lucio de Santa Colomba (Sicilian), son of Gaspar de Santa Coloma (Catalan), both in the Two Sicilies. Presumably, Lucio was the ancestor of the branch still found today in Sicily.
On the other hand, Arnaldo Santacolomba, Lord of Isnelo (1453), or Lucio and Gaspare de Santa Colomba should be the ancestors of the Santa Colomba (also as Santacolomba) branch in Sicily. Some members if this family migrated to New Orleans in 1910; they depart from Palermo, Sicily, on September 18th 1910 and arrived to the port of New Orleans on October 7th 1910, in the ship SS Liguria. They were Concetta Santacolomba, of 18 years, Vincenzo of 15, Giovanni of 11, Salvatore of 7 and their mother, Ángela Greco, of 50 years. They were from Cefalú (IT). They went to meet Salvatore Santacolomba, husband of Ángela. . Thus, the surname Santacolomba, of New Orleans, has a Sicilian origin and previously, from Catalonia. As happens with the transformation of "de Santa Coloma" to "di Santa Colomba" in Italy, in the United States some members of the Santa Colomba family (or Santacolomba; not yet clear) changed again their surname in order to adapt it to the local language, this time as "Columbus" 
In addition, it was suggested that the families Santa Coloma, Coloma, Colomina, Colom and Colón, all might have a common origin. There is no doubt that the coat of arms are similar (see Arms), but so far there is not direct prove of a common origin for these families. In particular, Colomina was originated in the town Santa Coloma de Queralt, that belong the the Count of Santa Coloma; therefore, it is likely to have a common origin with the Santa Coloma family.
Finally, the surname Santa Coloma exist in France under the form "Sainte Colombe" or "de Sainte Colombe". They were noble originally from the place of Sainte Colombe (previously called Sancta Columba), near Beaujolais (FR) and Forez (FR). Their relation with the family Santa Coloma of Spain, if any, is yet unknown. They might represent the most antique branch of the family, mainly if the form "de Sancta Columba" is considered, but there are not enough data yet to confirm this idea. Nevertheless, the last name "de Sancta Columba" can be found in the France of the 13th Century (for details see the section Santa Coloma in France). So, it is likely that the last name was adapted with time to the French form of "de Sainte Colombe".
The following Titles are known for de Santa Coloma, di Santa Colomba, di Santacolomba, and de Sainte Colombe,
- Thought a Privilege of July 20th 1453 from Alfonse The Magnanimous, Arnaldo de Santacolomba, Lord of Isnello, Sicily, obtained the "mero e misto imperio" .
- The title of Marquis of Santa Coloma (Marqués de Santa Coloma) was given in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies to Gaspar de Santa Coloma (Catalan; this person was not the same Gaspar de Santa Coloma of Arceniega, although both have the same Arms, and therefore, it is presumed a common origin); Then, on March 29th 1671, his son Lucio di Santa Colomba (the surname was adapted by his son to Italian language)inherited the title. Later, for unclear reasons, Charles II gave the title of Marqués de Santa Coloma to Sebastián de la Torre y Borrás (from Aragon, Spain), on April 21st 1684 .
- Actually, the Marqués de Santa Coloma reside in Bilbao; until no further confirmation, it is presumed that he belong to the family of de la Torre y Borrás, with no relation with the family Santa Coloma.
- The title of "Conde de Santa Coloma" (Count of Santa Coloma) was given to Don Pedro de Queralt e Icart by Philippe III of Spain on July 18th 1599 (see Heráldica Santa Coloma (ES)).
- François-Benoît de Sainte Colombe (1718-1784), Marquis de L'aubespine, married to Renée-Henriette de La Guiche, , daughter of Philibert de La Guiche, Count of Sivignon (FR), in the year of 1656.
- Comte Rodolphe de Sainte Colombe et du Poyet, Marquis de L'aubespin.
- Comte Louis Gabriel de Sainte Colombe, Marquis de L'aubespin.
- Jacques de Sainte-Colombe, Seigneur de Thil.
Many of the antique families of Spain have several Coat of Arms, according to the origin of each branch or to the characteristics of each member with the right to use a shield. Unfortunately, nothing has been written (at least not found so far) regarding the real history of the persons that obtained the Coat of Arms of the Santa Coloma's in the first place, and the actual meaning of each symbol has been lost forever.
According to the Kin of Arms, as documented in the decree of Heraldry and Blazons of Juan Tomás de Gandarias y Durañona , grandson of Magdalena de Santa Coloma y Loyzaga, sister of Tomás de Santa Coloma y Loyzaga (the last emigrated to Argentina around 1846), to the descendants of Diego de Santa Coloma (~1645) correspond the Coat of Arms given to Pedro de Santa Coloma y Salazar:
“Usan por armas los de esta noble casa y apellido un escudo de oro con encina verde, frutado del mismo metal, á su pié dos jabalíes negros andantes, sus bocas rojas y colmillos de plata; bordura gules con ocho aspas de oro”. .
"Use by arms those of this noble house and last name a shield of gold with a green oak, fruits of the same metal, and to its foot two black andante wild boars, their red mouths and eyeteeth of silver; bordure gules with eight gold vanes"
More details should be found in the archives of the Order of Santiago, under Pedro de Santa Coloma y Viar (b. in Santiago de Bilbao April 21st 1669, Knight of the Order of Santiago (St. James) on September 22nd 1698) and in other documents mentioned by the Kind of Arms in the mentioned decree of Heraldry.  Pedro de Santa Coloma y Salazar, Mayor of Arceniega (ES) (see section Anecdotes) and Knight of St. James, should also be registered in the archive of the Order of Santiago.
The Salazar family, on the other hand, constitute one of the oldest Basque ancestry . Curiously, in the front of the Santa Coloma house in Santa Coloma, Arceniega, the Coat of Arms of the Salazar family can be observed. The house of Santa Coloma apparently have disappeared.
On the other hand, Tomás R. Makintach Calaza (Argentinean) have in his hand another Coat of Arms, corresponding to his ancestor Gaspar de Santa Coloma, who have emigrated to the "Río de la Plata" in 1768. According to Tomás Makintach, in a publication in the Journal "El Diario Español" (Sunday April 8th 1945), the Coat of Arms corresponding to Gaspar was:
“Divide shield. On the dexter in field of azur three pigeons of silver, having the first in the bill a olive branch of the same metal; and in the sinester, in field of gold, a raised black bear near the trunk of the tree. This, according to the cronistas and Argote de Molina, folio 73 reverse, Arms of Don Gaspar de Santa Coloma y Sollano, who went to the "Río de la Plata" in the 18th Century. Field in my hands”. Tomás Makintach.
This Cost of Arms is interesting since it reinforce the idea that the Santa Coloma of Arceniega and other Basque regions came from Catalonia and that the expanded towards the Basque Country, Navarra, Castilla and Aragon during the Reconquista. Thus, the Coat of Arms from the Santa Coloma's from Catalonia is identical to the dexter of the Coat of Arms of Gaspar de Santa Coloma, in which three pigeons in azur field can be bound. It is interesting also to note that at the sinester of the shield of Gaspar de Santa Coloma there is a tree, but with a bear instead of two wild boards, which correspond to the Santa Coloma's Biscayne.
