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Sioux City
—  City  —
Woodbury County Courthouse setting from WNW 1.JPG
Sioux City skyline. In the center is the Woodbury County Courthouse; the clock tower at right is the city hall.
Motto: "Successful, Surprising, Sioux City"[1]
Woodbury County Iowa Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Sioux City Highlighted.svg
Location in Iowa
Coordinates: 42°29′53″N 96°23′44″W / 42.49806, -96.39556Coordinates: 42°29′53″N 96°23′44″W / 42.49806, -96.39556
Country United States
State Iowa
Counties Woodbury, Plymouth
Founded 1854
Incorporated 1857
Government
 • Mayor Bob Scott[2]
 • City Manager Robert Padmore
Area[3]
 • City 59.49 sq mi (152.5 km2)
 • Land 58.35 sq mi (149.54 km2)
 • Water 1.14 sq mi (2.95 km2)
Elevation 1,201 ft (366 m)
Population (2010)[4]
 • City 82,684
 • Estimate (2013[5]) 82,459
 • Rank US: 4th in Iowa
393th in the US.
 • Density 1,461.7/sq mi (559.6/km2)
 • Urban 106,494 (US: 292nd)
 • Metro 168,714 (US: 241st)
Time zone Central (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) Central (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 51101, 51102, 51103, 51104, 51105, 51106, 51108, 51109, 51111
Area code(s) 712
FIPS code 19-73335
GNIS feature ID 0461653
Website City of Sioux City
091607-SiouxCity-Historic4th

Historic Fourth Street, Downtown.

Sioux City /ˌsˈsɪti/ is a city in Woodbury and Plymouth counties in the western part of the State of Iowa. The population was 82,684 in the 2010 census, which makes it the fourth largest city in Iowa.[6][7] The bulk of the city is in Woodbury County, of which it is the county seat, though a small portion is in Plymouth County.

Sioux City is the primary city of the five-county Sioux City, IANESD Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), with a population of 168,825 in 2010 and a slight increase to an estimated 168,921 in 2012.[8] The Sioux City–Vermillion, IA–NE–SD Combined Statistical Area had a population of 182,675 as of 2010 and has grown to an estimated population of 183,052 as of 2012.[8]

Sioux City is at the navigational head of the Missouri River, about 95 miles north of the Omaha–Council Bluffs metropolitan area. Sioux City and the surrounding areas of northwestern Iowa, northeastern Nebraska and southeastern South Dakota are sometimes referred to as Siouxland, especially by the local media.

Money recognized Sioux City in its August 2010 issue of "Best Places To Live".[9]

In 2008 and 2009, the Sioux City Tri-State Metropolitan Area was recognized by Site Selection as the top economic development community in the United States for communities with populations between 50,000 and 200,000 people.[10] In March 2013, Site Selection also recognized Sioux City as the 4th Top Metro area in the Midwest Region behind 1st place Kansas City, 2nd place Minneapolis–Saint Paul and 3rd place Omaha-Council Bluffs. Sioux City was also ranked 1st in regards to Metro Populations between 50,000 and 200,000.[11]

Forbes placed the Sioux City metro in the Top 15 Best Small Places for Businesses and Careers[12] and MSN.com ranked the area the #2 Most Livable Bargain Market.[13] The Daily Beast, an American news reporting website, placed Sioux City on their list of The Top 40 Drunkest Cities in America, with a ranking of 14th.[14]

HistoryEdit

Sioux City, Iowa water front scene - NARA - 285906

Waterfront, circa 1912

Native Americans resided in the Sioux City area for thousands of years. Early French or Spanish fur traders were likely the first people of European descent to visit the area. The first documented US citizens to record their travels through this area were Meriwether Lewis and William Clark during the summer of 1804. Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, died here on August 20, 1804, the only death during the two and a half-year expedition.[15]

Sioux City was laid out in the winter of 1854-55.[16]

In 1891, the Sioux City Elevated Railway was opened and became the third steam powered elevated rapid transit system in the world, and later the first electric-powered elevated railway in the world after a conversion in 1892. However, the system fell into bankruptcy and closed within a decade.[17]

The city gained the nickname "Little Chicago" during the Prohibition era due to its reputation for being a purveyor of alcoholic beverages.[18]

On July 19, 1989, United Airlines Flight 232 crash landed at Sioux Gateway Airport, killing 111 people.

