Churchtown, St Agnes
St Agnes shown within Cornwall
|Population||Parish 7257, Village 2230|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Post town||St. Agnes|
|Police||Devon and Cornwall|
|EU Parliament||South West England|
|UK Parliament||Truro & Falmouth|
|List of places: UK • England • Cornwall|
St Agnes (Cornish: Breanek) is a civil parish and a large village on the north coast of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The village is situated approximately five miles (8 km) north of Redruth and ten miles (16 km) southwest of Newquay.
Historically, St Agnes and the surrounding area relied on fishing, farming and mining for copper and tin. At their height about 100 mines employed 1000 miners. Mining came to an end in the 1920s and many of these mines are still on view for any tourists.
St Agnes is a popular tourist destination. Much of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape ( a World Heritage Site) is in the parish. The coastal area is maintained by the National Trust and is designated part of the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB). There are beaches at Trevaunance Cove and Chapel Porth and the area has many way-marked coastal and country walks.
The St Agnes area has a heritage of industrial archeology and much of the landscape is of considerable geological interest. There are also stone-age remains in the parish. The manor of Tywarnhaile was one of the 17 Antiqua maneria of the Duchy of Cornwall.
St Agnes civil parish had a population of 7,257 in April 2006; this includes nearby Porthtowan, Mount Hawke, Blackwater and Mithian as well as St Agnes village itself. The 2001 census figure for St Agnes village was 2,230 in 1,013 households. Unemployment at 3.8% (2001 census) compares to a national average of 3.4%. The retired population represented 20.8% (national average 13.6%), those in full time employment were 28.6% (40.6%), and those self-employed were 14.9% (8.3%). These and other factors put St Agnes in 15,862nd position in the most deprived scale out of 32,482, thus approximately in the middle (in 2001).
The people of St Agnes are predominantly Christian or of no religion and there are three churches: Anglican, Methodist and Catholic. The churches also act as centres of social gathering as do the Miners and Mechanics Institute, the many pubs, bistros and restaurants and several sports clubs (including rugby union, football and surfing).
In medieval and early modern times St Agnes was part of the parish of Perranzabuloe and the church of St Agnes was a chapel-of-ease only (St Agnes was made into a parish in 1846). The parish church is 15th century in date but has been much restored. The Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady Star of the Sea was built in 1882 to the designs of Cowell, Drewitt & Wheatly, architects.
The Tonkin family, lords of the manor of Trevaunance, attempted unsuccessfully to create a harbour in 1632, 1684, 1699, 1709; leaving the family in debt. A harbour was built in 1710 and washed away in 1730. A new harbour constructed in 1798 allowed for the export of copper ore and the import of coal from South Wales for the smelters at the mines. In 1802, a pilchard fishing industry was established from the harbour, reaching its peak in 1829 and 1830 before declining. However the new harbour was also destroyed in a storm in 1915/16 and only remains of it still exist. St Agnes remained a busy port until the collapse of the harbour wall in 1916, which ultimately made post-war reinvestment in the mines unattractive.
Trevaunance Cove is a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Geological Conservation Review site of national importance for the ″... the two principal ore-bearing mineral veins associated with the Hercynian St. Agnes-Cligga granite″.
St Agnes is unusual, for a village of its size, in being relatively self-sufficient with local shops and business enterprises being promoted actively by the chamber of commerce and The Bolster, a local free newspaper named after the legendary Bolster giant.
It is also the home of Atlantic FM, which broadcasts across the whole of Cornwall from its studios at the "Wheal Kitty Workshops".
It is connected by bus services with the chief nearby towns.
Places of interest around St Agnes Edit
St Agnes Beacon Edit
St Agnes Beacon, a local landmark now owned by the National Trust, rises 192 metres (630 ft) in isolation from the surrounding landscape with the sea to the west. St Agnes derives its old Cornish name, Bryanick (pointed or prominent hill) from this landmark. The top of the Beacon offers a panoramic view of the cliffs from St Ives in the south to Padstow in the North, as well as inland views over much of Carrick and the eastern part of Penryn.