The shield of Gaspar de Santa Coloma is important since it links the Santa Coloma of the Mena Valley with the Santa Coloma of Catalonia, and Biscay. On the other hand, the shield of Tomás de Santa Coloma has symbolic links with the holly oaks, the Mena Valley and the Clavijo. But can have still many questions: Which is the reason to have holly oak in the shield? Is this for Our Lady of the Holly Oak, tree under which the "Juntas Forales" met, or due to some other unknown reason? And the meaning of the wild boards? Why the Coat of the Salazar is not included in the shield? Why is the Salazar Coat of Arms in the front of the Santa Coloma house, but not found in any other house? What happened to the noble house of the Santa Coloma of Arceniega? Unfortunately we do not have any written document to help with these questions yet.
Many can describe the heraldic meaning of the Arms, but it would be difficult to find the real motivations to select those particular symbols in the shields, since nothing is written or transmitted by oral tradition (or lost with the centuries passing by). The same can be applied to the shield of Gaspar de Santa Coloma: To whom this shield corresponded originally? Why a bear? Why an oak and not a holly oak? How can we prove the common origin between those from Catalonia, Arceniega and Biscay suggested by the Arms? Someone in the future might found additional data and can contribute to answer these questions, which is one of the objectives of this article.
The Coat of Arms from Catalonia has also variants:
- In a shield of gules, a pigeon argent (silver). For example, the blazon of Francesc Santa Coloma, lieutenant of Roger de Moncada, General Governor of Cerdeña, years 1398-1401.
- In a shield of azur, a pigeon argent.
- In a shield of azur, three pigeons argent well ordered.
- From Bagà, in a shield of azur, three pigeons argent well ordered.
- From Girona, in a shield of azur, three pigeons argent well ordered.
Symbolism in the Coat of Arms Edit
The heraldic meaning of the shields is as follows:
Santa Coloma of the Valley of Mena and the Valley of Ayala ,
- Shield of gold: it symbolizes the nobility, the splendor, the prosperity, magnanimity, certainty, wealth, power and light. The family who took this enamel, therefore, had to characterize by her qualities of magnanimity and nobility and to serve to the King cultivating the Beautiful Letters. They had to be first in defending and carrying the chivalrous virtues, to protect to the needed ones and to defend the Sovereign, with the obligation to the service and protection of the Letters before its Sovereign and Mother country. Those taking this metal in their shields are forced to make the good to the poor men, and to defend their Princes, fighting by them until its last drop of blood.
- Tree: It indicates old and clarified nobility, with stability, fecundity and love in valiant companies. Defender of the Fueros. The meetings “Juntas Forales” of Santa Coloma became under the holly oak tree that is next to the Church of Our Lady of the Oak in Arceniega. As it is fruit tree, it indicates naivete in the studies. The oak leaf means fierceness and tenacity. Oak in individual: Symbol of strong and constant spirit in heroic actions. With this emblem García Jiménez, King of Navarre, founded the Military order of the Oak, destined to fight with strength against the Moors. Its symbol was a green oak and on top was a Cross anchored of gules with this legend: “I do not fear nor to thousands that they surround to me”.
- Two black wild boars andantes, red mouths and eyeteeth of silver: A wild boar means warlike intrepidity. Two means, obviously, much intrepidity (reinforced by the Cross of San Andrés 5 and the Oak). 6
- Bordure of gules: it represents the level of arms of the Knight that dressed for the war and it was granted to the soldiers who left the combat with that dress or shield covered by the blood of the enemy. It is symbol of protection, favor and compensates, being a particular concession of the King of Spain.
- Eight gold vanes: Represents the Saint Andrews Crosses 5, also called scallop shells: they symbolize attendance to the battle of Clavijo, in the year 844, where the Santiago apostle appeared protecting to the soldiers. Also it indicates invicto in the combats.
Santa Coloma (Catalonia and Sicily), Santa Coloma (Bizcay), Sainte Colombe (France), Sancta Columba (England and France), Coloma, Colomina, and Colom (Spain)
- (collecting data)
Additional data regarding the possible origin of the surname Santa Coloma Edit
Since the “bear” corresponds to the shield of the Santa Coloma family from Biscay, the shield of Gaspar de Santa Coloma (Basque), with Catalan components in its dexter and Biscayne in the sinister, it suggest the possible route followed by the ancestors of Gaspar. The alternatives are (not necessarily in the indicated exact order):
- Catalonia (the doves) --> Biscay (the bear) --> Valley of Ayala (ES) and Nájera (ES) --> Valley of Mena (ES) (the holly oak and wild boars)
- Biscay (the bear) --> Catalonia (the doves) and Nájera (ES) --> Valley of Ayala (ES) --> Valley of Mena (ES) (the oak)
- wikipedia:Ireland, wikipedia:Scotland or wikipedia:England? <--> wikipedia:France --> wikipedia:Andorra --> Catalonia and Biscay --> wikipedia:Cantabria --> Nájera (ES) --> Valley of Ayala (ES) --> Valley of Mena (ES)
Regarding England, Ireland and Scotland, they were included for different reasons that need further investigation. In the first place, it is interesting to consider the life of Saint Columba (not the Virgin but the disciple of St. Patrick), which is the Saint Patron of Scotland; this will be considered later, when describing the different Saints. Also, it is important to consider Saint Columba of Cornwall (6th Century), since her legend is very likely a local adaptation of the legend of Sancta Columba de Sens (3rd Century), suggesting that the devotion to Saint Columba of Sens reached Great Britain. However, with respect to the last name, it is necessary to emphasize that in Great Britain the toponymic last names are not common at all. In searching for members of this family and last name, it was considered first the possibility that the surname changed radically with the passage of time, as it happened with a branch of the last name Santa Colomba in USA, which is now Columbus. Thus, the surname Pigeon (also deformed to Pidgeon) was found in England. This surname was originated in the Normand invasion to England in the year 1066. Peculiarly, their arms are identical to the Arms of those Santa Coloma from Catalonia (three doves). This similarity in the shields could be only accidental, due to the identical meaning of the words Columba and Pigeon, but it also suggests a common origin (Sainte Colombe in the south of France Colombe Pigeon, in Normandy). Thus, the situation with the surname Pigeon is now identical to the case of the surnames Coloma and Colom of Catalonia, although now in a different language (same Arms suggesting a common origin). However, these are only working hypotheses that need documentation to prove it.
Now the most interesting finding: using exactly the reverse strategy of searching the last name as it must originally have been (in the form of “Sancta Columba”), it was found in The obit book of Hereford Cathedral a reference to an individual named “Ralph de Sancta Columba”. Not only Ralph was found, but also other members of the “family Sancta Columba”, as Odo, Hugh, Osbert and another Ralph. The document stays textually:
" To Ralph de Sancta Columba was dog. of York Minster in the 12th cent. (1 Fasti I SAW 127). For to other members of the family - Odo, Hugh, Osbert and to another Ralph - see 23 entries for Feb., 15 March, 1 Sept. and 13 Sept. “(dog. = canon) . Note that the last name is “de Sancta Columba” and not “of Sancta Columba”.
The data indicates that the last name “de Sancta Columba” existed in England in the 12th Century. Peculiarly, so far, this it is the oldest data known for a member of this last name, except by the reference to the battle of Clavijo already mentioned in the case of those Santa Coloma from the Valley of Mena. Nevertheless, the reference for the battle of Clavijo was not explicit, and only mentions that “their children” were in this battle, without mentioning names or last names. Even worst, some historians consider that the Battle of Clavijo is just a legend that actually never happened. Thus, so far, the reference from the Cathedral of Hereford constitutes the oldest record found for a member of this last name (in its oldest form of de Sancta Columba). Without a doubt, now becomes very interesting to determine which is the origin of this people of Hereford and if they represent a branch of the same family, or represent only a local toponymic surname.