Geography and climateEdit

GeographyEdit

Sioux City is located at 42°29′53″N 96°23′45″W / 42.49806, -96.39583 (42.497957, −96.395705).[19] Sioux City is at an altitude of 1,135 feet (345.9 m) above sea level.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 58.49 square miles (151.49 km2), of which, 57.35 square miles (148.54 km2) is land and 1.14 square miles (2.95 km2) is water.[3]

ClimateEdit

Typical of Iowa, Sioux City has a humid continental climate, with hot, humid summers, cold, dry winters, and wide temperature extremes; it is part of USDA Hardiness zone 5a.[20] The normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 20.4 °F (−6.4 °C) in January to 74.3 °F (23.5 °C) in July. On average, there are 25 days that reach 90 °F (32 °C) or higher, 52 days that do not climb above freezing, and 17 days with a low of 0 °F (−18 °C) or below annually. The average window for freezing temperatures is October 1 thru April 26, allowing a growing season of 157 days. Extreme temperatures officially range from −35 °F (−37 °C) on January 12, 1912 up to 111 °F (44 °C) on July 4 and 17, 1936 as well as July 11, 1939; the record cold daily maximum is −22 °F (−30 °C) on February 8, 1899, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 86 °F (30 °C) on August 18, 1936.

Precipitation is greatest in May and June and averages 27.7 in (700 mm) annually, but has ranged from 14.33 in (364 mm) in 1976 to 41.10 in (1,044 mm) in 1903. Snowfall averages 34.8 in (88 cm) per season, and has historically ranged from 6.9 in (18 cm) in 1895–96 to 65.9 in (167 cm) in 1961–62; the average window for measurable (≥0.1 in/0.25 cm) snowfall is November 8 thru April 7, although snow in October occurs several times per decade. The only measurable snowfall in May on record occurred on May 1, 2013 when 1.4 in (3.6 cm) fell, followed on the 14th, less than a fortnight later, by a reading of 106 °F (41 °C), setting a new all-time May record high, also a 77 °F (43 °C) rise from the morning of the 12th.[21]

Template:Sioux City, Iowa weatherbox

DemographicsEdit

Woodbury-county-courthouse

Woodbury County Courthouse.

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1870 3,965
1880 7,366 85.8%
1890 37,806 413.3%
1900 33,111 −12.4%
1910 47,828 44.4%
1920 71,227 48.9%
1930 79,183 11.2%
1940 82,364 4.0%
1950 83,991 2.0%
1960 89,159 6.2%
1970 85,925 −3.6%
1980 82,003 −4.6%
1990 80,505 −1.8%
2000 85,013 5.6%
2010 82,684 −2.7%
Est. 2013 82,459 −3.0%
Iowa Data Center[7]
U.S. Decennial Census[22]
2013 Estimate[5]

2010 censusEdit

As of the census[4] of 2010, there were 82,684 people, 31,571 households, and 20,144 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,441.7 inhabitants per square mile (556.6 /km2). There were 33,425 housing units at an average density of 582.8 per square mile (225.0 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 80.6% White, 2.9% African American, 2.6% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.4% from other races, and 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.4% of the population.

There were 31,571 households of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 36.2% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.14.

The median age in the city was 33.7 years. 26.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 11.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.6% were from 25 to 44; 24% were from 45 to 64; and 12.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.2% male and 50.8% female....

2000 censusEdit

As of the census of 2000, there were 85,013 people, 32,054 households, and 21,091 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,551.3 people per square mile (599.0/km²). There were 33,816 housing units at an average density of 617.1 per square mile (238.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 85.23% White, 2.41% African American, 1.95% Native American, 2.82% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.27% from other races, and 2.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.89% of the population.

There were 32,054 households of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples] living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.14.

Age spread: 27.1% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,429, and the median income for a family was $45,751. Males had a median income of $31,385 versus $22,470 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,666. About 7.9% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.

Metropolitan areaEdit

As of the 2010 census, the Sioux City Metropolitan Area had 168,825 residents in five counties; the population was estimated at 168,921 in 2012.[8] As defined by the Office of Management and Budget, the counties comprising the metropolitan area are (in descending order of population):

EconomyEdit

Floyd River2

The Floyd River in Sioux City

Missouri-Floyd Rivers Sioux City Iowa

Confluence of the Missouri and
Floyd River in Sioux City

American Pop Corn Company is based in Sioux City.