Bolster & Chapel Porth Edit
Bolster & Chapel Porth is a large earthen bulwark believed to date from the Dark Ages. It originally ran from Chapel Porth to Trevaunance Cove. According to legend, Bolster was a giant who fell in love with a young maiden called Agnes. As proof of his love, Agnes demanded that the giant fill a small hole at the edge of the cliff with his blood. Being such a small hole the giant willingly did so. However, he was unaware that the hole was bottomless and opened into a sea cave. Bolster continued to fill the cave until he was so weak that he fell into the sea to his death; the blood-stained cave can be found at Chapel Porth.
At Chapel Coombe a set of old Cornish stamps has been re-erected by the Trevithick Society.
St Agnes Parish Museum Edit
The St Agnes Parish Museum offers an opportunity to study in more detail the landscape and the history of St Agnes. The Museum is run by volunteers and is a registered charity established to promote the heritage of St Agnes. The mining and seafaring history of St Agnes is explained in displays and on film. The natural history display includes a 700-pound (320 kg) leatherback turtle.
Wheal Coates and Stippy Stappy Edit
Wheal Coates is one of the best known and most picturesque groups of cliff-top mine buildings in Cornwall, offering superb coastal views. The buildings are owned by the National Trust.
Stippy Stappy is a row of 18th century cottages on a very steep incline.
Blue Hills Tin Streams Edit
These traditional workings are situated in Jericho Valley. The process by which tin is extracted is demonstrated and explained. The Blue Hills area is also host to the Motor Cycling Club's Lands End Classic Trial, for both cars and bikes. 2008 marked the event's centenary - the first run being held in 1908.
Heritage Coast Edit
The World Heritage landscape around St Agnes is promoted and cared for by the St Agnes to Newquay Countryside Management Service. The service strives to balance the differing needs of the many users of the countryside and focuses on building an understanding between all those who live, work and visit the area so that all are working towards a common goal of protection and appreciation of the environment.
See also Edit
- ^ Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 203 Land's End. ISBN 978-0-319-23148-7. and Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 200 Newquay & Bodmin. ISBN 978-0-319-22938-5.
- ^ Clegg, David (2005). Cornwall & the Isles of Scilly. Leicester: Matador. p. 87.
- ^ "?". Cornwall Council. http://www.cornwall.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=7639. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- ^ "?". Office for National Statistics. http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/NeighbourhoodProfileSearch.do?profileSearch=tr50uw. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- ^ Cornish Church Guide. Truro: Blackford. 1925.
- ^ Pevsner, N. (1970) Cornwall; 2nd ed. Penguin; p. 155
- ^ a b c d "Cornwall Industrial Settlements Initiative St Agnes" (PDF). Cornwall Historic Environment Service. December 2002. http://www.historic-cornwall.org.uk/cisi/st_agnes/CISI_St_Agnes_report.pdf. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- ^ Clegg, David (2005) Cornwall & the Isles of Scilly. Leicester: Matador; p. 89
- ^ "Trevaunance Cove". Natural England. 1993. http://www.sssi.naturalengland.org.uk/citation/citation_photo/1005911.pdf. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
- ^ "St Agnes Chamber of Commerce". st-agnes.com. http://www.st-agnes.com/about.php. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- ^ "Cameron Quarry". Natural England. 1996. http://www.sssi.naturalengland.org.uk/citation/citation_photo/2000128.pdf. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- ^ "St Agnes Beacon Pits". Natural England. 1986. http://www.sssi.naturalengland.org.uk/citation/citation_photo/1000460.pdf. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- ^ Todd, A. C. & Laws, Peter (1972) The Industrial Archaeology of Cornwall. Newton Abbot: David & Charles; p. 221
- ^ "St Agnes museum homepage". http://www.stagnesmuseum.org.uk. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- St Agnes, Cornwall at the Open Directory Project
- World Heritage Listing for St. Agnes
- Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for St Agnes
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