Was ultimately the surname Santa Coloma originated in England?
It is a possibility, at least to be considered. However, the last name in England was not “of Sancta Columba” but “de Sancta Columba”, identical to the old form of the last name in France that can be found a century later (see below). And in France “de Sainte Colombe” and “de Sancta Columba” do not have the particle “du” (French) but “de” (Spanish). This suggests that the oldest origin should be from Spain, as the reference to Clavijo suggest, although this is something that requires a specialist in old French, Spanish and Latin.
Following the same line of research, a very interesting reference was found. It demonstrates that the last name “de Sancta Columba” existed in France in the 13th Century (probably soon it was adapted to the French language with the form “de Sainte Colombe” instead of “de Sancta Columba”, as the towns did). But this reference is important also due to a different reason: It refers to the first patent in history! It was granted to “Bonafusus de Sancta Columba” (citizen of Bordeaux) by the city of Bordeaux (Bordeaux), privilege confirmed by Enrique III of England:
… the first privileges granted to importers of foreign techniques (exogenous invention) (1236, privilege granted to Bonafusus de Sancta Columba by the City of Bordeaux, and confirmed by Henry III, the French or the English)… 
It should be noted that this last name was identical to that of Ralph in England dated a century erlier. So, Were the surname “de Sancta Columba” was originated? In England or In France? This reference to Bonafusus is the oldest found in France so far, and correspond to the 13th Century, whereas the one from the Hereford Cathedral corresponded to the 12th Century. More data are needed.
Returning to the surname Santa Coloma in Spain, noteworthy, it was not found yet any record corresponding to the old form “de Sancta Columba”. Perhaps some additional information could be found in the registries that mentions the decree of Heraldry of Don Juan Tomás de Gandarias y Durañona.  Also in the “Catalogo Monumental de la Diócesis de Vitoria”,  where the Church of Santa Coloma in the town of Santa Coloma is described. Finally, in the registries of the Order of Santiago that can be found in the Archives of the Royal Chancellery of Valladolid. Perhaps additional information can be found in the Churches of Santa Coloma near Nájera (ES), in Catalonia, Andorra, Sens (FR) or other towns of France.
It is possible that those from Arceniega have taken the last name as a toponymic from Santa Coloma in Arceniega, without any relationship with those Santa Coloma’s from Biscay and Catalonia. But this not seems to be the case; at least this is not the case for Gaspar de Santa Coloma (with a Catalan origin suggested by his Coat of Arms) and neither the case of Pedro de Santa Coloma y Salazar, since their ancestors were in the Battle of Clavijo (assuming that this data is correct); that is, two centuries previous to the existence of the town Santa Coloma in Arceniega, whit a Church belonging to the 11th Century. The Church of Santa Columba in Santa Coloma (Arceniega) belongs to the 11th Century  and could mark the approximate date in which the Santa Coloma’s migrated to Arceniega. Thus, a toponymic origin in Arceniega is very unlikely for Gaspar de Santa Coloma and also for Pedro de Santa Coloma y Salazar.
In the La Rioja, Spain, there is another villa of Santa Coloma, on the side of mount Ero (also called Serradero), that is a small town located to 763 ms of altitude, 5 km of Nájera and 22 km from Logroño. The city of Nájera was core and origin of the kingdoms of Navarra, Castilla and Aragón. Interestingly, in this villa of Santa Coloma can be found a neighboring hermit dedicated to San Miguel and another one to San Pelayo, as it happens in [[wikipedia:es:Arceniega| Arceniega]. This cannot be accidental. The villa of Santa Coloma in Nájera was already founded by the year 923, 10th Century, whereas the Church of Arceniega belong to the 11th Century ; that is to say, the one from Arceniega was made one century later and, in addition, it is very modest compared to the Monastery that existed in Santa Coloma near Nájera. These facts suggest that the Santa Coloma’s from Arceniega could have emigrated from the villa of Santa Coloma near Nájera, and that when emigrating towards Arceniega constructed to the Church of Santa Coloma and the hermits of San Miguel (today disappeared) and San Pelayo (today in ruins), as they existed previously in Nájera. It would not be the only case in which a member of the Santa Coloma’s family build a Church for the Santa Coloma Virgin. It is know that the Church of Santa Coloma (Arceniega) was reconstructed by Miguel de Santa Coloma , likely with founds sent by Gaspar de Santa Coloma from the colonies. Something similar happened more contemporaneously in Baradero, Province of Buenos Aires (ES), Argentina, where the family Santa Coloma - descendants of Juan Antonio of Santa Coloma, nephew of Gaspar of Santa Coloma - gave origin to a railway station (see Anecdotes, " The two railway stations of Santa Coloma "), that eventually originated a town of the same name, as well as a Chapel dedicated to Santa Coloma (although they lack there, so far, the hermits dedicated to San Miguel and San Pelayo). Lamentably, the books of the Church of Sancta Columba of Arceniega - to be found in the Archives of the Dioceses of Vitoria- contain registry only up to the year 1600. Thus, to be able to track these roots still more, it would be necessary to arrive first from the 17th Century to the 11th Century in Arceniega (24 generations from the year 1600; the books that are missing might be found, perhaps, in the Archives of Santander), date in which the Church in Arceniega was first made. And then, another 100 years back until arriving to Nájera (28 generations in total!). The only way is to find the registries previous to the 1600, if they still exist.
Which is the history of Santa Coloma de Nájera? Exists or existed the surname Santa Coloma in Nájera? How was the town Santa Coloma of Nájera originated?
In this sense, it is interesting to note that the monastery of Santa Coloma, who gave origin to the town of Santa Coloma (Nájera), was founded by Ordoño II . The Asturian King Ordoño I was probably who faced the Moors in the battle of Clavijo (not Ramiro I, for reasons of dates). In the Battle of Clavijo, according to the mentioned Decree of Heraldry , the Santa Coloma were present and they should have been under the command of Ordoño I. It is clear then that Ordoño II, the founder of the Monastery of Santa Coloma near Nájera, came later. Thus, these data suggest that the monastery and the town of Santa Coloma near Nájera were created later than the last name Santa Coloma, already present with Ordoño I in Clavijo. This is of course assuming that the Santa Coloma’s were already using this last name in the Battle of Clavijo, as suggested by the Decree of Heraldry,  and that the Battle of Clavijo was not only a legend, something that also need further research.
With respect to Catalonia, the first Santa Coloma documented came from the 14th Century and was natural of Santa Coloma de Saserra (ES), in the Catalan region of Moianés. On the other hand, the foundation of Santa Coloma near Nájera is older 6, corresponding to the 10th Century, and the Battle of Clavijo was in the 9th Century, enough time to consider that the last name Santa Coloma was probably originated in the Basque Country and not in Catalonia (unless the Santa Coloma in the Batle of Clavijo should had came from Catalonia to the battle field, something unlikely with the data known for the Santa Coloma’s in Catalonia, at least so far). It is also interesting to consider that the Monastery of Santa Coloma in Nájera, apparently corresponded to the devotion to Sancta Columba of Sens (3rd Century) instead of the devotion to Sancta Columba of Córdoba (853) (the image of Santa Columba in Arceniega (ES) corresponds to Sancta Columba of Córdoba). This Monastery was founded by monks of the Templar (first) and Augustine (later) Orders from France, indicating that the devotion to Sancta Columba came originally from France and not from Córdoba. As the devotion, the surname could also be originated in France, and displaced towards the south following the Way of St. James along with the devotion to Sancta Columba, as already mentioned:
France (Sancta Columba de Sens) --> Templar Knights and San Agustin monks --> Andorra --> Biscay (the bear and the oak) --> Catalonia (the doves) and Valley of Ayala --> Valley of Mena (the oak and the wild boars).