Top employers

Statistics from Sioux City's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report[23]

Rank Employer Number of
Employees
% of Total City
Employment
1   Tyson Fresh Meats 4,768   11.30%  
2   Sioux City Community School District 2,057   4.87%  
3   Mercy Medical Center 1,800   4.27%  
4   St. Luke's Regional Medical Center 1,229   2.91%  
5   City of Sioux City 1,024   2.43%  
6   185th Air Refueling Wing 950   2.25%  
7   Morningside College 880   2.09%  
8   Curly's Foods 700   1.66%  
8   Tri-State Nursing 700   1.66%  
10   MidAmerican Energy 659   1.56%  
Totals   14,767   34.99%  

Arts and cultureEdit

Sergeant Floyd Monument, sunset

Sergeant Floyd Monument

Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg External videos
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Bandshell Added to National Register of Historic Places, (0:56), KMEG14
  • Milwaukee Railroad Shop is a 31.5 acre facility that is being renovated by the Siouxland Historical Railroad Association. It includes a 4-6-2 Pacific type steam locomotive Great Northern 1355, a model railroad exhibit, as well as multiple buildings including the roundhouse that are open to the public.
  • Grandview Park is located north of the downtown area, up from Rose Hill, between The Northside and The Heights. The Municipal Bandshell is located in the park with Sunday evening municipal band concerts. The Saturday in the Park music festival began in 1991 and is held there annually on a weekend close to the Fourth of July holiday. Behind the bandshell is a rose garden with an arbor and trellises which has been a site for outdoor weddings, prom and other special occasion photographs, and for children to play during the Sunday evening band concerts and other events. Downtown is also home to the largest historic theatre in Iowa, the Orpheum Theatre.

Neighborhoods, commercial districts, and suburbsEdit

File:Veteransbridge.jpg

City neighborhoodsEdit

Nearby communitiesEdit

Parks and recreationEdit

File:Stoneparkwoods.jpg
  • Stone State Park is in the northwest corner of the city, overlooking the South Dakota/Iowa border. Stone Park is near the northernmost extent of the Loess Hills, and is at the transition from clay bluffs and prairie to sedimentary rock hills and bur oak forest along the Iowa side of the Big Sioux River. The park is used by picnickers, day hikers, and for mountain biking.
  • Dorothy Pecaut Nature Center is a destination nature preserve for Woodbury County, and is located within the boundaries of Stone State Park. The butterfly garden is unique to the area; wild turkeys and white-tail deer are commonly sighted from the well-marked trails.
  • Downtown entertainment venues include the casino, the 10,000-seat Tyson Event Center/ Gateway Arena, Sioux City Orpheum Theatre, Promenade Cinema 14, Martin Ballroom, Galaxie Ballroom At-Bellevue and the Anderson Dance Pavilion which overlooks the Missouri River.
  • Pulaski Park is named for the Polish General Kazimierz Pułaski, who fought in the American Revolution. This park features baseball diamond facilities, and is located in western Morningside along old U.S. Highway 75 (South Lewis Blvd.). It is largely built on the filled lakebed of Half Moon Lake, which was originally created in the 1890s by the excavation of fill dirt to build the approaches for the iron railroad bridge spanning the Missouri near the stockyards. The neighborhood on the bluff overlooking the park was historically settled by Lithuanian and Polish immigrants, many of whom worked in the meatpacking industry during the early 20th century.
  • Latham Park is located in a residential area of Morningside, and is the only privately owned and maintained open-to-the-public park within the city limits. It was left in trust in 1937 under the terms of Clara Latham's will; her family had built the house on 1-acre (4,000 m2) of ground in 1915. The house and grounds are currently being restored by the Friends of Latham Park.
  • First Bride's Grave is tucked in a corner pocket of South Ravine Park, lies a series of paths, trails, and steps leading to the grave of the First Bride of Sioux City, Rosalie Menard. She was the first bride of a non-native American to be wed in Sioux City, Iowa, thus receiving her title.
  • War Eagle Park is named for the Yankton Sioux chief Wambdi Okicize (d. 1851) who befriended early settlers. A monument overlooks the confluence of the Big Sioux and Missouri Rivers. The sculpture represents the chief in his role as a leader and peacemaker, wearing the eagle feather bonnet and holding the peace pipe.
  • Riverside Park is located on the banks of the Big Sioux River. One of the oldest recreational areas of the city, it is home to the Sioux City Boat Club and Sioux City Community Theater. The park is on land that once belonged to the first white settler in the area, Théophile Bruguier; his original cabin is preserved in the park.
  • Bacon Creek Park is located northeast of Morningside and features a scenic walking trail, dog park, picnic shelters, and playground equipment.

Golf courses, city parks, and aquatics: Sioux City is also home to several municipal public golf courses, including Floyd Park in Morningside, Green Valley near the Southern Hills, Sun Valley on the northern West Side, and Hidden Acres in nearby Plymouth County. Sioux City also has a number of private golf clubs, including Sioux City Country Club, and Whispering Creek Golf Club. The city has over 1,132 acres (5 km2) of public parkland located at 53 locations, including the riverfront and many miles of recreation trails. Five public swimming pools/aquatics centers are located within Sioux City neighborhoods.

EducationEdit

Public schools

The Sioux City Community School District serves 13,480 students[26] living in Sioux City; there are three public high schools West High School, North High School, East High School (grades 9-12), three public Middle Schools, West Middle, North Middle, and East Middle (grades 6-8), and 19 Elementary Schools (grades K-5).[27]

Because of sprawl, districts around Sioux City continue to grow at dramatic rates. South Sioux City, Hinton, North Sioux City, Lawton, Bronson, Elk Point, Jefferson, Vermillion, Le Mars, Hawarden, Akron, Westfield, Ponca, Sergeant Bluff, Wayne, Sioux Center, along with other school districts that serve many metro-area students.

Private schools

Bishop Heelan Catholic Schools is a centralized private Catholic School System that includes six schools: They teach preschool through twelfth grade.

Siouxland Community Christian School educates grades K-12.

Advanced education

Sioux City is home to Briar Cliff University, Morningside College, Western Iowa Tech Community College, St. Lukes College of Nursing, Bellevue University outreach center and the Tri-State Graduate Center.

MediaEdit

Television stationsEdit

Radio stationsEdit

FM stations
AM stations

PrintEdit

  • Sioux City Journal, daily newspaper serving greater Sioux City area, including Iowa, Nebraska and South Dakota.
  • Dakota County Star, weekly newspaper serving northeast Nebraska.
  • Sioux City Hispanos Unidos, bi-weekly Spanish readers paper.
  • The Weekender, weekly arts and entertainment magazine serving the Sioux City metro area east into Western Iowa and north to the South Dakota border.
  • Siouxland Magazine, quarterly magazine with community/lifestyle features.

SportsEdit

Sioux City Events Center from SW 3

Tyson Events Center, with Gateway Arena to the left and Longlines Family Recreation Center to the right

TransportationEdit

HighwaysEdit

Interstate 29 is a major controlled-access highway in Sioux City and the surrounding area providing easy access of the 20 mile stretch covering Sioux City and the majority of its suburbs. It approaches the city from Omaha to the south before curving northwest along the Missouri River near downtown. The highway then enters South Dakota and curves back to the north as it approaches Sioux Falls. Interstate 129 is an auxiliary Interstate that connects South Sioux City, Nebraska to the south side of Sioux City and works as a bypass for travelers to other surrounding suburbs. Interstate 129 also interconnects with U.S. Route 75 which is in expansion to expressway form connecting Sioux City to Worthington, Minnesota. U.S. Route 20, the longest road in the United States spanning 3,365 mi (5,415 km) is also in the works of expanding from a two-lane highway to four-lanes from Sioux City to Dubuque, Iowa which will provide faster and easier access comparable to Interstate 80 in Iowa.

Public transportationEdit

Sioux City Transit, the local public transit organization, operates several bus lines within the city. Buses transfer downtown in the Martin Luther King Jr. Transportation Center at 505 Nebraska Street.[28] The Sioux City Paratransit serves members of the community who would otherwise not be able to travel by providing door to door service.[29]

Air travelEdit

The city is served by Sioux Gateway Airport (SUX) 6 mi (9.7 km) to its south where American Airlines' affiliate American Eagle began service to Chicago in 2012.[30]
Charter flights are also available here.

OthersEdit

Jefferson Lines runs long-distance bus routes to Sioux City. Non-Transfer destinations include Winnipeg, Kansas City, Minneapolis, and Omaha.

Sioux City also has several private taxi companies that operate within the city.

There is no established water or rail passenger transportation in the area. Big Soo Terminal offers barge transportation.[31]

Notable peopleEdit

Pauline Phillips 1961

Sioux City native Pauline (Friedman) Phillips, who used the pen name of Abigail Van Buren for her advice column "Dear Abby", was the twin sister of Esther (Friedman) Lederer, the author of the competing Ann Landers column.