The Church of Santa Coloma in Andorra (unknown origin), could mark the transition from France to Catalonia and Biscay of the devotion to Sancta Columba, of the last name and perhaps of the family Santa Coloma.
Now, DNA testing can help to clarify if the different families Santa Coloma, Sainte Colombe, Santa Columba, Colomina, Colom, Coloma, etc., are related and have a common origin or not. Also, how each branch was formed. Perhaps in the future some voluntaries could be found in each family to do the test and find out if we have indeed a common origin. Fascinating!
Santa Coloma (Virgin and martyr)Edit
The legend of Saint Columba - Sanctae Columbae in Latin, with its variations Saint Columba, Sancta Columba (ES), Santa Coloma (ES), Santa Colomba (IT), and Sainte Colombe (FR) - is interesting by diverse reasons. In the first place, there are at least four saints of name Coloma: Saint Columba of Sens (3th Century, Aurelian), Saint Columba of Rome (3th Century, Diocletian), Saint Columba of Cornwall (Saint Columba, 6th Century) and Saint Columba of Cordoba (9th Century).
Saint Columba of Cornwall should not be confused with Saint Columba, the Saint Patron of Ireland and Scotland (Columba), disciple of Saint Patrick and protagonist in the manuscript Vita Columbae, a document of the 7th Century.
- Saint Columba of Sens (3th Century) . According to the legend, Saint Columba of Sens was condemned to die in the fire in the days of the emperor Aurelian (270 - 275), but as she escape the flames with the help of a bear, soon she was beheaded in a near forest. Where her blood fell grew a water stream. Her relics apparently were moved from Sens to Rimini, Italy. It is not clear were they are at present. They might be still in Rimini or in Buenos Aires (see below).
- Santa Columba of Rome (3th Century).  Columba was born in Rome during the 3th Century, at times of Diocletian,  Roman emperor preceded by Probo and before by Aurelian; the last one was who martyred Santa Columba de Sens. The legend stays that her name was given by her parents “because of her face of angel seemed to reflect all the candor and the simplicity of the dove”. Columba had a little more than twelve years when Diocletian ordered the persecutions against the Chirstians, on February 24th of 303. Among the first imprisoned were Columba and her parents. Since Columba continued defending her beliefs, she was put under terrible torments and finally died pardoning her capturers, before the astonishment of their executioners. The Christians gathered their relics that were deposited in a niche of the called catacombs “of San Calixto”, covering them with a marble with the legend Columba puella… . Her rest remained there until the first years of the 19th Century, when there were found by the famous archaeologist priest Boldetti, custodian of the Roman catacombs. He sent the relics to the sanctuary that in Anagni, Italy, has the Order of the Cister. In the year 1911 monsignor Figueroa, bishop of Buenos Aires, obtained from the bishop of Anagi (IT), monsignor Antonio Sardi, the donation of the relics with the intention of transforming the Church of San José de Flores (ES) into Basilica . It is noteworthy but not a surprise, that Saint Columba was under the custody of the cistercienses nuns, since the Templars had a special devotion to Sancta Columba. The Order of the Templars was based on the rule of the Cistercian Order (Cistercians). The Templars even adopted the white habit of the Cistercians, to which the Red Cross characteristic of the Templars was added later. Thus, it may be possible that the relics of Sancta Columba of Rome actually correspond to the relics of Sancta Columba de Sens, sent by the Templars to the Roman catacombs for her protection after the dissolution of the Order, under the custody of the Cistercian sisters, and later found in the catacombs by Boldetti. This is only a speculation, and more data are needed to confirm or dismiss this hypothesis.
- Saint Columba of Cornwall) (6th Century). The legend of Saint Columba is documented in a manuscript conserved in the library of Cambridge, England, written by Rosecarrack during the reign of Elizabeth I of England, who affirmed to have taken the legend from local information. Legend says that Columba was the daughter of a pagan Irish king; She escape of the marriage with a pagan prince embarking in Cornwall towards Trevelgue Head. She was soon followed by the prince, through forest that is now Porth Beach, then through Rialton and Treloy, until she was finally captured in Ruthvoes, two miles to the south of St. Columb Major. There the prince behave her and where the blood fell a stream arose, originating a river yet without name, that ends at the port of St. Columb, following the way that Columba made.
- Saint Columba of Cordoba (9th Century). The legend stays that Saint Columba of Cordoba died martyr in the year 853, into the hands of a prince Moor, who thrown her to the Guadalquivir river, mutilated; but then she was found intact.
A controversy exists on the origin of Santa Columba (town, image and Church) of Nájera (ES) and of Albendiego (ES) 7. The official version is that Santa Columba, in Santa Coloma near Nájera, Albendiego and also in Arceniega, corresponds to Santa Columba, virgin and martyr of Cordoba (853), whose rest for unknown reasons are in Nájera and not in Cordoba. However, there are data suggesting that in the villa of Santa Coloma, near Nájera, an old monastery of Santa Columba de Sens was founded by French monks during the invasions of the Barbarians. So that the oldest devotion actually corresponds to Santa Columba de Sens, martyr of the time of Aurelian (3th Century). In summary, apparently the devotion to Sancta Columba (and therefore the towns and the last name) was extended from the town of Sens, in the France of 3th Century, towards Catalonia (Santa Coloma de Farners first and Santa Coloma de Cervelló later), The Rioja (Spain) ( Sancta Columba of Cordoba) and Basque Country (Arceniega), through Way of Santiago, being confused later with the devotion to Sancta Columba of Cordoba, when this devotion was more popular. It has been suggested that for this reason of greater popularity, the Church decided to replace Sancta Columba of Sens by Sancta Columba of Cordoba. For unknown reasons, apparently the rest of Sancta Columba did not remain in Sens and were sent to Rimini, Italy, to the Cathedral of Sancta Columba (Santa Colomba in (IT)). It is possible that the fall of the Templar Knights was the reason.16 The relics were taken (only some of them) by Obispo Castelli, of Rimini, that traveled to Sens with that aim in second half of the 16th Century. Later, they realized that the fragments of the relics brought from France perfectly complemented the fragments of the old relics of Sancta Columba, already existing in Rimini, that according to the legend arrived by boat (although it is not known from where). Without a doubt, more research and data are needed to have a clear picture of what really happened to this relics. Finally and most intriguing: Which is the relation between Saint Columba (Virgin) of Cornwall, England, Saint Columba of Sens and wikipedia:Saint Columba of Cordoba? Is there any relation with Saint Colomban, the disciple of Saint Patrick? Has Saint Columba of Cornwall perhaps an origin similar to the one of Saint Bridget, who in fact was Brigit, the Celta goddess of the fire, the poetry, and the Earth? . On the other hand, it is noteworthy the similarity of legends of Saint Columba of Cornwall, Saint Columba of Sens and Saint Columba of Cordoba with the legend of the Greek goddess Aretusa. Was perhaps Santa/Sancta Columba in fact the Aretusa of the Greeks, transformed to the Christianity, as it were Brigit by Saint Patrick? Is there any relationship between Saint Columba and the Order of Temple in England, Scotland and Ireland? Many more questions remain and some additional histories can be found in the section Anecdotes), regarding Saint Colomban and Nessie and Saint Columba and King Arthur.
Chapel of Sancta Columba in Santa Coloma (Arceniega, Spain) Edit
The church of Santa Columba (Arceniega) is conserved intact, but little information could be obtained on the part of the present inhabitants of Santa Coloma (they live in two houses near the Chapel). During a visit of a descendant of one Argentine branch of Santa Coloma family to Arceniega, one of them, Alberto (lamentably it was not registered his paternal last name, but the maternal was Santa Coloma), confessed that her mother was Santa Coloma, but affirming that he was not relative of anybody (although the shield of the Salazar in the front of his house reveal the contrary); probably he was afraid of some inheritance claim. Nevertheless, at the end of the third encounter it invited his visitor, very amiably, to return in the summer, “when the landscape was worthy to see it” and a pleasing memory of Alberto remain. The first baptismal registries of this church date from 1600 and therefore, the origin of all Santa Coloma’s from Arceniega are well documented until that date. However, there are eight centuries of history missing from the 1600's to Clavijo, in the year 844. The books of Santa Columba, at the Archives of the Diocese of Vitoria, begin in the first years of 1600. Among many members of the Santa Coloma surname registered, it was possible to find Gaspar de Santa Coloma y Sollano and Tomás de Santa Coloma y Loyzaga, the founder of the most important branches of the Santa Colomas’s in Argentina. Apparently the Chapel of Santa Columba might have previous registries, when belonged to others dioceses from the [11th Century]] to the year 1755 when it was moved from the Diocese of Santander to the Diocese of Vitoria, as a result of the construction of the new plant in 1787. The construction of this new plant was financed by Gaspar of Santa Coloma from Buenos Aires, Argentina, by means of his uncle Manuel de Santa Coloma, from Madrid, Spain, before the May Revolution of 1810. Soon all the archives will be digitized and could be accessed.. Sooner or later all other books will be digitized and perhaps it would be possible to investigated beyond the year 1600. In Burgos there are some registries of Santa Coloma, although it is not clear to what church of Santa Coloma they belong.
To go beyond the 1600´s is difficult, since the those old registries did not specify the grandparents, as it happens in the most recent registries, and the names were often repeated, by tradition. In addition, there are many marriages between cousins, to add confusion to the records. However, some data at least related to a possible Biscayne or Catalan origin could be found. Beyond the true origin, 500 years of history in Arceniega should be more than enough to consider that the last name Santa Coloma of Argentina is of Basque origin.
Santa Coloma (towns and cities) Edit
Numerous towns and cities with the name of Santa Coloma or her derivatives exist. The town of Santa Coloma in Arceniega had 24 neighbors in 1748 and 126 in 1786, all hidalgos . Nevertheless, with the course of the time, the industrialization and the apogee of the great cities, the population decayed gradually until practically disappearing. Today they are left only two or three families of shepherds in that place. Little is known regarding the history of Santa Coloma de Queralt, Santa Coloma of Gramanet (ES), Santa Coloma of Farners (ES),Santa Coloma de Queralt (ES), and Santa Coloma of Cervello (ES) in Catalonia. And there is little information on the history of Santa Coloma of Nájera and the numerous towns Sainte Colombe or Saint-Coulomb in France. We hope to have more information in the near future.
Sainte Colombe in FranceEdit
It is not known yet if the Santa Coloma from Spain and the Sainte Colombe from France have a common origin. As it was mentioned before, it is likely that the last name was originated in France (or England) as "de Sancta Columba", changed later to Sainte Colombe in France and Santa Coloma in Spain, as occurred in Sicily, where "de Santa Coloma" was transformed in just one generation to "di Santa Colomba", and in USA, where Santa Colomba was transformed in Columbus in the second generation, to adapt the last name to the local languages.
- One of the most notorious personages with the surname "de Sainte Colombe" is without a doubt the musician Jean de Sainte Colombe .
- François-Benoît de Sainte Colombe (1718-1784), Marquis de l'Aubespine, married to Renée-Henriette de La Guiche, doghter of Philibert de La Guiche, Count of Sivignon (FR), in 1656.
- Comte Rodolphe de Sainte Colombe et du Poyet, Marquis de L'aubespin.
- Comte Louis Gabriel de Sainte Colombe, Marquis de L'aubespin.
- Jacques de Sainte-Colombe, Seigneur de Thil.
- François de Roux de Sainte Colombe.
- Julienne de Sainte-Colombe, with the donation of the Saint-Léger Temple.
- Joseph de Sainte Colombe (1653-1706).
- The family Montesquieu de Sainte Colombe (16th Century).
- Claire de Sainte Colombe, married to Bernard de Beaufort in 1495.
- Gaston d'Hautpoul, seigneur de Félines, Cassagnoles et Ventajou, maried to Jeanne de Sainte-Colombe on February 3th 1443. Testament on September 30th 1462.
- Some members of the Sainte Colombe were Knight of the Order of Malta.
- Some Sainte Colombe were executed during the French Revolution "Le 6 janvier 1794 Jean-Louis-Eleonore de Sainte Colombe de Ronchevol, chevalier, comte de Sainte Colombe, seigneur du Poyet, né en 1733, est emprisonné et condamné à mort par les révolutionnaires de la Terreur".
Santa Coloma in Catalonia Edit
We can mention,
- "Francesc de Santa Coloma", lieutenant of Roger de Moncada, this one last Governor-general of Sardinia from 1398 to 1401. Francesc is buried in the Cathedral of Barcelona.
- The Marquess "Gaspar de Santa Coloma", who gave origin to the last name "Santa Colomba" in Sicily (Gaspare di Santa Colomba, Lucio di Santa Colomba).
- Guillem de Santa Coloma (Guillem de Sancta Columba) was the son of the Count of Santa Coloma. One son of the Count de Santa Coloma used the surname Queralt and another, named Guillem, used the surname "de Santa Coloma". This was by the year 1183: "...4 de desembre de 1183, on el rei Alfons rep l'homenatge de Guillem de Santa Coloma" . So, at least a branch of the Santa Coloma family belongs to the house of Queralt. Now the dates are closed to the references in the Hereford Cathedral, which are also dated in the XII Century.
- Bernardo de Santa Coloma. In the year of 1310, in the Testament of the Obispo de Gerona Guillelmi á Cabanellis, a “Bernardi de Sancta Columba” is mentioned:
- “...Item volumus & mandamus quod praedicti Sacerdotes intersint assidue horis canonicis nocturnis pariter & diurnis in majori ecclesia nisiin solemnitatibus B. Mariae & aliis majoribus solemnitatibus in quibus post Te Deum laudamus dictum in ecclesia majori vadant ad supradictam Capellam celebraturi matutinas & post celebrationem Vesperarum dictarum solemnitatum vadant similliter ad dictam Capellam Vesperas celebrate & quod etiam celebrent missam in preadicta Capella quilibet in sua hebdomada pro anima nostra & Bernardi de Sancta Columba fratris nostri & parentum nostrorum & omnium fidelium defunctorum...” 
- This document in latin shows that actually the last name “de Sancta Columba” is the latin form of “de Santa Coloma”. In addition, that Bernardo de Santa Coloma (Bernardi de Sancta Columba) was leaving in Cataluña in the year of 1310.