Sister citiesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ City of Sioux City. "City of Sioux City". http://www.sioux-city.org/. 
  2. ^ "Mayor Bob Scott", "Sioux City Journal" January 3, 2012. Retrieved on January 8, 2012.
  3. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/files/Gaz_places_national.txt. Retrieved 2012-05-11. 
  4. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. Retrieved 2012-05-11. 
  5. ^ a b "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/data/cities/totals/2013/SUB-EST2013-3.html. Retrieved 2014-07-15. 
  6. ^ "Population & Housing Occupancy Status 2010". United States Census Bureau American FactFinder. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_PL_GCTPL2.ST13&prodType=table. Retrieved May 5, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b "Data from the 2010 Census". State Data Center of Iowa. http://www.iowadatacenter.org/archive/2011/02/feb10. Retrieved May 5, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c US Census Bureau. "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". http://www.census.gov/popest/data/metro/totals/2012/. 
  9. ^ "CNN Money Best Places To Live". http://money.cnn.com/magazines/moneymag/bplive/2010/snapshots/PL1973335.html. Retrieved 6 January 2011. 
  10. ^ "Sioux City Again Claims Tier 3 Crown". Site Selection Online. March 2009. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100728132948/http://www.siteselection.com/issues/2009/mar/top-metros/. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  11. ^ "‘Houston, We Have a Winner’". Site Selection Online. March 2013. Archived from the original on 29 March 2013. http://www.siteselection.com/issues/2013/mar/top-metros.cfm. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  12. ^ "Best Small Places for Businesses and Careers". Forbes.com. June 2011. http://www.forbes.com/places/ia/sioux-city/. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  13. ^ Fulmer, Melinda (2011). "2011 MSN Real Estate Most Livable Bargain Markets - 2. Sioux City, Iowa-Neb.-S.D.". MSN.com. http://realestate.msn.com/slideshow.aspx?cp-documentid=29305981#3. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  14. ^ "USA's Drunkest Cities Are Milwaukee, Fargo And San Francisco". Medical News Today. January 2011. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/212566.php. Retrieved 6 January 2011. 
  15. ^ a b "The Lewis & Clark Expedition - A History Brief". Sioux City Public Library. http://www.lewisandclarksiouxcity.com/history.htm. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  16. ^ History of Western Iowa, Its Settlement and Growth. Western Publishing Company. 1882. pp. 178. http://books.google.com/books?id=bH8HtIwXzdcC&pg=PA178#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  17. ^ "Elevated Railway". SiouxCityHistory.org. http://www.siouxcityhistory.org/transportation/more3ef6.html?id=29_0_4_0_M. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  18. ^ Rebecca Sunshine Our Hometown: "Downtown Sioux City", KTIV NewsChannel, 4 July 20, 2008
  19. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  20. ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". United States Department of Agriculture. 
  21. ^ Masters, Jeff. "Extreme Weather Whiplash: 106° in Iowa on the Heels of Record May Snows". Wunderground. http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/extreme-weather-whiplash-106-in-iowa-on-the-heels-of-record-may-sno. Retrieved 2014-06-01. 
  22. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". http://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html. Retrieved July 15, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Statistical Section Table XVI". City of Sioux City, Iowa. March 2, 2010. p. 21. http://www.sioux-city.org/custom/finance/2010cafr/2010%20Statistical%20Section.pdf. Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  24. ^ (April 1, 1938) "WPA opens forty-eighth federal art center at Sioux City". Museum News: 1, 4.  Sioux City Art Center opens on February 20, 1938. Also notes that Butte, Montana, has plans for an art center; other proposed sites include Spokane, WA; Salem, OR; Sacramento, CA; Long Beach, CA; Poughkeepsie, NY; and Key West, FL.
  25. ^ Dakota Dunes: Demographics
  26. ^ Enrollments and Projections. Edinfo.state.ia.us. Retrieved on 2013-08-25.
  27. ^ http://www.siouxcityschools.org/
  28. ^ Transit. Sioux-city.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-25.
  29. ^ [1]
  30. ^ [2]
  31. ^ Dreeszen, Dave (May 26, 2005). "Local ports face second straight season without barge traffic". Sioux City Journal. http://siouxcityjournal.com/business/local-ports-face-second-straight-season-without-barge-traffic/article_4553429a-d00c-5fe5-860e-5fe1fea52f93.html. Retrieved June 17, 2013. 
  32. ^ "National Football League". Dave Croston. http://www.nfl.com/players/davecroston/profile?id=CRO529840. Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  33. ^ "TV.com". Sharon Farrell. http://www.tv.com/person/31640/summary.html. Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  34. ^ Three-strikes law
  35. ^ "Find A Grave". William Lloyd Harding. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=6665665. Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  36. ^ "Marshall Frank Moore". Washington Secretary of State. http://sos.wa.gov/legacyproject/HistoryMakersDetail.aspx?Moore/Marshall/704. Retrieved October 9, 2012. 
  37. ^ "Krewe de Charlie Sioux". http://krewedecharliesioux.org/. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  38. ^ "Dancing and formality mark signing of sister city agreement". Sioux City Journal. 6 November 2003. http://www.siouxcityjournal.com/news/image_1292e4ed-0cb0-5a25-8ec7-0bea5996e666.html. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 

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