- Based in this document, it is suggested that the surname "de Sancta Columba" it is just the latin translation of the last name "de Santa Coloma". Therefore, the most likely place of origin is again Catalonia.
The possible connection between Guillem de Santa Coloma, Francesc de Santa Coloma and the Marquess Gaspar de Santa Coloma is unknown yet. It is so with the Basque branch of this family and surname. However, it should be noted again, that the Coat of Arms of Gaspar de Santa Coloma (Basque, from Arceniega, moved to Río de la Plata in 1768) had the same arms that the coat of arms of the Marquess Gaspar de Santa Coloma in Sicily, suggesting a common origin with the Catalan families.Alhambra (only the red shield with the three pigeons are shown in the Fresco), dated in the 14th Century. It is similar to the arms of the Santa Coloma family and the Colomina family, except because the pigeons are oriented towards the sinester instead of the dexter. Interestingly, the Colomina surname has its origin at Santa Coloma de Queralt, in Catalonia.
The field and the pigeons in the arms of Santa Coloma family are similar, except that the field is blue instead of red, and also the pigeons are in a different orientation, the upper with an olive branch. Due to the Italian origin of the paints, Espadafor suggests that the arms of the Fresco belong to the Santa Coloma family. This deserves further investigation. It is quit possible that the color of the shield and the orientation of the pigeons was changed from blue to red, to be in harmony with the rest of the room and the palace, abundant in red; alternatively, the shield belongs to the Colomina family.19
[The history of the Santa Coloma family and last name in Catalonia should be added here by their members, or by those having additional data; the English version of this article is now updated compared to the Spanish version].
Santa Colomba in Sicily Edit
The Santa Colomba family of Sicily, Italy,have a probable origin in Marques Gaspar of Santa Coloma, Catalan, whose name adapted in Sicily to the form “Gaspare di Santa Colomba”. His son was "Lucio di Santa Colomba" and thus the last name began with the form "Santa Colomba" in Sicily. With respect to the last name Santacolomba, whose older well-known personage was "Arnaldo de Santacoloma", Sir of Isnello. Although we do not have any data regarding his origin, presumably he was also of Catalan origin. It must consider that Arnaldo I di Santacolomba was of the 15th Century, whereas Gaspare di Santa Colomba was of the 17th Century, that is to say, of very later date. One hopes that their Italian descendants clarify and extend these data. With this goal a page has been created on Santa Colomba in wikipedia (in Italian).
- Arnaldo di Santacolomba. Through a Privilege of July 20th 1453 from Alfonso the Magnanimous, Arnaldo di Santacolomba, Sir of Isnello, Sicily, obtained the “mere e misto imperio"..
- Also found writen as "Arnaldo de Santa Coloma" , he was descendant from the great house of Fox and the Counts of Bearne and Catelví; Arnaldo was also Baron of "Buen Fornelo y Aspromonte" and Count of Isnelo. Feliciana Denti was his wife. From that marriage proceed the Counts, the Barons of Gratieri, the Princips of Valguarnera, and the Counts of Asoro.
- The title of Marquess of Santa Coloma was granted in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies to Gaspar de Santa Coloma (Catalan; it is not the Gaspar de Santa Coloma originated in Arceniega, although both personages had the same arms, and therefore it is presumed that they had a common origin); Soon, in March 29th 1671, inherited the title its son Lucio di Santa Colomba, in Sicily.
- Pietro di Santa Colomba e Denti, Conte d’Isnello (invested on August 8th 1643).
- Gaspare Santa Colomba e Denti, Marquess of Santa Colomba, 1711 
Sancta Columba in England Edit
It is noteworthy that the reference to "Ralph de Sancta Columba" in the Cathedral of Hereford is so far the most ancient record from a member of this surname, dated in the 12th Century. Unfortunately, there are not records regarding the evolution of this surname in England. Probably it was adapted to English with the centuries. The surname "de Sancta Columba" was used also in France, in the 13th Century (Bonafusus de Sancta Columba), and it is believed to be changed to French in the form of Sainte Colombe. In old manuscripts of Catalonia, the last name was also recorded as Sancta Columba , so probably this was the ancient form of this surname in England, France and Catalonia. No records were found yet as "de Sancta Columba" in the Basque country, which strongly support the theory that the ultimate origin was either from Catalonia or France.
Although the earliest use of the name in England is very old, found in the 12th Century obit book of Hereford Cathedral in England, England seems to be unlikely as a point of origin for the surname. Rather, it seems likely that this family came to England during or after the Norman Conquest in 1066, which may indicate a French continental origin. However, since the name was rendered "de Sancta Columba", rather than the Norman "du Sancta Columba", a Spanish origin might be still suggested (Spain --> France --> England). It should be noted that in the document of 1310 referenced in the section Santa Coloma in Catalonia, written in Latin, Bernardo de Santa Coloma appear as "Bernardi de Sancta Columba". Therefore, the most likely explanation for this last name in England, is that "de Sancta Columba" is just the last name "de Santa Coloma" written in Latin in the Obit of the Hereford Cathedral. An expert in language might help confirming this. So, the evidence suggest that "de Sancta Columba" and "de Sancta Coloma" are the same last name, the first written in Latin and the second in Spanish.
The obit book of Hereford Cathedral include the names of:
- Ralph de Sancta Columba
- Odo de Sancta Columba
- Hugh de Sancta Columba
- Osbert de Sancta Columba
- Ralph de Sancta Columba (distinct from the first)
All from the same family and from the 12th Century.
Santa Coloma in other CountriesEdit
The founders of the Santa Coloma surname and family in other countries are indicated below, including those members with protagonisms in history and their relatives.
Santa Coloma in ArgentinaEdit
The founders of this surname in Argentina are described in Santa Coloma (Argentina).
Santa Coloma in "Colombia"Edit
The founder of this surname in Colombia was Manuel Agustin Santa Coloma y Gutierrez from Campijo, Arceniega, father of Agustin Anacleto Santacoloma Bertoita grandfather of the Colonel Israel Santacoloma and the poet Simeon Santacoloma from the region of Antioquia. Israel Santacoloma was Colonel in the 1000 days war and some of his heroic accomplishments are documented in the Colombian National Library "Luis Angel Arango". Simeon’s literature is as well there documented "ensayos poéticos". Israel Santacoloma married Concepción Villa Abadia and rose up Ana Emilia who married Luis Hencker Richter, the major of Riosucio in the province of Antioquia/Caldas. Their descendants have documentation after the early death of their mother during the birth of the 8th child. Manuel Agustín was born 26th Sep. 1726 in Campijo and emigrated after the death of his father in 1739, to Buga in Colombia, qhere he died 26th Aug. 1770. At the link you can find the ancestors (back to1625) as registered in the online archives of Euskadi:
The ancestors came matrilineally from Burgos (Gutierrez-Pelayo) and paternally from Genealogy by xuanka at geneanet, (there is my contact address)
..To whom added Santa Coloma in Colombia: Thank you for your contribution. Please, add your name and contribution at the end of this page (Contributors section) and register to genealogy wikia to get an username, so we can contact you. Regards, --Tasc 15:04, 17 August 2007 (UTC)
Santa Coloma in "Your Country"Edit
The founders of this surname in "Your Country" are described in [[Santa Coloma/Santa Coloma (English version)/Santa Coloma ("your country")|Santa Coloma in "your country"]].
To add new data:
- Edit the link above indicating your country and delete the "nowiki" instructions.
- Create a subpage [[Santa Coloma/Santa Coloma (English version)/Santa Coloma (your country)]] and add any data that could be of interest.
- If you do not know how to do it, just write the text below and I will do it for you.--Tasc 14:53, 29 April 2007 (UTC).
Saint Columba of Cornwall and the legend of King Artur Edit
Santa Columba de Cornwall (and other Celtic regions) was born in the 6th Century. Therefore, Saint Columba of Cornwall is subsequent to Saint Columba of Sens, which is from the 3rd Century. It says the legend that Columba became to the Christianity when the Saint Spirit appeared to her in dove form (dove is "columba", in Latin). The legend is documented in a manuscript conserved in the library of Cambridge, England, written by Rosecarrack during the reign of wikipedia:Elizabeth I. He affirmed to have taken the legend from local information.
According to the legend, Columba was the daughter of King Lodan and Queen Manigild, both pagans. Columba, to escape of the marriage with a pagan prince, embarked in Cornwall towards Trevelgue Head, where she disembarked. She was soon followed by the prince through a forest that is now Porth Beach, by Rialton and Treloy, until finally the prince captured her in Ruthvoes, two miles to the south of St. Columb Major. In that place the prince beheaded her by spite, and where the blood fell a stream without name arose, whose course formed a river which ends at the port of St. Columb, follows the way that made Columba. On the other hand, David Nash Ford (English historian) suggests that the names of the parents of Saint Columba, Lodan and Manigild, are in fact distorted forms of the names of King Lot and of Queen Morgause, of legend of King Arthur. This legend is amazingly similar to the one of Saint Columba of Sens from the 3rd Century and also to the one of Saint Columba of Cordova, from the 9th Century. Therefore, it is probable that the legend of Saint Columba of Cornwell and Santa Columba of Cordova has been an adaptation of the legend of Santa Columba of Sens (the first). This does not mean that the three Saints have not existed. Simply, that their legends could be taken one from the other. Furthermore, the different legend of Sancta Columba are very similar to the legend of the Greek goddess Aretusa. Thus, although the relics of Santa Columba of Sens exist 16, it is possible that, with the centuries, its legends has been adapted and transformed by influence of the old legend of Aretusa; something similar could have happened with Santa Columba of Cordova and Cornwall. Even Sabine Baring-Gould thinks that really Saint Columba was a man, which also takes to one to ask on the origin of Saint Columba or, in old Irish, Saint Colm Cille or Columcille (“Dove of the Church”), that according to the legend was a man and whose story follows.
San Columba of Scotland and Nessie, the Loch Ness "Monster"Edit
According to Vita Columbae, Saint Columba (b. 7-12-521, d. 9-6-597) was a man; therefore, he and Santa Columba of Corwall (Saint Columba the Virgin) were two different people. Saint Columba ( Saint Columba , Saint Columb , Colm Cille or Columcille ), together with Saint Patrick and to Saint Brigid, is one of the most important saints of Ireland.
After his death, San Columba was completely forgotten and thus he had remained if the Abbot of Iona, San Adomnán (Adomnán of Iona), had not written his Vita Columbae (Life of Columba) one hundred years later. Adomnán was a descendant of Colmán mac Sétna, a cousin of Saint Columba and the ancestor, through his son Ainmire, of the kings of Cenél Conaill. He was the son of Rónán mac Tinne by Ronat, a woman from the (northern) Uí Néill lineage known as the Cenél nÉnda. Adomnán's birthplace is not known, although it is presumed that he was born in the territory of his kin-group, the Cenél Conaill, whose territory lay in modern County Donegal. Some of Adomnán's childhood anecdotes seem to confirm at least an upbringing in this area. According to Adomnán, Saint Patrick sent Columba to Scotland, where he turned to the Christianity to the Picts in 563, and founded a monastery on the island of Iona, where are buried the kins of Dál Riata and its successors, first of Scotland. This island is named in Gaelic Ì Chaluim Cille , which means Island of San Columba (for additional information see (Adomnán of Iona) from wich these data was taken)
Peculiarly, in the story of the life of Saint Columba done by Abbot fo Iona, there is the first reference to the existence of the famous Nessie, the Loch Ness Monster. In that document, Adomnán relates that Columba saved someone who was swimming in the Ness River - that ends at the lake of the same name- of fauces of Nessie, that already had killed another person. With the Signal of the Cross and saying “you will not go more far”, Columba caused that Nessie fled terrified.
Please, see the subpage Anecdotes (Yet to be translated from Spanish to English).
(To be translated)
- ^ See additional information in Enciclopedia Católica(ES) and Columba (EN)
- ^ a b c d e f g h Suarez-Coronas, J., Partial testimony of the Real Decree of Heraldry and Blazons of its Excellence Don Juan Tomás de Gandarias y Durañona (a pdf copy of this certified document can be provided on request to Tasc
- ^ See Gaspar de Santa Coloma (ES) and the Santa Coloma family of Catalunya
- ^ The references for these historical towns in Cornwall were taken from here
- ^ "Centuria Primera del Real y Militar Instituto de la Inclita Religión de Nuestra Señora de la Merced - Redempcion de Cautivos Cristianos - parte primera. Ribera, Manuel Mariano. Barcelona, 1726.
- ^ See 117 in MostCommonScottishSurnames
- ^ Salvatore Santa Colomba, resident in 525 Maurice Street, New Orleans, La. See the list of immigrants of the SS Liguria here
- ^ See the Brian Columbus explanation in Columbus & McHugh Connections
- ^ See the page of the Isnello commune, in Sicilia
- ^ See Heraldry Santa Coloma (ES))
- ^ See Dynastie_de_La_Guiche (FR)
- ^ “Los Vascos en la Argentina”, year 2000, p. 1063-1064
- ^ Taken from: “The obit book of Hereford Cathedral: Jan - June”, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 8: Hereford (2002), pp. 101-28. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=34459. Date of access: 09 November 2006.
- ^ a b c d e Portilla Vitoria, M.J., Catálogo Monumental - Diócesis de Vitoria. Vol. VI Las vertientes cantábricas del noroeste Alavés. La ciudad de Orduña y sus aldeas. 1988. 861-867.
- ^ According to the newspaper La Casa, of Buenos Aires, Argentina, on July 22nd 1932, in the year 1911 the relics of Santa Columba of Rome arrived at Buenos Aires
- ^ Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, in English Diocletian, was emperor during the period 284 - 305
- ^ Basilica of San José de Flores, Av. Rivadavia 6950, Buenos Aires, Argentina
- ^ See Diocese of Vitoria Archives
- ^ See the web page in Spanish created by the Painter and Musician Horacio Bollini at Sainte Colombe
- ^ See Dynastie_de_La_Guiche (FR)
- ^ See Sainte Colombe
- ^ España Sagrada, Tomo XLIV, Tratado LXXXII de la Iglesia de Gerona en su estado moderno. Fr. Antolin Merino and Fr. José de la Canal, Don José del Collado Ed., year 1826. page 273, line 10
- ^ Personal communication to Tasc and here)
- ^ See the page of the Isnello town, in Sicily
- ^ Diccionario Histórico, Genealógico y Heráldico de las Familias Ilustres de la Monarquía Española by Luis Vilar y Pascual, Chronicler, King of Arms of Isabel II of Spain, Tomo IV, Madrid, 1860.
- ^ Famiglia Airoldi.
- ^ See G. de Sancta Columba probably referring to Guillem de Santa Coloma
(To be translated)
2: Contrariamente a los romanos, que sí escribían, los antiguos vascos preferían la tradición oral.
3: It should be noted that the battle of Clavijo (ES) probably occurred in the year 844 and the presence of the Santa Coloma in that battle constitutes right now the oldest reference to this family and last name. However, this reference is made in the document in a very general manner, without specifying last names or names: "their sons faith against … in the battle of Clavijo". In addition, it is also questioned by some authors if this battle really happened. Therefore, the data is not clear enough to assure that the Santa Coloma were indeed in that battle using at that time this surname. Nevertheless, the arms of Pedro de Santa Coloma suggest also presence in that battle (the San Andrews crosses)
4: Debieron referirse al escudo de armas de los Salazar y no al de los Santa Coloma, escudo que aún sigue al frente de la casatorre vecina a la Iglesia, sobre la puerta principal, cómo se describe en el Despacho de Hidalguía. Dicha Casa-Torre y escudo de armas se muestran en las fotos de la sección Armas, tomadas en 1999. El balcón de hierro que se describe debió haberse perdido con el transcurso del tiempo. De lo contrario, quizá existió otra casatorre de los Santa Coloma, hoy desaparecida, tal como sugiere el Padre Portilla el Catálogo Monumental de la Diósesis de Vitoria.
6: Falta conocer el significado de las bocas rojas y los colmillos de plata de los dos jabalíes del escudo de armas de los Santa Coloma del Valle de Mena.
7: Existe cierta controversia sobre la fecha de fundación del monasterio de Santa Coloma Senoense en Santa Coloma, cerca de Nájera. Algunos datos indican que sería del siglo X, establecido el monasterio por Ordoño II, pero otros datos indican que es del siglo V, establecido por monjes Agustinos provenientes de Francia. Se necesitan datos más precisos en este tema.
8: La fundación de Corrientes es un tema controvertido. La fecha oficial es el 3 de abril de 1588 por Juan Torres de Vera y Aragón, pero se sabe que en realidad hubieron expediciones y asentamientos previos, protagonizados por alguno de sus sobrinos. No está claro si fue su sobrino Alonso Cara de Perro de Vera y Aragón -el mismo que fundó Concepción del Bermejo- o un primo de éste, del mismo nombre, apodado "el Tupí". Para más información véase Fundación de Corrientes y la página de desambiguación Alonso de Vera y Aragón.
9: Goycoechea de Santa Coloma, M.A. and S. Makintach Calaza (1961). Todos los nombres que se mencionan figuran en la carta enviada a Monseñor Caggiano, de la cual Tomás A. Santa Coloma (h) tiene una copia, fechada en Buenos Aires, el 2 de Mayo de 1961.
10: Sin embargo, el transcurso del tiempo ha borrado todo resentimiento y es así que hoy Tomás A. Santa Coloma (h) tiene una gran amistad con Miguel Virasoro, descendiente del coronel correntino Miguel Virasoro (padre de Valentín Virasoro), que peleó en Caseros del lado de Urquiza contra Santa Coloma; y también tiene una gran amistad con César González Solveyra, descendiente de Florencio Varela y del Coronel José Murature, auténticos Unitarios. Tomás A. Santa Coloma (h) es, además, padrino de Tomás González Solveyra.
12: No sabemos aún con certeza si Martín Santa Coloma llegó a cruzar a Uruguay y si participó del sitio de Montevideo; ni siquiera si llegó a estar en la Batalla de Arroyo Grande, pero sí se sabe que Rosas lo envió a unirse a Oribe con el fin de enfrentar a Rivera en ese lugar.
15: No sería de extrañar que los Toledo de "Ensenadita" fueran descendientes de Gabriel de Toledo, Teniente Gobernador de Corrientes en 1685, hijo de Felipe de Toledo, vecino fundador de Concepción del Bermejo en 1585; si es así, Ramoncito y Mary serían parte de esta gran familia, por la rama de [[wikipedia:es:Miguel de Azcuénaga |Brigadier Azcuénaga]] y de Domingo de Basavilbaso.
16: No está claro si los restos de Santa Columba de Sens o de Santa Coloma de Roma son los que se encuentran en la Basílica de San José de Flores, en Buenos Aires, Argentina.
18: Zazo y Rosillo is refering here to a former Chronicler.
19: Until further data is collected from the origin of the Colomina family, we can assume that they belong to the Santa Coloma family. It would be almost impossible for them to have arms so similar to those of the Santa Coloma family if they were not related while leaving in the same town of the Count of Santa Coloma.
(To be translated soon)
- ^ Véase enlace externo a Heráldica Santa Coloma.
- Un artículo sobre la Catedral de Santa Coloma en Rimini (Italia) se encuentra en Catedral de Santa Coloma.
- El culto a Sancta Columba dio origen a varios pueblos Santa Coloma y al apellido Santa Coloma. Para más información véase Santa Coloma
- Se escribió un artículo en wikipedia en Italiano sobre la familia Santa Colomba. Véase Santa Colomba (famiglia)
- ^ Iglesia de Santa Coloma en Albendiego  y otras páginas relacionadas en ese sitio de web.
- The images of the Order of Santiago were taken from the Wikipedia pageOrden de Santiago.
- The image of "Castle of Clavijo" was taken from the Wikipedia page Clavijo.
- The photo of Nessie was taken from the Wikipedia page Nessie.
- The image of Saint Columba was taken from the Wikipedia page Columba (Imagen kindly deposited by the Wikipedia user Irishpunktom in Wikipedia Commons, so it could be shown in this article.
- All figures can be found either in Wikipedia Commons or in Genealogy.wikia and are of public domain.
- In a link such as [[..... |... (XX)]], the (XX) indicates the language of the article in the link shown, following the nomenclature of wikipedia. For example, (ES) Español, (EN) English, (FR) French, etc.
- Origin of the surname "de Sancta Columba" in Hereford, England.
- Origin of Arnaldo de Santacolomba in Sicily.
- Documents related the surname "de Sancta Columba" in Spain (and other countries).
- History of the surname Santa Coloma in Catalonia.
- History of the surname Sainte Colombe in France.
- History of the surnames Santa Coloma (and similar) in America.
- Archives from the Orders of Malta, Templars and Saint James.
- Did the last name "de Sancta Columba" survive in England and France?
- References, images and history corresponding to the Santa Coloma arms from those from Biscay (a bear and an oak).
- Image of the Coat of Arms for the Santacoloma of Biscayne.
- Image of the Coat of Arms for the Santa Coloma of Catalonia.
- A template equivalent to <ref> to be used with "notes". We would need the templates <note> and </note>, plus one template <notes/> equivalent to <references/>, also to be added at the end of the article. In this way, the references can be used only to add literature support for the paragraphs, and the notes can be used to add comments and additional data, not used to support the paragraph but to complete them with information that if present in the body text will distract the reader from the central idea. I am doing this with the template Fn, but it does not have automatic numbering and it is very cumbersome to use.
- Bill...my role here is simply to assist Tasc in the 'english-ification' of his original Spanish language article. The initial translation is being provided by Tasc, and I'm working to make it flow a bit better in English.
- Robin Patterson (an insignificant proportion!) Robin Patterson 06:02, 11 January 2007 (UTC))
- xuanka contributor for Colombia mailto. xuanka at hotmail.com
- Please, add here your user name and contribution made to this article.
<ref>tags exist, but no
<references/>tag was found